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Full text of "A handbook of the Swahili language, as spoken at Zanzibar"

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I/ *t - i 



^ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

PEABODY MUSEUM OF AMERICAN 
ARCHAEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY 

GIFT OF 

F. R. Wulsln 



Received June 1, 1937 



A HANDBOOK 



SWAHILI LANGUAGE, 



AS SPOKEN AT 



ZANZIBAR. 



EDITED FOR THE UNIVERSITIES* MISSION TO 
CENTRAL AFRICA 



Th5 late EDWARD STEERE, LL.D.; 

MISSIONARY BISHOP FOR CENTRAL AFRICA. 



THIRD EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

• A. C. MADAN, M.A, 

SENIOR STUDBNV AND FORMBRLY TUTOR OF CH. CH, OXFORD. 



LONDON: 
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, 

NORTHUMBERLAND AVENUE, /CHARING CROSS, W.C ; 

43, QUBBN VICTORIA STREET, B.C. ; 
96, ST. GEORGE'S PLACE, HYDE PARK CORNER, S.W. 

BRIGHTON : 135, north street. 
1884. 

3f /^ (o 






U)KIM>N : 

PBIKTBD BT WILLIAM CLOWBS AVP^ONS, UMITED, 

BTAIIFOBO 8TBBR AND giABISO 0B068. 



PEEFACE TO THE FIEST EDITION. 



There is probably no African language so widely known 
as the Swahili. It is understood along the coasts of 
Madagascar and Arabia, it is spoken by the Seedees in 
India, and is the trade language of a very large part of 
Central or Intertropical Africa. Zanzibar traders pene- 
trate sometimes even to the western side of the conti- 
nent, and they are in the constant habit of traversing 
more than half of it with their supplies of Indian and 
European goods. Throughout this immense district 
any one really familiar with the Swahili language will 
generally be able to find some one who can understand 
him, and serve as an interpreter. 

This consideration makes it a point of the greatest 
importance to our Central African Mission that Swahili 
ahould be thoroughly examined and well learnt. For 
if the members of the Mission can go forth from Zan- 
zibar, or, still better, can leave England already well 
acquainted with this language, and provided with 
books and translations adapted to their wants, they 
will carry with them a key that can unlock the secrets 
of an immense variety of strange dialects, whose very 
names are as yet unknown to us. For #iey will not 

a 2 



iv PREFACE. 

only be able at once to communicate with new tribes, 
but in mastering this really simple and far from 
difficult language they will have learnt how to set 
about learning and writing all others of the same class, 
since they agree with Swahili in all the chief respects 
in which it differs from our European tongues. 

The work, then, which is here begun is not to be 
regarded as though its utility were confined to the 
islands and the narrow strip of coast of which this 
language is the vernacular, but much rather as the 
broad foundation on which our labours in the far inte- 
rior must for many years be built up. As there is no 
way t?y which those inner lands are so ordinarily or can 
be so easily reached as from Zanzibar and the coast 
dependent on it, so neither is there any way by which 
we can make ourselves so readily intelligible, or by 
which the Gospel can be preached so soon or so well as 
by means of the language of Zanzibar and its dependen- 
cies, to which this work is intended as an introduction 
— a language which, through its Arabic relations, has 
a hold on revealed religion, and even on European 
thought, while, through its negro structure, it is 
exactly fitted to serve as an interpreter of that re- 
ligion and those thoughts to men who have not yet 
even heard of their existence. 

When Bishop Tozer arrived in Zanzibar ^rt the end of 
August 1864, the only guides we had to the language 
were the grammar and vocabulary of Dr. Krapf, and his 
translation of part of the Book of Common Prayer. 
During Bishop Tozer's visit to Mombas in November^ 
he made a fopy of a revised vocabulary belonging to 



PREFACE. V 

the Eev. J. Eebmann. However, althongh one cannot 
estimate too highly the diligence and linguistic ability 
displayed by Dr. Krapf and the patient sagacity of Mr. 
Bebmann, we soon found that, owing partly to the fact 
of their collections having been made in the dialect of 
Mombas, and still more to the confused and inexact 
style of spelling adopted unfortunately by both, their 
works were of scarcely any use to a mere beginner. 

I soon after procured copies of the manuscript voca- 
bularies collected by Mr. Witt and Mr. Schultz, then 
representing the firm of O'Swald and Co. in Zanzibar, 
and with such help as I could procure from any quarter, 
I began in July 1865 to print the first pages of my col- 
lections for a "Handbook of Swahili as Spoken in 
Zanzibar." When I had proceeded as far as page 33, 1 
made the acquaintance of Hamis wa Tani and of his 
son Mohammed, both of them well acquainted with 
English and French, and^ of pure Swahili extraction. 
To the disinterested kindness of Mohammed, who, 
while confined to his house by sickness, allowed me to 
spend every Saturday morning in questioning' him 
about his language, I owe all that is best in my know- 
ledge of African tongues. With his help and revision I 
completed the list ©f substantives, and found my way 
through the intricacies of the adjectives and pronouns. 
Of how much importance an accurate guide in these 
matters would be may be seen from the " Table of 
Concords," first printed in Zanzibar, in a form sug- 
gested by Bishop Tozer, and now reprinted as part 
of this volume. 

Mohammed's sickness increasing about the time that 



vi FBEFACE. 

I had begun to print the conjugation of the verb, I was 
unable to continue my visits, and completed the " Col- 
lections " from Dr. Krapf, with the help of the voca- 
bulary collected by the late Baron von der Decken 
and Dr. Kersten, and of that collected by the Rev. 
Thomas Wakefield of the United Methodist Free 
Churches' Mission, both of which I was kindly allowed 
to copy. 

After Mohammed's partial recovery I continued my 
visits to him, and went through the verbs» making first 
^ list of useful English verbs from a dictionary, and 
entering all the words contained in the collections of 
which I had copies. I thus checked and supplemented 
what others had already done, and obtained a tolerably 
complete insight into that branch of the vocabulary. 
Before I could get much beyond this, Mohammed was 
80 far recovered as to be able to sail for Bombay. I 
have always much pleasure in acknowledging how 
much I owe to him. 

Meanwhile I had begun my collection of short tales 
in Swahili, the first of which were printed in Zanzibar 
with an interlinear version, under the title of " Specie 
mens of Swahili," in March 1866, and reprinted in 
an early number of " Mission Life." I also began to 
use my Swahili to a practical purpose by making the 
collections for a handbook of the Shambala language, 
the first draft of which was completed in May 1866. 
These collections were made with a view to the mission 
since commenced in that country by the Rev. C. A. 
Alington; they were revised by the help of another 
teacher, and printed in Zanzibar in the year 1867. 



PREFACE. vii 

Finding the Swahili tales most valuable as well to 
myself as to those who were studying with me, I pro- 
ceeded to print a further collection, with the title 
" Hadithi za Kiunguja" in Swahili only. For the tales 
then printed I was mainly indebted to Hamis wa Kayi, 
a very intelligent young Swahili, who always compre- 
hended better what a foreigner wanted to know, and 
explained more clearly what was difficiQt, than any one 
else I met with while in Zanzibar. 

At the same period I had begun and carried on from 
time to time the investigation of the Yao or Achowa 
language, one peculiarly interesting to us, as that of 
nearly all the released slaves under Bishop Mackenzie's 
charge, and as having now supplanted the Mang'anja 
in the country where our Mission was originally settled. 
From this study I first gained a definite notion of the 
wonderful effect the letter n has in African languages, 
and so came to understand the origin of several appa- 
rent irregularities in Swahili. 

I had begun even before Mohammed bin Khamis left 
Zanzibar to make some essays in translation, the best of 
which are embodied in a pamphlet printed in Zanzibar, 
with the title " Translations in Swahili : " it was com- 
pleted in January 1867. 

I was then getting help from many quarters, and on 
explaining to some of our native friends our wish to 
make a complete translation of the Bible into their 
language, one of them. Sheikh *Abd al 'Aziz, kindly 
volunteered to translate for me the Arabic Psalter into 
the best and purest Swahili. I found, before long, that 
not only did his numerous avocations prevent any rapid 



viii' PREFACE, 

progress, but that his language was too learned to suit 
exactly our purpose in making the version ; it did not 
therefore proceed further than the Sixteenth Psalm. I 
printed these as at once a memorial of his kindness 
and a specimen of what one of the most learned men 
in Zanzibar considers the most classical form of his 
language. 

I cannot but mention at the same time the name of 
Sheikh Mohammed bin AH, a man of the greatest 
research, to whosp kindness I was indebted for a copy, 
made by his own hand, of some very famous Swahili 
poetry, with an interlinear Arabic version ; he also 
revised for me a paraphrase of it in modem language, 
for which I was chiefly indebted (as for much other 
help) to Hassan bin Yusuf, whose interest in our doc- 
trines and teachings has always been most marked. 
The verses and translation are both printed in the 
" Swahili Tales." 

At the end of 1867 I printed a translation of Bishop 
Forbes' little primary catechism, chosen as being the 
shortest and clearest I could find to begin upon. 
Though very imperfect, I am glad to think that it 
has been found of use. 

When I had completed the Yao collections, I went on 
to the Nyamwezi language, as being that of the largest 
and most central tribe with which there is constant and 
tolerably safe communication. 

In November 1867 I lost, by the sadly sudden deaths 
of the Kev. G. E. Drayton and his wife, most useful 
helpers, who were beginning to be able to give me sub- 
stantial assistance. Their places were, however, well 



PREFACE, ix 

supplied by the Eev. W. and Mrs. Lea, who arrived 
opportunely just before the time of our bereavement. 
I was then engaged in preparing the translations of 
St. Matthew's Gospel and of the Psalms, as well as in 
beginning to put in order the materials for the present 
work. To Mr. Lea I was indebted, amongst other 
things, for the first version of the 119th Psalm, and to 
Mrs. Lea for the arrangement of the Swahili-English 
Vocabulary. The last thing I printed in Zanzibar was 
, a translation of the Easter and Advent Hymns, and of 
Adeste Fideles, which I had the pleasure of hearing 
the girls of the Mission Orphanage sing most sweetly 
to the old tunes just before I left. 

I ought also to mention that, having been often under 
great obligations to the French Eomanist Mission, I 
h^ the pleasure of printing for them a Catechism in 
French and Swahili, which was indirectly valuable to 
me as showing how the great truths we have in 
common were rendered by a perfectly independent 
student of the language. I know not how sufficiently 
to regret that the excellent compiler, P^re Etienne 
Baur, should have been content to use the jargon (for 
it is nothing better) commonly employed by Indians 
and Europeans, and should have adopted an ortho- 
graphy adapted only to a French pronunciation. 

Only three weeks before leaving I had the advan- 
tage of consulting two large manuscript dictionaries 
compiled by Dr. Krapf, and brought to Zanzibar by 
the Kev. E. L. Pennell. I was able to examine about 
half the Swahili-English volume, with the assistance 
of Hamis wa Kayi, enough to enrich materially my 



V ■ ' 

X PB^FACE. 

previous colleotions, and to show how far even now 
I fall short of my first predecessor in the work of 
examining and elucidating the languages of Eastern 
Africa. There remains for some future time or other" 
hand the examination of the rest of Dr. Krapf's 
dictionary, as well as the collation of what will no 
doubt deserve to be the standard Swahili lexicon, on 
which the Kev. John Kebmann has been for nearly a 
quarter of a century labouring unweariedly. Even 
then there will remain many dialectic variations, and 
many old and poetical words and inflections, so that 
for many years one who loves such studies might find, 
employment in this one language. 

Since my arrival in England, at the end of November 
1868, 1 have been able to superintend the printing of 
the Gospel of St. Matthew in Swahili, liberally under- 
taken by the Bible Society, of translations of the 
Church Catechism and of their Scriptural Eeading 
Lessons out of the Old Testament, kindly undertaken 
by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 
For the Central African Mission I have carried through 
the press this work and the collection of Swahili 
Stories with an English version, published by Messrs. 
Bell and Sons, of which those previously printed at 
Zanzibar form a small part, and besides these a number 
of small pamphlets, including translations of the Books 
of Euth and Jonah, and some slight specimens of the ' 
Gindo, Zaramo, and Ngazidja languages. There remain 
the Psalms, which the Bible Society has promised to 
print for us, and the colleotions in the Yao and Nyam- 
wezi languages, all which I should like to get through 



PREFACE. xi 

the press in the course of this year. I wish there were 
a chance of the Kev. John Kebmann's Swahili version 
of St. Luke's Gospel, of which I have seen €^ large part, 
being printed at the same time. • 

This handbook is arranged on the principle of sup- 
plying with each portion of it such rules as are re- 
quired for the practical use of that portion. In the 
first part, after some introductory observations, Sub- 
stantives, Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs have each 
a separate section, containing first the rules which 
govern thei^ inflection and employment, and then an 
alphabetical list of the Swahili equivalents of our 
English words belonging to each part of speech. For 
the mere finding of words one general alphabet would 
perhaps have been more convenient ; but as the object 
of this work is not merely to tell what the Swahili 
words are, but also how to employ them correctly, it 
seems better so to group them as to bring the rules of 
grammar and the words which they control into as 
close a connection with one another as possible. The 
Editor has done what most readers woidd have had to 
do—sort out first the word and then the grammatical 
rules which must be observed in using it. The minor 
parts of speech are indexed together to avoid a multi- 
plicity of alphabets, except the Interjections, which 
cannot be said to have exact equivalents in any other ^ 
language. The part ends with a section on the forma- 
tion of words, which may be of use where the other 
alphabets fail to give a satisfactory rendering, and 
may also be useful as a guide in turning Swahili into 
English, in the case, of the many words which igno- 



xii PREFACE. 

ranee or some oversight in preparing the second part , 
may have caused to be omitted. The rules and hints 
prefixed to iftie second part are intended to enable any 
one who sees or hears a Swahili word to ascertain the 
material part of it, so as to be able to use the dictionary 
which follows. It is evident that there must be great 
difficulties at first in either using or arranging an 
alphabetical list of words which may begin with, in 
some cases, nine or ten different letters, according to 
the grammatical position they hold in each case. 
However, the difficulty is greater in appearance than 
in practice. 

The Appendices contain some curious or useful 
matter which could not well find a place in the body 
of the work. The first contains a' specimen of a curious 
kind of enigmatical way of writing and speaking called 
Kin^ume. The second gives a specimen of the forms 
used in letter-writing, both in prose and verse. The 
third is part of a Swahili tale, with all the prefixes 
separated and the grammatical forms explained, in- 
tended as a guide and introduction to the art of 
reading, and through that of writing the language. 
The fourth Appendix consists of a small collection of 
phrases, some of them such as are wanted in ordinary 
conversation, some of them useful in illustrating the 
idiom or peculiar constructions used by natives. This 
collection might have been very much increased had 
it not been carefuUy confined to phrases actually met 
with in conversation with persons reputed to speak 
correctly. 



PREFACE, xiii 

The name of the language— Swahili — is beyond all 
doubt a modified form of the Arabic Sawdhily the plural 
of SMI, a coast. The natives themselves jestingly 
derive it from Sawa hila, which a Zanzibar interpreter 
would explain as '* All same cheat." 

LitOe Steeping, May 1870. 



ADVEBTISEMENT TO SECOND EDITION. 



The First Edition having been at the last sold out 
with unexpected rapidity, I have not been able to add 
80 mnch as I should have wished to this. The chief 
novelty is the omission of what I called the second 
class of Substantives, which proved to be only the most 
common instance of the general rule, that Substantives' 
of any and every form denoting animate beings are 
constructed with Adjectives and Pronouns in the forms 
proper to the first class. Some words have been added 
to the Yocabularies and a few mistakes corrected. 

During the last four years the work of translation 
and collection has been going steadily forward, Swahili 
preaching has been going on, and some Elementary 
School-books printed in Zanzibar for our vernacular 
schools. The great work of evangelizing Africa seems 
to grow in magnitude the more one understands what 
is required for it ; but our hopes still grow with the 
growth of our knowledge. 

Edward Steere. 

London^ January 1875. 



( XVli ) 



ADVEETISEMENT TO THIRD EDITION. 



This Edition may be taken to represent substantially 
the final form which the Handbook assumed in the 
hands of its compiler, the late Bishop Steere. No 
estimate can be attempted here of his services to 
philology in general, and the student of African 
languages in particular, still less of their bearing on 
the spread of Christianity in Central Africa. What- 
ever the relative purity of the dialects of Mombasa and 
Zanzibar, and however great' the debt Bishop Steere 
undoubtedly owed to his distinguished predecessor in 
their study, Dr. Krapf, the broad fact remains that 
Bishop Steere took the language as he found it spoken 
in the capital city of the East Coast, reduced its rules 
to so lucid and popular a form as not only to make it 
accessible, but easy to all students, and finally made a 
great advance towards stereotyping its forms and ex- 
tending its use by embodying it in copious writings 
and translations. 
' Some of the last hours of his life were apparently 
spent in preparing this Handbook for a new edition. 
Those who were familiar with the many cares and 
anxieties then pressing on him, will not be surprised 
that there were signs of haste and pressure in his 

b 



xviii PBEFACJE. 

revision. With Part I., however, he seems to have 
been satisfied. The corrections of the text were few 
and unimportant, and though the Lists of Words might 
have been largely added to, he seems to have preferred 
leaving them as they were, in view of the strictly 
practical purpose of the whole book. 

With Part II. (the Swahili-English Vocabulary, &c.) 
the case is rather different. With the aid of various 
members of the Mission, the Bishop had made some- 
what large collections in order to expand and complete 
it. Probably from the pressure of work before alluded 
to, he had only prepared a selection of them for this 
«Edition. It has been thought better, however, to in- 
corporate all the words found in his notes and added 
with his approval. But it must be remembered that 
the Bishop never regarded Part II. as ranking as a 
Dictionary, even in embryo, but rather as a tolerably 
full list of words to serve as a. useful companion to 
Part I. Even with this reservation, there renlaiii 
many traces of imperfection in arrangement, spelling, 
and interpretation of words, which would doubtless 
have been removed if he had been allowed time to pass 
the whole list uilder revision finally. 

This final revision no one is in a position adequately 
to supply. Minor corrections and additions have been 
cautiously and sparingly made. One Appendix (No. V.), 
likely to subserve the practical aim of the whole,- has 
been added, wilh the Ven. Archdeacon Hodgson's ap^ 
proval. There still r^nain among the Bishop's notes 
some miscellaneous specimens of Swahili verses, pro- 
verbs, riddlcB, &c^ which might have formed another. 



PREFACE. xik 

It is thought best, howeveij, to reserve them, and leave 
the whole book, as far as possible, as the Bishop leffc it. 
Subsequent editors may find something to add. They 
probably will not find much to alter. 

A. C. M. 

P.S. — Dr. Krapf 8 great Dictionary of the Swahili 
Language, in its printed form, was in the Bishop's 
hands too short a time to allow of his making any use 
of it for this Edition of the Handbook. 

Zanzibar^ Christmas^ 1882. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PART L 

PAGE 

Introduction .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 1 

The Alphabet , 8 

Substantives : — 

Grammatical rules 16 

List of Substantives .. .. .. .. .. 21 

Adjectives : — 

Grammatical rules 83 

Irregular Adjectives .. .. .. .. .. 86 

Comparison of Adjectives . . . . . . . . 87 

Numerals .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 89 

List of Adjectives 94 

Pronouns : — 

Personal Pronouns 102 

Possessive Pronouns .. .. .. .. .. 109* 

Reflective Pronouns .. .. .. ,. ..112 

Demonstrative Pronouns .. .. .. .. ..113 

Relative Pronouns 117 

Interrogatives, &c. 122 

Verbs ; — 

Conjugation .. .. .. .. .. .. 125 

Irregular Verbs 149 

Auxiliary Verbs .. .. .. .. ., .. 155 

Derivative Verbs . . • . . . . . . . . . . 1 57 

List of Verbs 165 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions 

List of Adverbs, &c. 
Interjections 
Formation of Words 

Table of Noun Prefixes in nine languages 
Table of the Preposition -a in four languages . 



PACK 

209 
212 
221 
226 
234 
235 



PART II. 

Preliminary Observations . . . . . . . . . . 239 

Swahili-English Vocabulary . . . . . . . . . . 245 

Appendices : — 

I. Specimen of Kinyume .. .. .. .. 425 

II. Specimens of Swahili Correspondence . . . . 427 

III. Part of a Swahili Tale, with the Prefixes marked 

and explained . . . . . . . . . . 431 

IV. Useful and Idiomatic Phrases . . . . . . 443 

V._On Money, Weights and Measures in Zanzibar . . 455 



k 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



PAET L 

The Swahili language is spoken by the mixed race 
of Arabs and Negroes who inhabit the Eastern Coast 
of Africa, especially in that part which lies between 
Lamoo and^ the neighbouring towns on the north, and 
Cape Delgado on the south. 

It is classified by Dr. Bleek as one of the Zangian 
genus of the middle branch of the Bantu languages. 
That is to say, it belongs to one of the subdivisions of 
that great femily of Negro languages, which carries on 
the work of grammatical inflexion by means of changes 
at the beginning of the word, similar to that whereby 
in Kafir, umwntUy a man, becomes in the plural ahantUj 
people. All these languages diride their nouns into a 
number of classes, which are distinguished by their 
first syllable, and bring their adjectives, pronouns, and 
verbs into relation with substantives by the use of 
corresponding changes in their first syllables. None 
of these classes- denote sex in any way. Dr. Bleek, in 
his comparative grammar of South African languages, 
enumerates eighteen prefixes which are found in one 
or other of the languages of this family ; but it must 

B 



2 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

be remembered that he reckons by the forai of the 
prefix only, so that the singular and plural forms of 
most words count as two, while the same form will 
sometimes answer to two or more^ forms in the other 
number. Dr. Block's arrangement is the most conve- 
nient for his purpose, which is the comparison of the 
formatives used in different languages ; but I have not 
followed it in this work, because I think that for practical 
purposes such a classification should be used as will 
enable the learner who sees or hears the noun in the 
singular at once to put it into the plural. Prefixes 
may be counted up separately ; but in practice we have 
to do with nouns, not with prefixes, and a noun cannot 
be put into a different class when it becomes plural 
or singular without great risk of confusion. Thus in 
Fredoux' Sechuana grammar, 4 and 6 are the plurals 
of 3, 10 and 6 are the plurals of 11, and 6 alone is the 
plural of 6 and 14. Can this be a clear arrangement ? 

I have very little doubt that Dr. Bleek is right in 
regarding these classes as substantially the same with 
the genders in most of the European languages, which 
are even now only sex-denoting to a veiy limited 
extent. There is a distinction in Swahili as to words 
which denote limng heingsj called by Dr. Krapf, not 
very happily, a mascidine gender, though it has no 
relation to «ea?, but to life only. 

It is very puzzling to a beginner, accustomed to 
languages which change at the end, to find the be- 
ginnings of words BO very uncertain. Thus he hears 
that ngema. means good ; but when he begins to apply 



INTBODUOTIOK 3 

his knowledge he finds that natives use for the English 
word good, not only ngema, but mwemay wema, mema, 
njema, jema, jpema, chema, vyema, and kwema. Again, 
yangu means rm/, but he will hear also, wangu, zangu, 
changuy vyangu, langu, pangu, kwangu, and mwangu. It is 
necessary therefore to get at the very first a firm hold 
of the fact that in Swahili it is the end, and not the be- 
ginning of a word, which is its substantial and unchang- 
ing part. The beginning of the word when taken to 
pieces denotes its number, time, and agreements. 

The " Table of Concords " prefixed to the section on 
Adjectives, shows at one view the variables of the 
language ; and when that has been mastered, the diffi- 
culties for an English student will be over. The 
various forms will be explained, and the nicer distinc- 
tions mentioned in the grammatical parts of the book. 
In the preliminary observations prefixed to the second 
part will be found an account of all the changes which 
liiay occur at the end of a word, changes which in 
practice are very soon mastered, relating as they chiefly 
do to a few points in the conjugation of the verb. 

There is' a broken kind of Swahili in use among 
fcHreigners, Indian as well as European, which serves 
for very many purposes, though it is of course utterly 
useless when one has to speak with exactness, or on 
subjects not immediately connected with the ordinary 
affairs of life and commerce. Its rules may be briefly 
laid down as follows : — If you are in doubt about how 
to make a plural, prefix ma, or use nyingi, i.e. many. 
In conjugating the verb, always put the subject 

B 2 



4 8WAETLI HANDBOOK. 

Before and the olyect after it, for the^ present tense 
prefix wa-, for the past wa-, for the future ta-. For no 
or not, use hdkuna. It is wonderful how intelligible 
you can make yourself by these few rules ; but it is 
just as wonderful what absurd broken stuff can be 
made to do duty for English. 

Let any one, however, who really wishes to speak 
the language get the Table of Concords well into his 
head, by any means he finds best for the purpose, and 
he will have no need to resort to broken and incorrect 
ways of talking. 

Swahili, like all languages of the same family, is 
very rich in Verbs, and poor in Adjectives and Prepo- 
sitions. There is nothing corresponding to the English 
Article, the word when standing alone implying the 
indefinite article, while the definite article can in many 
cases be expressed by the use and arrangement of the 
Pronouns, but still must often be left unexpressed. 
Though the Verb is etymologically the most important 
' part of speech, it is the Substantive which determines 
the form of all the variable syllables. The Substan- 
tive will therefore be first considered, and next the 
Adjective, which very closely resembles it. The Pro- 
nouBB will come next, as it is by their help that the 
Vcrli is conjugated, then the Verb itself, and after that 
the minor parts of speech. Adverbs, Prepositions, Con- 
junctions, and, last of all, the Interjections. A sketch 
of the grammar of each part of speech; which aims at 
being sufficient for ordinary and practical purposes, is 
fir&t given, and after that a list of words belonging to 



L 



INTBODUOTION. 5 

that part of speech, thus forming a combined grammar 
and English-Swahili dictionary. The second part con- 
sists of a Swahili-English vocabulary, and so completes 
the work. 

The Swahili language has been hitherto but little 
written by those who speak it, and they know and use 
only the purely Arabic alphabet. There are copies of 
religious and secular verses, and possibly other works, 
composed in the old or poetical dialect, which is not 
now, and I believe never was, thoroughly understood 
by the mass of the people. The modem dialect is used 
in letters ; but they have always a string of Arabic 
compliments at the beginning, and Arabic words and 
phrases freely interspersed throughout. 

Any one who tries to read a letter or a poem written 
in Arabic characters, will at once see why it is impos- 
sible to adopt them as the standard Swahili alphabet. 
It is absolutely necessary to have a good idea of what 
you are to read before you can read at all. The reason 
is that Swahili has five vowels, Arabic only three, and 
of Swahili consonants the Arabic supplies no means of 
writing ch, g, p, or v, nor can consecutive consonants be 
written without shocking Arabic notions of propriety. 
Thus the Swahili are driven to write the ha for p and 
for mb as well as for h ; the gharn for g, ng, and ng\ as" 
well as for gh ; the fa fot v and •!»!?, as well as for f ; 
the ya for ny as well as for y ; the shin for ch as well as 
for «^ ; and to omit altogether the « before c?, /, y, and 2. 
Initial vowels and consecutive vowels are only to be 
expressed by hemzas or 'atiw. In the first piece of 



6 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

written SwabiK I ever possessed (the Story of the Ox 
and the Ass) the words ng*ombe and punda were written 
ghuhe and huda. It will be easily seen how imperfect 
and ambiguous a means of writing Swahili the Arabic 
character must be. An instance occurred while I was 
in Zanzibar of a letter written from Kilwa with the 
account of a fight, in which it was said that one' of 
the principal men, amekufa^ had died, or amevuka^ had 
got away, and which it was no one could certainly 
tell ; the last two consonants were fa and ga/, with 
three dots over them. If two of the dots belonged 
to the first letter, the man was dead ; if two belonged 
to the next letter, he was alive : but the dots were 
so equally placed that no one could tell how to divide 
them". If the Arabid had possessed a v, there could 
have been no mistake. It would no doubt be possible 
to express Swahili sounds by using letters with addi- 
tional dots and affixing arbitrary sounds to the letters 
of prolongation, as is done in Persian and Hindi, but 
the result would puzzle a genuine Swahili and could 
never be quite satisfactory in any respect. 

There seems to be no difficulty in writing Swahili 
in Eoman characters, there being no sound which does 
noit so nearly occur in some European language that 
the proper way of writing it can readily be fixed upon, 
and illustrated by an example. When this is the case 
there is no need to look for anything further. I think 
those who try to settle the alphabets of new languages 
are too apt to forget how essential simplicity is to a 
really good alphabet. If the Eoman alphabet can be 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

made to distinguish all the sounds used in that lan- 
guage, it does all for it that it does for any. To at- 
tempt to distinguish the sounds used in that language, 
from the sounds used in another, or to mark all the 
varieties of tone whit^h occur in speaking, is always 
useless and embarrassing, and not one man in a thou- 
sand has sufficient accuracy of ear to do it properly. 
It is practically easier to learn to attach a new 
sound to a known letter, than to learn a new sound 
and a new letter too, especially when the new letter 
has to be printed and written, and the learner is en- 
tangled in a maze of italics and letters with a point 
below and a point above, or a line through them, or 
some Greek letter which has not the sound one gives it, 
in Greek, or some new invention which will fit well 
neither into printing nor writing, and looks at its ease 
neither as a capital nor a small letter. It generally 
happens that the sounds of a language, though not 
identical with those of another, correspond with thein 
sufficiently to make the corresponding letters appro- 
priate symbols. Thus an English and a French t are 
not identical; but which nation would or ought to 
submit always to put a dot somewhere about its t to 
show that it is not the t which it never will want to 
use, and never did, and could not pronounce, if it met 
with it ? Or, to take a stronger instance, ought Ger- 
mans, Englishmen, and Spaniards always to cross the 
tails of their /s, or print them in italics, or deform their 
books with new symbols, merely because they do not 
pronounce their /s as Frenchmen do theirs ? 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



THE ALPHABET. 

The Vowels are to be pronounced as in Italian^tlie 
Consonants as in English. 

A = a in father, 

B = & in hare, • 

Ch= eft in cherry, Italian e before i or e, 

D = d iu cZo. B occurs very frequently in the Mombas dialect 

where j is used in that of Zanzibar. 
B = ai in chair, 

F =/in^we. German*. » 

G = g in gatCy never soft as in geniiM, 
H = A in hat. 
I = €6 in feet, 
J =j in joy. Sometimes more like dy or di m cordial, French 

diy German dj, Italian gi, 
K = ^ in kalendar. 

L = {in long, L and r are generally treated as the same letter. 
M = m in man, 

N = w in »0. ^ 

O = o in hotfy more like au than the common English o. 
P = ^ in painL 
B = rin raise. An English, not a Scotch, Irish, German, or 

French r. See L. 
S = « in sun, German 88. It is never pronounced like a z or 

the English a in arise, 8 and sh are commonly used for 

one another indiscriminately. 
T ^ t in ten. T frequently occurs in the dialect of Mombas 

where ch is used in thait of Zkozibar. 



l_ 



THE ALPHABET. 9 

U = 00 in UkU. 

V = 1? ia very, German w, 

W = w> in win. French ot*. It is merely a u pronounced as a 
consonant. 

Y = ^ in y(md&r, German ^. It is merely an t pronounced as a 

consonant. Y is frequently used in the' Lamoo dialect 
where j occurs in that of Zanzibar. 
Z = « in zany. German 8. Z frequently oocurs in the dialect of 
. Lamoo where v is used in that of Zanzibar. 

TKere are several sounds introduced from the Arabic 
which do not occur in purely African words. 

Gh = the Arabic ghxin ; it is a guttural g, resembling 
the Dutch g. It may be obtained by pro- 
nouncing a g (as nearly as it can be done) 
with the mouth wide open. Most Europeans 
imagine, the first time they hear it, that 
there is an r sound after the g, but this is a ' 
mistake. 

Kh = the Arabic hha ; it is a very rough form of the 
German ch^ the Spanish j, or the Scotch ch in 
hch. It resembles the sound made in trying 
to raise something in the throat. It may 
always be replaced in Swahili by a simple A, 
but never by a Jfe. 

Th = the four Arabic letters tTia, thai, thod^ and thah. 
The first of these is the EngHsh th in tMnk^ 
the second that in they. The third and fourth 
are thicker varieties of the second sound. In 
Swahili they may all be replaced by a z. No 
attempt is ever made to distinguish the last 
three letters; but as the first is generally 



10 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

marked in pronnnoiatiOll» it. is in the first 
part of this handbook mdirked by printing 
the ih in italics wherever it is to be pro- 
nounced as in the English wor4 think. The 
sound of the English th in thai occurs 'in 
some SwahiU as a dialectic variatioki for z. 
In vulgar Swahili z is not merely put f6r 
the Arabic ih, but th is also put for the 
Arabic «, as wathiri for waziriy a vizir. 

There are several compound consonantal sounds 
which require notice. 

Ch, a very common sound, representing what is 
sometimes a t and sometimes hi — ^in other 
dialects. C is not required for any^ other 
sound, as it can be always represented by k 
when hard, and by « when soft. It would 
probably be an improvement always to write 
the ch sound by a simple c, 

Gn, see ng'. 

Kw represents the sound of g^ in queer. 

M frequently stands for mw, in which cases it is pro- 
nounced with a half-suppressed u sound 
before it, and is even capable of bearing the 
accent of the word, as in m<w, a person, where 
the stress of voice is on the w, which has a 
dull nasal semivowel sound, not quite urn. 
Where m occurs before any consonant except 
b or «?, it must have this semivowel sound. 



THE ALPHABET. 11 

^^ standing for mu^ has generally its semi- 
vowel sound before m. Before a or e it 
becomes f»ic, and before o it frequently losea 
the u altogether, and is pronounced as a 
simple m. 

N has frequently a nasal semivowel sound, a half- 
suppressed i being suggested by it. N has 
always this semivowel sound where it is 
immediately followed by ch, /, Ji, m, n, or «. 

Ny has the sound of the Spanish «, the French and 
Italian gn^ the Portuguese vh, and the English 
ni in companion, only a little thicker and 
more nasaL 

Ng' is a peculiar African sound, much resembling 
the -ng which occurs at the end of many 
English words. If we could divide longing 
thus, lo-nging, without at all altering the 
pronunciation, it would come very near 
the African sound, which is never a final, 
because all Swahili syllables must end in a 
vowel. Some prefer to write this sound gn-, 
as it resembles the sound given by Germans 
and others to those letters when they occur 
- as initial letters in Greek. This sound Inust 
be distinguished from the common sound of 
ng-, in which the g distinctly passes on to 
the following vowel, as in the English word 
engage; in ng'- both sounds are heard, but 
neither passes on to the vowel. 

Sh is the Arabic shin, the English sh, the French ch. 



12 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

the German seh, Sh and 8 are commonly 
treated as identical. "^ * -'^ 

P, T, K, and possibly some other letters, have occa- 
sionally an ex|)losive or aspirated sound, 
such as an Irishman will often give them. 
This explosive sound makes no change in 
the letter, but is an addition to it, probably 
always marking a suppressed n. Thus upepo 
is a wind^ with both p*s smooth as in English ; 
but the plural, which should regularly be 
?ipepo, is p*e;po, with a strong explosive sound 
attached to the first letter. This explosive 
sound may be marked by an apostrophe ; it 
is, however, very seldom necessary to the 
t sense of a word, and is noticeably smoothed 
down or omitted by the more refined and 
Arabized Swahili. 

There are other niceties of pronunciation which a 
fine ear may distinguish ; but ^s they are 
by no means essential, and are seldom noticed 
by the natives themselves, it is not worth 
while here to examine them particularly. 

A# a rule, the vowels are all pronounced distinctly, 
and do not form diphthongs. When, however, a for- 
mative particle ending in -a is placed before a word 
beginning with e- or t-, the two letters coalesce into a 
long e sound. It is not, however, even in such a case 
as this, always incorrect to pronounce the two vowels 
distinctly, though it is not usually done. The instances 



^ 



TEE ALPHABET. 13 

of and rules for this union of sound will be found 
where the several prefixes which give occasion to it 
are dealt with. 

When two vowels come together at the end of a 
word, they are often to the ear one syllable, and have 
the sound of a diphthong ; they are really, however, 
two syllables of which the former bears the accent. 
This is at once apparent in the Merima dialect, in 
which an Z is put between the vowels. Thus kufaa, to 
be of use, which sounds as if written kufd, is in the 
Merima dialect Tcufala, The shifting of the accent 
sometimes shows that the vowels are really separate. 
Thus a common fruit tree is called mzcmbarauj in which 
word the last two vowels apparently unite into a 
sound like that in the English word how; but when -ni 
is added, making Mzambarauni, at the zambardu tree — 
the name of one of the quarters of Zanzibar — the u is 
quite separated from the a, and the last two syllables 
are pronounced like the English -oony. 

It may be assumed in all cases in which two vowels 
come together that an I has been omitted between 
^ them, and will appear in some modification of the word 
or in its derivatives. 

The shifting of the accent above referred to takes 
place in obedience to the universal rule in Swahili, 
that the main accent of the word is always put upon 
the last syllable but one, a rule which often change» 
the, sound of a word so materially as to baffle a beginner 
in his endeavour to seize and retain it. The syllable 
-m is the chief disturber of accents ; and words which 



14 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

end in it may be always suspected- of being plural 
imperatives if they are verbs, or of being in what is 
known as the locative case if they are nouns. ' There 
are only a very few words which end in -m in their 
simple forms. 

The formation or division of syllables is so closely 
connected with the powers of the letters, that this will 
be a proper place to mention it. The rule is that all 
Swahili syllables end in a vowel, and ttat the vowel 
must be preceded only by a single consonant, or by 
one preceded by n or m, or followed by to or y. 

There are a few half-assimilated Arabic words in 
which double consonants occur ; but there is a strong 
tendency in all such cases to drop one of the consonants 
and attach the other to the vowel which follows them. 

W can be placed after all the other consonants, 
simple and compound, except perhaps F 
' and V. 

Y can foUow F, N, and V. 

These two letters are used in the formation of Verbs, 
-tr- being the sign of the passive, and -y- being used to 
give a transitive meaning. In several cases -/y- stands 
for -py- ; -py- occurs in one word only, ^fnpya, new. 

N can be placed before D, G, J, Y, and Z. 

M can be placed before B, and perhaps Ch and V. 

M in these instances represents an n- used as a sub- 
stantival and adjectival prefix. Used in this way, n 
before h becomes m ; before I or r it changes the Z or r 
into cf, making nd- instead of wZ- or nr-; before w it 
changes into m, and the w becomes 6, making mb- 



THE ALPHABET. 15 

j instead of nw-. It is curious that w can be made to 

, follow n without any change, but that n cannot be put 
before w. Before h^ jp, and t, the n is dropped, and 

. they become k\ p\ and t' ; before the other letters cA, 

\ /, h^ m, », and «, it is merely dropped. 

The resulting syllables are not always easy of pro- 
nunciation to a European, as, for instance, nywa in M- 
nywa, to drink, nor is it very easy to pronounce ngu or 
nda ; but to a native such sounds present no difficulty, 
whilst he can scarcely pronounce such a word as hlack. 
Instances of the division of syllables will be found 
in the specimen of Kinyume, which forms Appendix I. 
Kinyume is made by taking the last syllable from the 
end of a word and putting it at the beginning, so that 
each instance is a specimen of the native idea as to 
what letters belong to the final syllable. Some Swahili 
are very ready at understanding and speaking this 
enigmatical dialect. 

At the head of each letter in the second part will 
be found some observations on its use and pronun- 
ciation. 



16 8WAEILI HANDBOOK 



SUBSTANTIVES. 

Swahili nouns have two numbers, singular and plural, 
which are distinguished by their initial letters. Upon 
the forms of the Substantives depend the forms of all 
Adjectives, Pronouns, and Verbs governing or governed 
by them. It is, therefore, necessary to divide them 
into so many classes as there are different forms either 
of Substantives or of dependent words, in order to-be 
able to lay down rules for the correct formation of 
sentences. For this purpose Swahili Substantives may 
be conveniently divided into eight classes. 

I. Those beginning with M-, 'JMT-, Mihy or Mw-, in 
the singular, and which denote living beings. They 
make their plural by changing M- &o, into Wa-. 

Mtu, a man ; waiu, people. 

The (Singular prefix represents in all its forms the 
syllable Mu-, which is itself very rarely heard. Before 
a consonant it is almost always pronounced as a semi- 
vowel m, with the t* sound before rather than after it. 
Before a and e the u becomes a consonant, and the 
prefix appears as mw-. Before o and u the u is very 



SUBSTANTIVES. 17 

frequently dropped, and the m alone is heard. The 

prefix is treated €ts a distinct syllable when followed 

by a consonant, but very rarely sp when followed by 

a vowel. 

Mchavii, a wizard ; wachawi, wizards. 

Mjusi, a lizard ; wajusiy lizards. 

Mwanay a son ; icaanaf sons. 

Jifvjoga, or mogfa, a coward ; wdogay cowards. 

Muumishi, or mumiehd, a cupper ; toaumishiy cuppers. 

When the plural prefix toa- is placed before a word 
beginning with a-, the two a*s run together, and are 
seldom distinguishable by the ear alone. When war- is 
placed before a word beginning with e- or *-, the -a 
flows into the other vowel and produces a long e sound. 

Mtoenzi, a companion ; wenzi, companions. 
Mmviy a thief; loeoi, thieves. 

II. Substantives beginning with Jtf-, 'JIf-, Jtftt-, or 
Mw-y which do not denote living or animate beings. 
They make their plural by changing M- &c. into Mi-, 
Mti^& tree ; miti, trees. 

The same observations apply to the singular prefix 

in this cfass as in Class I. 

M/upa, a bone ; mifupaj bones. 
MwanzOy a beginning; mianzo, beginnings. 
Mwembe, a mango tree ; miemhe, mango trees. 
MwSbay a thorn ; miihay or mibay thorns. 
MotOy a fire ; miotOy fires. 

The names of trees belong to this class. 

m. Those which do not change to form the plural. 
-Yyttrnfta, a house ; 7ijfttm6a, houses. 



18 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The simple desoription of noTina of this class is that 
they hegin with w, followed by some other consonant. 
It is probable that Ni- is the ground form of the prefix 
of this class, since it always appears as ny- before a 
vowel. The singular powers and antipathies of the 
letter w- very much aflteot the distinctness of this class 
of nouns. As n must be dropped before cA, /, h, k, p, «, 
or t^ nouns beginning with those letters may belong to 
this class;* and as w becomes m before 6, t?, ajid w, 
nouns beginning with mb or mv may belong to it. There 
is a further complication in Swahili, arising from the 
fact that foreign words, except only foreign names of 
persons and offices, whatever their first letters, are . 
correctly placed in this class. The popular instinct, 
however, refuses this rule, and in the vulgar dialect 
classes foreign words according to their initial letters, 
regarding the first syllable as a mere prefix, and treat- 
ing it accordingly (see also p. 20). In some cases words 
are handled in this way even in polite Swahili ; thus the 
Arabic Kitabu, a book, is very often made plural by 
treating the ^ as a prefix, and saying Vitabu, for books. 

Kambii, a rope ; kamba^ ropes. 
Mbegu, a seed ; nibeguy seeds. 
Nyumba, a house ; nyumba, houses. 
' Meza, a table ; meza, tables. 
Bundukiy a gun ; hundukif guns. 
Ndiziy a banana ; ndizi, bananas. 
Njia, a road ; njia, roads. 

* There is nothing to show whether nouns beginning with these 
letters belong to this class or to the fifth ; but it is always safest in 
cades of doubt to treat them as belonging to this class, unless some 
special largeness is intended to be intimated concerning them. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 19 

IV. Those which begin with Ki- before a consonant 
or C%- before a vowel. They form their plural by 
changing Ki- into Vi- and Oh- into Fy-. 

KitUt a thipg ; vt7u, things. 
ChombOy a vessel ; vyoinbo, vessels. 

Substantives are made diminutives by being brought 
into this class. 

MUma, a mountain ; KUima, a hill. 
Bweta, a box ; hibwetoj a little box. 

Jf the word stripped of all prefixes is a monosyllable, 
ji' must first be prefixed. 

Mtiy a tree ; hijUiy a shrub. 

MwikOy a spoon ; MjihOy a little spoon. 

Words beginning with Ki- may be turned into 
diminutives by inserting -ji- after the prefix. 

KitvjOy a head; kijUuja, a little head. 

Kibokoy a hippopotamus ; hijtbcko, a little hippopotamus. 

In regard to animals, the use of the diminutive has 
a depreciating effect. 

Mbuzif a goat; hibiuii, a poor little goat. 

V. Those which make their plural by prefixing wio-. 

Kashciy a chest; rndkcuhay chests. 

Nouns are generally brought into this class by re- 
jecting all prefix in the singular. If, however, the 
word itself begins with a vowel, /- is prefixed ; if it be 
a monosyllable, ji- is prefixed. The j- gr ji' is regularly 

c 2 



20 SWAHILI BANDBOOK. 

omitted in the plural, 'but may be retained to avoid 
ambiguity, where the regular word would have re* 
sembled one formed from another root. 

JambOy an affair; mambo^ affairs. 

JichOf an eye ; machoy eyes. 

Jomho, a large vessel ; majombo, large vessels. 

If the word begin with t- or «-, the -d of the plural 
prefix coalesces with it and forms a long -e-; this 
distinguishes dissyllables with J- prefixed from mono- 
syllables with^i- prefixed. 

«Ttno, a tooth ; meno (not mano\ teeth. 

Foreign names of persons and offices belong to this 
class. 

Wazirif a vizir ; mawaziriy vizirs. 

In the vulgar dialect of Zanzibar all foreign words 
which have a first syllable that cannot be treated as a 
prefix, are made to belong to this class, and ma- is 
prefixed to form the plural (see p. 18). 

Anything which is to be marked as peculiarly large 
or important is so described by bringing the word into 
this class. - . 

Mjukot a bag ; fukOy a very large bag. 

MtUy a man ; jUuy a very large man. 

Nyurriba, a house ; juniba, a large house. 

If a word is already in this class^ it may be described 
as larger by prefixing jV-. 

Matanga, sails ; majitanga, great sails. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 21 

Majij water, Mafuta, oil, and other nouns in that 
form are treated as plurals of this class. 

VI. Those which begin with U- in the singular. 
They make their plural by changing CT- into Ny^ before 
a vowel, or N- before a consonant. 

Uimbo, a Bong; nyimbOj songs. 

Udevu, a hair of the beard ; ndevu, hairs of the beard. 

This class is not a large one ; but the formation of 
its plural is full of apparent irregularities produced by 
the letter n. 

1. All nouns of this class, which are in the singular 
dissyllables only, retain the u- in the plural, and are 
treated as beginning with a vowel. 

Ufa^ a crack ; nyufa, cracks. 
UsOf a face ; nyuao^ faces. 

2. Words in which the JJ- is followed by d, g^ j\ or «, 
take N- in place of U-. 

3. Words in which the U- is followed by I or r, take 
N', but change the I or r into d, 

Ulimiy a tongue ; ndimi, tongues. 

4. Words in which the U- is followed by 6, v, or «?, 

take n-, but change it into m-, and their £rst letter is 

always 6. 

Ubauj a plank ; mbau, planks. 

Uvringu, a heaTon ; mbingu, the heavens. 

5. Words in which the U- is followed by h, p, or /, 



22 SWAEHI HANDBOOK. 

drop the U-, and give an explosive sound to the first 

letter. 

UpepOf a wind ; p^epOy winds. 

6. Words in which the U- is followed by ch^ /, h, n, 
or 8, merely drop the CT-. 

UfunguOj a key ; /unguo, keys. 

Nouns of this class are so few in Swahili that it is 
scarcely worth while to notice these distinctions ; they 
are, however, important as explaining what would 
otherwise seem anomalies, and represent influences 
which have a much larger field in other African 
languages. 

Abstract nouns generally belong to this class. 

VII. The one word Mahalij place or places, which 
requires special forms in all adjectives and pronouns. 

VIII. The Infinitives of Verbs used as Substantives: 
All Infinitives may be so used, and answer to the 
English Verbal Substatitives in -ing. 

Kufa, to die = dying. 
Kwiba, to steal = stealing. 

All Substantives of both numbers may be put into 
what may be called the locative case by adding -nt. 
This case has three great varieties of meaning, which 
are marked by differences in all dependent pronouns. 

i. In, within, to or from within. 

2. At, by, near. 

a To, from, at (of places far oflE). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 23 

Nyumibani mwangu, in my house. 
Nyumbcmi pangu, near my house. 
Nyumbani kwanguy to my house. 

Mtoniy \>y the river. 

Njianu on the road. 

Vyomboni, in the vessels. 

Kitvoaniy on the head. 

Mbinguni, in heaven. 

Kuangukani, in falling. 

The possessive case is expressed by the use of the 
Preposition -a, which see. The objective or accusative 
is the same as the subjective or nominative. 

In the following list of Substantives the plural form 
is given in all cases in which, if commonly used, it is 
not the same as the singular. 



24 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF SUBSTANTIVES. 



The letters in parentheses denote the several dialects : (A.) Eiamu, that of 
Lamoo ; (M.) Kim vita, that of Mombas ; (Mer.) Kimerima, that of the main- 
land opposite Zanzibar; (N.) Kingozi, the poetical dialect ; (Ar.) Arabic. 



A what'iS'it, a thing the name of 
which you do not know or can- 
not recaU, dude, pi. madude. 

Such-a-one^ a person whose name is 
not knoum or is immaterial, 
fullanl. 



Ahasementt unenyekeo. 
Abhorrence, machukio. 
Ability, uwezo. 
Abridgment, muhtasari. 
Abscess, tumbasi, nasur. 
Abundance, wingi, ungi (M.)» man- 

thawa. 
Abyssinian, Habeshia, pi, Maha- 

beshia. 
Acceptance, ukiibalL 
Accident, tukio, pi, matoklo. 
Accounts, hesabu. 

Account book, daftari. 
Accusation, matuvumu. . 
Aocuxilion (before a judge), mshta- 

ka, pL miihtaka. 
A€h&t m^utnivu, uchungu. 
Action, kit^^udo, pi, vitendo, amali. 
Addition (m arithmetic), jumla. 



Address (of a letter), anwani. 
Adornment, kipambo, pi. vipambo, 

pambo, pi. mapambo. 
Adidtery, zani, uzini, uzinzL 
Advantage (profit), fayida. 
Adversity, mateso, shidda. 

Advice, shauri, pi. mashauri. . ^ 

Adze, shoka la bapa, sezo. — ^ 
Affair, }9.mbQ, 

Affairs, mambo, shughuli, uli- 
mwengu. 
Affection, mapenzi, mapendo. 

Mutual affection, mapendano. 
Affliction, teao, pi. mateso. 
Age, wain. 

Old age, uzee. 

Extrevne old a^e, ukongwe. 

Equal in age, hirimu moja. 

Former ages, zamani za kale. 
Agentj wakili, pi, mawakili. 
Agreement, maagano, makatibu, 

mwafaka, mapatano, sharti. 
Aim, sbabaha. 
Air, bawa, hewa, upepo. >^ 

For change of air, kubadili bawa. 
Almond, lozi, pi, malozi. 
AUns, sadaka. 



L 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



25 



Aloei^ subiri, shibiri. 
Aloes wood, uudi. 
AUar^ mathbah, mathabahu. 
AUim^ sbabbu. 
Ambergris^ ambari. 
Amulet, talasimu, pL matalasimiL 
Amusement, mazmng^mzo» Biao- 
ng^ezL 
. ulnoe^tors, babUf'wazee. 
Anchor, nanga, baura. 
Ande (see AnMets), kiwiko cha 

mguuy ito la guu (A.)* 
Angel, malaika. ' 

^ Anger, hasira, ghathabu. 
Angle, pembe. 
Angoxa, Ngoje. 
AnimcU, nyama* 
The young of a domestic animal, 

ndama. 
A young she-animal that has not 
yet home, mtamba,|>Z. mitamba. 
Native animals. See under their 

several names : — 
Baku, a very large hind of rat* 
Toi, a kind of teild go<U, 
Buga(?). 
Ndezi (?). 
Njin(?). 
Anklets {see Ande), mtali, pL mitali, 

furungu, pit, mafuruQga. 
Answer, majibu, jawabu. 
Antelopes. See Gazelle, 
Bara, Heledbagus arundinaeeus, 
Dondoro, Dyker^s antelope, 
Eorn, water buck, 
— 'EugUDi, haartebeest. 
Mpofu, pi. Wapofa, eland, 
Njmmbo, toUdebeest, 
Parahara. 
Enlungu. 
Antimony, wanja wa manga. 
^ iliifo,ohimgu,tiingu(M.)i8i8imizi(?). 



Siafu, a large hroion kind, 
Majl^a moto, a yeUow kind which 

lives in trees, . 
White ants, mchwa. 
Ants in their flying sta^e^ knmbi- 

kumbi. 
Anthill, kisugulu, pi, visuguln* 
Anus, mkunda, fapa. 
AnvUy fuawe. 
Ape, nyani. — ^ 
Apostle, mtume, pi. mitume. 
Appearance, umbo, pi. maumbo. 
Arab, Mwarabu, pL Waarabu- 
Arab from Sheher, Mshihiri, pL 

WashihirL 
Arab from the Persian Gulf, Mahe- 
mali, pi, Washemali, Tende 
balua. 
Arabia^, Arabuni, Manga. 
Arabic, Eiarabu. 
Arbitrator, mpatanishl. 
Arch, tao, pi, matao. 
Areca nut, popoo. See Betel. 
Arithmetic, hesabu. 
Addition, jumla. 
Subtra^ion, bakL 
MuUiplicaiion, tharuba. 
2)ii?m(m, mkaaama. 
Proportion, or division of profits. 
Arm, mkono, pi. mikono. v [uirari. 

Under the arm, kwapaniS 
Armpit, kwapa, pi, makwapa. 
Perspiraiion of the armpit, 
kikwapa. 
Arrangements, madaraka. 
Arrival, kifiko, kikoma 
Arrogance, ghururi. 
Arrow, mshale, pi, mishale, ohembe, 

pL vyembe (N.)» 
Arroy^oot, uwanga, kanjL 
Artery, vein or nerve, mshipa, pi. 
miahipa. 



26 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Artifice, kitimbi, jpZ. vitittibL 

AicHptiaM of praise, tasbiih. 

Ashes, jifu, /pi, majifu, iyu, pi. 
maivu (M.). 
'il«8,pimda. 
, Assa/ostida, myuje. 

Assembly, jamaa, jumaa, makutano, 
makusanyiko. 
Place of assembly, makusanyiko. 

Asthma, pumu. 

Astonishment, mataajabn, msangao. 

Astrologer, mnajimu, pi, wanajimu. 

Astronomy, falaki, filak. 

Attachment, wambieo. 

Auction, mnada, pi. minada. 

Afustimieer, dalali. 
^Awnt, shangazi, pi. tnashangfasd. 

Authority, nguvu, mamlaka, hu- 
kumiu 

Avarice, cboyo, bakhili, tamaa. 

Awl, nma, ph nyuma. , 

Avming, chandalua. 

Axe, shbka, pi, mashoka. 

B. 

^Baby, mtoto mohanga, kitoto 

kiohanga, malaika. 
^ Ba^ik, maungo, mgoDgo. 

Back of the head and neck. Id- 

ahogo. ■ 
Backbone, uU wa maungo. 
Badness, ubaya, uoyu. 
Bag, mfuko, pi. mifuko, foko, pi. 
mafoko, kifuko, pi, vifnko. 
Mkoba, pi. mikoba, a scrip, 
Eibogoshi, pi* vibogoshi, a smaU 
bag made of skin. 
Matting bags, 
Eikapu or Obikapu, pi. vikapu. 
Eapu, pi. makapu, very larg^, 
Kanda, pi. makanda, long <md 
narrow, broadest at the bottom. 



Junia, used for riee, &o„ gnnia. 
Kigunni, used for dates, sugat, 

&c. , 

Kifumbo, pi, vifumbo, very large, 
used for cloves. 
Baggage, yyombo. 
Ba^, lazima. 

Bait, ohambo, pi. vyambo. 
Baking place for pottery, &c., joko. 
Balances, mizani. 
Baldness, upaa« 
A shaved place on the head, kipaa, 
pi. vipaa. 
Ball, tufe. 
India-rubbed ball, mpira^ pi. 

mipira. 
Any smaU round thinff, donge, pi, 
madonge. 
Ballast, farumi. 
Bamboo, 'mwanzi, pi. miwanzi. 
.nanas, ndizi. 
Banana tree, mgomba, pi, mi- 

gomba. 
Bunchlets of fruit, tancs pi, 

matana. 
The fruit stalk, mkungu, pi. mi- 
kungu. 
Band (stripe), ntepe, pi, tepe. 
Band (of soldiers, iSte.), kikosi, pt. 

yikoei. 
Bandage, utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
Bangles. See Anklets, 
Bank (of earth, sand, Ac), fimgu, 
pi. mafungu. 
Bank of a river, kando. 
The opposite bank, ng'ambo. 
Baobab. 8ee Calabash. 
Barber, kinyozi, pi. ▼inyozi. 
Bargain, mwafaka, maafikano. 
Bargaining, ubazazi. 
Bark of a tree^ gome (hard), gandi 
(soff). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



27 



Barley^ sliairi (Ar.). 

Barque (a 8hip\ merikebu ya mili- 

ngote miwili na nnsa. 
Barrel, pipa, pi, mapipa. 
Basin, bakuli, pi. mabakull. 
^ A small hasin, Mbaba. 

A brass basin, taaa, pi, matasa. 
See Bowl, 
Basket See Bag, 
Cliikapu, pi. vikaptu 
Pakacha, pi. mapakaoha, made 
of coooa-nv4 leaves plaited to- 



Dohani, a very taU narrow basket 
made of slips . of wood stipple- 
minted by%)ooa-nut leaves, 
Tunga, a round open basket, 
Ungo, pi, maungo, or uteo, pi. 
teo (M.), a round flai basket 
used for sifting, 
Kiteo, pi, yiteo, a very smaU one, 
Kunguto, pi, makunguto, a 

basket used as a colander, 
JamB.ndB.,pl, majamanda, a round 
basket of thick work, with a 
raised lid. 
BeU, popo. 

Batehelor, msijaiia (?). 
Bath, birika, chakogea. 
Bath room, choo, pi, vyoo. See 

Privy. 
Public baths, hamami. 
BatUe, mapigano. 
Battlements, menomeno. 
Bay, ghubba. 
Beach, pwani, mpwa (M.)* 
Beads, ushanga, pi, shanga* 
Kondavi, pi. makondaVi, o large 

kind worn by women, 
(rosary), taBbiih, 
Beak, mdomo wa ndege. 
4 parrof» beak, mbaugo. 



Beam, mUfpL miti, boriti^ mhimiti^ 

pi. mibimili. ' 
Beans, kuunde. - — 

Chooko, a very small green kind. 
Fiwe, grow on a climbing plant 

with a white flower, 
Baazi, grow on a bush something 
like a laburnum. 
Beard, ndevu, madeyn. " 

One hair of the beard, Qdem. 
The imperial, the tuft of hair on 
the lower Up, kinwa mehnzi^ 
Monda mtuzi (M.)< 
Beast, njama. 
Beauty, uzuri." ^^ 

A beauty, kizuri, pi. viznri^ baiba. 
Bed (for planting sweet potatoes), 

tuta, pi, matuta. 
Bedding, m'atandiko. 
Bedstead, kitanda, pi, vitanda. 
The legs, tendegu, pi. matendegm 
The side pieces, mfambati, pL 

mifuinbati. 
The end pieces, kitakizo, pL vita- 

kizo. 
The headi mcba^. 
The space underneath, mvtmgu 
kitanda. 
Bee, nynki. 
Beehive (a hollow piece of wood), 

mzinga, jpZ. mizinga. 
Beggar, mwombaji, pi. waombaji 
Begging, maomyi. 
Beginning, mwanzo, pi, mianzo. 
Start in speaking or doing, fell, 
pi. mafeli. 
Behaviour, mwenendo. 

Good behaviour, kutenda Tema. 
lU behaviour, kutenda yibaya. 
Bell, kengele. 
Njuga, a small bell worn as an 
I ornament, a dog beU. 



28 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



BeUofJoingj kiyilmi, *ynmi. 
BeUoujs^ mifao, mivukuto. 
^-^"^BeUy, matumbo. 
Bend, pindo. 
The arm etiffened in a bent form^ 
kigosbo cha mkono. 
Bemhatooka hay^ Mjan^ira. 
Betd leaff tambnu. It it chewed 
with areoa nut, lime, and to» 
haooo folded up in it, and gives 
0$ name to the whole. 
Beverage, kinywaji, pi, vmywaji 
Bhang, bangL 

BUseps mwde, tafii ya mkono. 
Bier, jeneza, jenaiza. 
^(A^oo^ion, panda. * 

BUe, nyongo. 
BilMumees, safoia (Ar.), mamngn 

(M.). 
BiU, See Beak. 
^<^ . (account), besabu, barua. 
"^ Bill of sale, ankra. 

(chopper), mnndn, pL miundu; 
npamba, j>2. pamba. 
^^ Bird, ndege, nynni (M.). 

Young of birds, kinda, pi, ma- 

kinda. 
Birds of the air, ndege za anga. 
Bird of HI omen, korofi, mkorofi. 
Native birds. 

Pugi, a very smaU kind of dove. 
Eorongo, crane, 
Mbango, a bird toith a hooked 

beak. 
Ninga, a green dove, 
Zawaridi, a Java sparrow, 
Mbayuwayn, a swaUow. 
Bundi, an owl. 

Loianga — ^pungu — tendawala (?). 
Birih, uzazi, uvyazi, kizazi, kiyyazi. 
Biscuit, biakwiti 
A very thin kind, kaki 



Bishop, askafu (Ar.*). 

A chess bishop, kbami. 
Bit (a horse^s), lijamn. 
Bitterness, ucbnngu, nkali. 
Blabber of secrets, pay o, pl. mapayo. 
Blacksmith, mfua ohnma, pL wafaa 

cbnma, mbunzi (Mer.), piL 

wabunzi. 
Blackwood, sesemi. 

Bladder, kibofa, pi. vibofo. v^ 

Blade, kengea. 
Blade of grass, ncbipnka, pL ohi- 

puka. 
Blame, matnvumu. 

Blanket, busbuti. 

Blemish, ila, kipmigtio. 

Blessing, baraka, mbaraka, pL mi- 

baraka. 
Blindness, upofh (loss of sighfy 

cboDgo (loss of one eye). 
Blinders (used for camels when 

grinding in mills), jamanda (of 

basket work), kidoto (of cloth). 
Blister, lengelenge, pl. malenge- 



A j^esieular eruption of the skin. 
Block. See Pulley. [uwati 

A block to dry skuU caps upon, 
faroma. 

Bhod, damn. ^ 

Blood-vessel, msbipa, pl. mishlpo. 

Blotch, waa, pl. mawaa. 

Blowing and bellowing noise (often 

made with a drum), vumi. 
Blue vitriol, mrntutn. 
Board, nbau, pl. mban. 

Piece of board, kiban, pl. viban. 
Boat, mashua. -^ 
Body, mwili, pl. miili. 

The human trunk, kiwiliwili. 

A dead body, mayitL 

The body of sddiers, dsc, jamii. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



29 



'"^^^BoU, jipu, pi. majipu. 
Bonib, kombora. 
Bombay^ Mombee. 
Bane, mfapa, pi. mifupa, fdpa, pi 
mafupa (very large). 
— Booky chno, pi. yjuo, Mtabn, pL 
TitabiL 
A sacred hock, msabafo, pi, miBa- 

hafa. 
An account hooky daftari. 
Booty, mateka, nyara. 
Border (boundary), mpaka, pL mi- 
paka. 
An edging woven on to a piece of 
doth, taraza. 
Bother, uthia, hnja. 
^Bottle, chupa, pi. machupa, tupa 
(M.), pi' matnpa. 
A long-necked bottle for sprinkling 

scents, mrashi, pi. mirashL 
A Uttle bottle, a phial, kltupa, pi. 
vittipa. 
\ Bottom, chiDi 

Bough, kitawi, pi. vitawi 
Boundary, mpaka, pi. mipaka. 
Bow, upindi, pi. pindi, uta, pi. 

mata, or cyuta. 
Bowl (wooden), fua. See Basin. 
Bowsprit, mlingote wa maji. 
^*^Box, bweta, pi. mabweta, ndusi, 
kisanduku, pi. visandukn. 
SntoU, kibweta, ph vibweta, 
Large, kasha, pi. makasbiEk, san- 

dukn. 
SmdU metal box, kijalaba, pi. 
Tijaltiba. 
' SmaXL, long-shaped metal box, often 
used to keep betel in, kijamanda, 
pL Yijamanda. 
Smtdl paper box, kibumba, pL 
vibumba. 
Boy, kijana, pi. vijana. 



Braoelel, kekee {flat), 

Eikuku, pi. vikoku (round). 

Kingaja, pi. vingaja (of beads), 

Banagiri(omafnen^ with points). 

Timbi. 
Braid, kigwe, pL yigwe. 
Brains, bongo, mabongo. 
Bran, chaohu, makapL 

Husks of rice, kmnvL 
Branch, tawi, pL matawi, ntanzu, 

jpZ. tanzu. 
Brand (a piece of wood partly burnt), 

kinga, pi. vinga. 
Brass, «haba, nuhds (ArA — 
Brass wire, mazoka (?). S^tyV,.^Mj^x tt-^ 
Bravery, ushujaa, lU^abitL ^ v 
Brawler, mgomvi, pi. wagomvL 
Bread (loaf or cake), mkate. ^— — 
Breadth, upaDa. 
Break. See Crack, Notch. 
Breakfast, chakula oha subni, 
kifungua kanwa, cha'msba 
kanwa. 
Breaking wind (upward), kiungulia, 
pt. viungulia. 

(dotonward), iemhsk, pi. majamba, 
mashuzi. 
Breast, kifua, kidari, mtima. 

Breasts, maziwa, sing. ziwa. 
Breath, pumzi, nafusi, roho. 
Bribe, rnshwa. 

Bride, bibi harusi. "^ ' ^ 

Bridegroom, bwana harusi. ^'^ 
Bridle, hatamu (halter, reins^ Ac.), 

lijamu (bit). 
Brink, ukingo, mzingo. 
Brook, kijito, pi. vijito. 
Broom, ufagio, pi. fagio. 
Brother, ndugu, ndngn mtune, " 
kaka (Kibadimu). 

Foster brother, ndugu kunyonya. 

Brother-^n-law, shemegL - 



80 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Hutband^s hroGier, mwamua. 
Wife's hrothert wifl. 
BroWf kikomo cha uso, Mpaji 
Bruisct yilio la damn, alama ya 

pigo. 
Brush (see Broom), burushi. 
brushwood, koko, makoko. 
BvbhUy povu, pi, mapovu. 
^ — Bucket, ndoa 

Buohier, ngao. l 

' — Buffalo, nyatL A K < f) ' \ ^ 
-BujT, kunguni A</ (Kj^ i 
Building, jengo, jjZ. majengo. 
Building materiaU, majengo. 
^irm and good building, mtomo. 
BtiU, fahali,|>2. mafabali, ng'ombe 
mmne or ndume. 
""^ BuUet, poopoo, riaasi ya bnnduki. 
Bullock, maksai. 

Bunch, tawi, pi, matawi, kitawi, pi, 
yitawi, kicbala, pi, vicbala. 
the hunch is said to he of the 
tree and not of the fruit, 
Tawi la mteude, a bunch of dates, 
Kiobala cba mzabibo, a hunch of 
grapes. See Bananas, 
Bundle, peto, pi, mapeto, mzigo, pi, 
mizigo. 
In a cloth, bindo, furuahi, ki- 

furusbL 
Of straw, mwenge, pi. mienge. 
Of sticks, titi, pi. matitL 
Buoyy ohilezo, pi. vilezo, mlezo, pi, 
milezo. 
— -. Burden, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Burial-place, maziabi, maziko. 
Burier (i.e. a spedal friend), mzisbi, 

pi. wazisbi. 
Bush, kijiti, pi, vijiti. 

Bushes, koko, pi, makoko. 
Business, sbughuU, kazi. 
Urgent business, amara. 



A complicated business^ visa 

vingi. 
His business, amri yake. 
I have no business, <ko., eina amri, 
&c. 
BvUer, dagi. — -" 

Clarified butter (ghee), samli. 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
BtUterfly, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Buttocks, tako, pL matako. ^ 
Button, kifango, pi vifungo. 
Button loop, kitanzi, pi. yitanzi. 
Button by which the wooden clogs 
are hdd on, msuruake, pi. mi- 
snruake. 
Buyer, mntinuzi, pi, wanmiuzi 



(Jabin (side), kipenu. 

Cable, amara. 

Caffre com, mtama.^^ 

Ckige, kizimbi, pi. vizimbi, tnndu, 

pi. matundu. 
CoZfe, mkate, pi. mikate. ^"^ 
CaJce of mtama meal, mikate wa 

mofu. 
Ckike of tobacco, mkate wa tu- 

mbako. 
Bmnmida, pi mabmnunda, a sort 

of dumpling or soft cake, 
Eitumbua, pi. vitumbua, a cake 

made like a fritter. 
Ladu, a round baXl made of 

semsem seed, spice, and sugar. 
Kinyunya, pi, vinyunya, a little 
cake made to try the quality of 
(he flour, 
CkHabash, buyu, pi. mabuyu. 
Inner part of the caMash fruit, 

ubuya. 
CJalabash used to draw water, 
kibuyOj vibuyu. 



SUBSTANTIVES, 



31 



Calabash tree or hadbdb, mbnyu, 

pi. mibtiyti. 
A pumpkin shell tued to hold 
liqmdsy dundu, pH. madundu. 
CaZami^y, ma8aibu,mfidba,|)Z. misiba. 
Calico. See Cloth. 

Fine, bafta. 
Calf, ndama, ndama wa Dg'ombe. 
CcM (fiall4/ag\ mwito, pi. miito. 
^ (a cry\ ukelele, ukemi. 
Kikorombwe, a signal cry. 
Calm, shwali. 
Calumba root., kaomwa. 
N CameU ngamia 
-Camelopard, twiga. 
Camphor, karafamayiti, kafitri. 
^ Candle, tawafa, meshmaa. 
Candlestick, kinara, pi. vinara. 
Cannabis Indica, bangi. 
Cannon, mzinga, pL mizinga. 
Canoe, galawa {wUh outriggers), 
mtuinbwi, pi. mitiinib¥nl (wUh' 
out outriggers), hori, pi. mahori 
{^th taised head and stem). 
Canter, mgbad (o/ a horse). 
Thelth {of an ass), 
"^Cap, kofia. 

A cap hhok, faroma* 
A gun-cap, fataki. 
Capacity, kadri. 
Cape (headland), ragi. 
Captain, nakhotha, naoza, kapitani. 
^ Caravan, maafara, pi. misafara. 
"^ Cairoivan porter, mpagazi, pi, wa- 
pctgazi. 
Carcase, mzoga, pi. mizoga. 
- Cards Qplaying), karata. 
Cardamoms, iliki. 
Care, tnQza, pi. mattinza. 

(cautidn), hathiffL 
Cargo, shehena. 
Carp^ter^ sermala, |>l. masermala. 



Carpet, ziilia. 
Carriage, gan, pi. magari. 
A gun carriage, gurudumo la 

mzinga. . 
Cartridge, kiass oha bunduki 
Carving, nakuh, nakishi. 
Ca>se or paper box, kibamba, pL 

vibumba. 
Cashew nut, korosho, pi. makoroshd. 
ImmMure nut, dunge. 
Cashew apple, bibo, pi. mabibo, 

kanju (M.), pi makanju. 
Cashew nut tree, mbibo, pi. mibibo, 

mkanju (M.), pi- mikanju. 
Cask, pipa, pi. mapipa. 
Casket, kijamanda, pi. vijamanda. 
Cassava, muhogo. — -— 
A piece of the dried root, kopa, p?. 

makopa. 
CasUe, gereza, ngome. 

A chess oasUe, fll (Ar. elephant). 
Castor oU, mafuta ya mbarika, 

mafuta ya nyonyo (?), mafuta 

ya mbono (?). 
Castor oil plant, mbarika, pi. mi- 

barika, mbono (?), pi. mibono. 

Cat, paka. , 

Catamite, haniti, hawa, hawara, 

shoga (A.). 
CatHe, ng'ombe, nyama. — 
Caitlefold, zizi,pl. mazizi. 
Caudle made on the occasion of a 

birth, of rice, sugar, and spice* 

and given to visitors, fuka. 
Caulking, khalfati. 
Cause, sababu, kisa, asili, maana. '^ 
Cautery and the marks of it, pisbo, " 
Caution, bathari."* — [^pl. mapisho. 
Cave, paango, pt mapaango. 
Censer, a small vessel to bum incense 

in, cbetezo, pi. vyetezo, mkebe, 

piL mikebe. 



32 



SWAElll HANDBOOK. 



Centipede, taanda. 
Certainty, yakini, kite. 
Chaff, kapi, pi. makapL 

(o/ rice), kumvi. 

(bran and crtuhed grains), wishwa. 



A child which cuts its upper teeth 
first, and is theref&re cmsidered 
unlucky, kigego, pi. vigego. 
Childhood, utoto. 
Chimney, dohaan. 



Chain, mkufu, pi mikufu, mnyo-^^^m, kidevu, pL videvu, Mevu 



V^- 



roro, pi. minyororo, sileeile, 
Door chain, riza. 
^^ Chair, kiti, pL vitL 
Chalk, chaki 

Chameleon, kmyonga, pi. vinyonga, 
Chance, nasibu. [lumbwi (?). 

Chandelier, thxaesi, v 
Change or chunging, geiizi, pi. 

magenzi. 
Chapter, sura, bab. 
Character, sifa. 
— Characters, herofn. 
Charcoal, makaa ya*'mitt 
Charm (talisman), talaeimn, pi. ma- 

talasimu. 
Chatter, npnzi. 
Chatterer, mpuzi, pi. wapnzL 
Cheai, ayari, mjanja, pt wajanja. 

A great cheai, patiala. 

Cheek (the part over the cheekA>one\ 

kitefiite, pi, vitefute. 

(The part over the teeth), chafu, 

^ pi. machafa, tavu (A.), pi. 

"^ , Cheese, jibini [matayti. 

Chees, Bataranji. 
"^ Chest {of men), kifua, pi. vifua. 
(of anim^als or men), kidari 
(a large box), kasha, pi. makasha, 
sanduku. 
^Chicken, faranga, pi. mafaranga 
kifaranga, pi. yifaranga. 
Chief, mfalme, pi. wafalme, jumbe, 

pi. majumbe, munyi. 
Chieftainship, ujumbe. 
(}hildt mtoto, pi. watoto, kitoto, pi. 
vitotb, mwana, pi. waana. 



(A.X pi. vievu. 
Ornament hanging from the veil 

below the chin, jebu, pi. ma- 

jebu. 
Chisel, patasi, chembeu. 
Juba, a mortice chisel, 
Uma, a smaU chisel 
Choice, hiari, hiyari, ikhtiari, aa* 

than. 
T(hir choice, upendavyo (as you 

like). 
Cholera, tauni, wabba, kipindu- 

pinda. . 
Churchy kanisa, pi makamsa. 
Cinders, makaa. 
Cinnabar, zangefiiri. 
Cinna^mn, mdalaaioL 
Cipher (figure qf nougfU), sifuni, 

zifturL 
Circle of a man's affairs, &c., ul^- 

mwengu wake. 
Circumcision, tohara, kumbi 

(Mer.)(?). 
Circumference, kiyimba, mzingo. 
Circumstances, mambo. 

A circumstance, jambo. 
Cistern, birika. 

Citron, balungi, pi mabalungL 
Civet, zabadi. 
Civet cqt^ fungo, ngawa (a larger 

animal than the fungo). 
Civilization, ungwana. 
Civilized people, wangwana. 
Clamp for burning lime, tamuu. 
Clap of thunder, radi. 
02ar6^ divai. 



li 



■J' 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



33 



Class for study y darasa. 
CloMj, ukucha, ph kucha. 

(of a crab), gando, pi. magando. 
Clay (?), udongo. 
Clearness, weupe. 
"" Clerk, karani. 
Clergyman, padre or padiri, ph ma- 

padiri, khatibu. 
Cleverness, hekima. 
Climate, tabia. 
» Clock, BSLSk, 

What o'clock is it ? Saa ngapi ? 
According to the native reckon- 
ing, noon and midnight are at 
the sixth hour, saa a sita; six 
o^ clock is saa a ^^enashara. 
Clod, pumba, pi. mapumba. 
Cloth (woollen), joho. 
{Cotton), ngno. 

{American sheeting), amerikano. 
(Blue calico), kaniki. * 

Cloth of gold, zari. 
A loin cloth of about two yards, 

shuka, dotL 
A lain cloth with a coloured border, 

kikoi, pi. vikoi. 
A turban doth, kitambi, pi. vi- 

tambi. 
A woman's cloth, kisuto, pi. vi- 

suto. 
A cloth twisted into a kind of rope 
used as a girdle, and to make 
the turbans worn by the Hindis, 
ukumbuu, pi, kumbuu. 
(Jlothes, nguo, miguo, mavazi, mavao. 
Cloud, wiugu, pi. mawingu. 
Bain cloud, ghubari,jpZ. maghu- 

bari. 
Broken scattered clouds, mavu- 
ndevunde. 
CZfM>e*,,garofuii, karofuu. 
Fruit-stalks, kikonyo,pZ. vikonyo. 



Club, ningu. 

Coals, makaa. 

Coast, pwani. 

Coat, joho (a long open coat of 

broadcloth worn by the Arabs). 
Cob of Indian corn, gunzi, pi. ma- 

gunzi. 
Cock, j()goo,^Z. majogoo, jogoi, jimbi. 
A young cockerel, not yet able to 

croio, pora. 
A cbck's comb, upanga. 
A cock'-s wattles, ndefu. 
Cockles, kombe za pwani (?). 
Cockroach, mende, makalalao (Ma- 

lagazy). 
Cocoa-nut, nazi. 

Cocoa-nut tree, mnazi, pi. minazi. 
Heart of the growing shoot, used as 

salad, (fee, kichilema, shaha. 
Cloth-like envelope of young leaves^ 

kilifu. 
Leaf, kuti, pi. makuti. 
Midrib of leaf, uchukuti, pl^ 

chukuti. 
Leaflets, ukuti, pi. kuti. 
Leaf plaited for making fences, 

makuti ya kumba. 
Half leaf plaited together, makuti 

ya pande. 
Leaflets moide up for thatching, 

makuti ya viungo. 
Part of a leaf plaited into a 
basket, pakacba,|72. mapakacha. 
Woody flower sheath, karara. 
Bunch of nuts, tawi la mnazj. 
Flower and first forming of nuts, 

upunga, pi. pimga. 

Small nuts, kidaka, pi. vidaka. 

Half -grown nut, kitale, pi. vitale. 

Full-grown nut before the nutty 

part is formed, dafu, pi. 

madafu. In this stage the shell 



34 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 



is perfectly fuU of the milk or 

juice (maji), and Hie nuts are 

often gathered for drinking. 
Half -ripe nut, when the nutty part 

is formed and the milk begins to 

wabble in the st^eU, koroma, pi. 

makoroma. 
"Ripe nut, Bazi. 
A nut which has grown full of a 

white spongy substance without 

any hoUow or milk, joya, pi, 

majoya. 
A nut which has dried in the shell 

so as to rattle in it without 

being spoilt, mbata. 
The fibrous case of the nut, cocoa- 
nut fibre, makumbi. 
Cocoa-nut fibre thoroughly cleaned, 

ustunba. 
A stick stuck in the ground to rip 

off the fibre, kifuo, pi, vifuo. 
^ The shell, kifuu, pi. vifuu, ki- 

fufu (M.). 
Instrument for scraping the fresh 

nut for cooking, mbiizi ya ku- 

kunia nazi. 
Oily juice squeezed out of the 

scraped cocoa-nut, tui. 
A small bag to squeeze out the tui 

171, kifumbu, pi, vifumbu. 
The scraped nut after the tui has 

been pressed out, chicha. 
Copra,the nut dried and ready to be 

pressed in the oil mill, nazi kavu. 
Cocoa-nut oil, mafuta ya nazi. 
Coffee, kahawa, (plant) mbuni. 
Coffee berries, buni. 
Coffee pot, mdila, pi, midila. 
Coin {a coin), sarafu. See Dollar, 

Rupee, &c. 
.Colander {in basket work), kunguto, 

pi, makuDguto. 



Cold, baridi.-—-'^ 
Baridi and upepo axe often used 
to mean toind or cold indiffer» 



Cold in the head, mafua. 
I have a cold in the head, eiwezi 
kamasi. 
Collar-bonb, mtalinga, j>Z. mitulinga. 
Colour, rangL .^_ 

Colours are generally described by 
reference to some known svh- 
stance : rangi ya kahawa, coffee 
, colour, brown ; rangi ya majani, 
leaf colour, green; rangi ya 
makuti, colour of the dry cocoor- 
nut leaves, grey. 
Comb, kitana, pi, vitana, shanuu, 
pi. mashanuu (a large wooden 
comb), 
A cock's comb, upeinga. 
Comfort, faraja. 
Comforter, mfariji, pi. wafariji. 
Coming (arrival), kifiko, pi, vifiko. 
(Mode of coming), majiiio. 
Coming down or out from, mshuko» 
pi. mishuko. 
Command, amri. 

Oommamicr, jemadari,*pL majema- 
dari, mkuu wa asikari. 
Second in command, akida. 
Commission, agizo, pi. maeigizo. 
Comoro Islands, Masiwa. 
Chreat Ckmuyro, Ngazidja. 
Comoro men, Wangazidja. 
Johanna, Anzwani. ^ 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 
Mohilla, Moalli. 
Companion, mwenzi, pi. wenzi. • — ' 
Company, j^maa. 
Compass (mai-iner's), dira. t — ^ 
Completeness, uzima, ukamilifu, 
utimilifu. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



35 



Compliments, salaamiL 
Composition (of a word), rakibyueo. 
Composition for a murder, money 

paid to save one's life, dia. 
Concealment, maficho. 
Conclusion, mwisho, hatima. 
— — ? Concubine, suria, pi. maauria. 

Bom of a concubine, suriyama. 
Condition (state), haXi, jawabu. 
(A thing necessarily implied)^ 
kannni. 
Confidence, matumaini. 
Confidential servant, insiri,jpZ.wa8iri. 
Conscience, thamiri, moyo. 
Conspiracy, mapatano, mwafaka. 
' — * Chngtipation, kafunga choo. 
Constitution, tabia. 
Contentment, urathL 
Continent, merima. 
Continuance, maisha. 
Contract, maagano, sharti. 
C^nversaiion, mazumgumzo, mao- 

. ngezi, usemi. 
Convert, mwongofn, pi, waongofu. 
«^^ Cook, mpishi, pi. wapishi. 
— r-Cooked grain, especially rice, wall. 
- — t Cooking pot {metal), sufuria, pi. 
masufuria, Msufuria, pi. visu- 
foria. 
(earthen), nyungu, chungu, pi. 
yyungo. mkungu, pi. mikungu. 
(a pot to cook meat in with fat, to 
braze meat in), kaango, pi. ,ma- 
kaajigo, ukaango, kikaango, pi. 
mkaaxigo. 
A pot lid, mkungnwa kufunikia. 
Three stones to set a pot on over 
the fire, mafiga, sing, figa, 
mafjra, sing, jifya. 
Cross pieces put in to keep Hie 
meal from touching the bottom of 
the pot and burning, nyalio. 



(doolie, hamali, pi. mahamali. .^ 
Copal, sandarusi. 
Copper, shaba, sufuria. s — 
Coral (red), marijani ya fethaluka 
(marijani alone does not always 
mean the true red coral). 
Fresh coral for buUding, cut from 
below high-water mark, matu- 
mbawi. 
Cord, ugwe, ukambaa (M.), pi- 

kambaa, kigwe, pL vigwc. 
Cork, kizibo, pi. vizibo. 
Corn, nafaka (formerly used as 
money). 
Muhindi, Indian com, 
Mtama, miUet (the most common 

grain). 
Mwere, very sm^Jl grains growing 
in an upright head something 
like ih^fiower of the bulrush. 
Wimbi. 
Eanumga. 
Corner, pembe. -^-^ 

Comer of a cloth, tamvua, uta- 
mvua. 
Corpse, mzoga, pi. mizoga, mayiti. 
Corpulence, unene. 
Corruption, uovu, kioza. 
Cosmetics. 
Dalia, a yellow composition, 
Yasi, a yellow powder from India. 
Liwa, a fragrant wood from 

Mada,gascar. 
ELipaji. 
Cotton, pamba. -'^ 
Couch, kitanda, pi. vitanda. 
Cough, kikohozi. 
Council, baraza, diwani. 
Councillor, diwani, pi. madiwani. 
Coumsel, shauri. — 
Comitenance, uso, pi. uyuso. 
Country, inchi, nti (M.). The names 

D 2 



y 



36 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 



of countries are made frmn the 
name of the people by means of 
the prefix U-. 
Uiiyika, the country of the Wa- 

nyika. 
Ugala, the country of the Wagsda. 
"^- UzuDgu, the comUry of the Wa- 
zungu, Europe. 
In the country f mashamba. 
A country dialect, lugha ya ki- 
mashamba. 
Courage, ushujaa, uf^bit, moyo. 
Cov/rse {of a ship), mdjira. 
Courtesy, jamala, adabu. 
Courtyard (enclosure), ua, pL nyua, 
uanda or uanja. 
Court ivithin a house, behewa,kati. 
Cousin, mjukuu, pL wajukuu. 
Covenant, maagano, sbarti. 
Cover (a lid), kifuniko. 
A dish cover made of straw and 
often profusely orna^pnentedy 
kawa. 
A hook cover, jalada. 
Covetousness, tamaa, bakhili. 
Cow, ng'onibe mke, pi. ng'ombe 

wake. 
Coward, mwoga, pi. waoga. 
Cowardice, uoga. 
Cowry, kauri, kete. 
Crab, kua. 

Crack, ufa, pi. nyufa. 
Cramp, kiharusi. 

A cramp, gango, pi. magango. 
Crayfish, kamba. 
Cream, siagi. 
Creeif, imani. 
Creeks hori. 

Crest, sbungi (used also for a way 
of dressing the hair in two large 
masses). 
Crew, baharia. 



Crime, taksiri. 

Crocodile, mamba, mbulu (?)..^^^*^ 

Crook, kota. 

Crookedness, kombo. 

A crooked thing, kikombo. 
Cross, msalaba, pi. mkalaba. 
Cross roads, njia panda. 
Crossing place, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 
Crow, kunguni. 

Crowbar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. ^^'^ 
Crowd, kundi, pi. makundi, ma- 

kutano, matangamano, umaati. 
Croum, taji. 

Crown of the head, upaa^ utosi. 
Crumbs, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 
Crutch for oars, kilete, pi. vilete V' 
Cry, kilio, pi. vilio, ukelele, ^. 

kelele, ukemi. 
(for help), yowe. 
(of joy), boihoi, kigelegele. 
Cucumber, tango, pi. matango. 
Cubit (from ttte tip of the middle 

finger to the point of the elbow), 

thiraa, mkono, pi, mikono. 
(from the point of the elbow to the 

knuckles when the fist is closed), 

tbiraa konde. 
Cultivation, kilimo. 
Cultivator, mkulima, pi, wakulima. 
Cunning, cherevu, werevu. 
Cup, kikombe, pi. vikombe. ^ 
Cupboard, sanduku. 
Cupper, mumishi, pi. waumishi. 
Cupping horn, chuku. 
Curiosity (rarity , kioja, pi. vioja, 

hedaya, tunu. 
Curlew, Bululu, kipila. 
Current, ndcondo wa maji. *~ 
* Curry, mcbuzi, mtuzi (M.). ^ 
A small seed used in making it^ 

bizari. 
An acid thing put into it, kiungo. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



37 



Curse, laana, 'pl. malaana. 
Curtain, pazia, ;pl. mapazia. 
Curve, kizingo. 
Cushion, mto, pl. mito. 
A large cushion, takia, pl. ma- 

takia. 
Custard apple, topetope, mstofele, 

konokono, matomoko. 
^Custom, desturi, matihehebu, ada. 
Custom-house, fprtha. 
Customs^ duties, ashur. 
Cut, a short cut, njia ya kukata. 
Ctxtting (breaking off), kato, pl. 

makato. 
Cuttle-fish, pweza. 
Arms of the. cutHe-fish, mnyiriri, 

pl. minyiriri. 
Cutwater of a dhow, hanamu. 
Cypher. See Cipher. 
Cymbals, matoazi, sing. toazL 

D. 

Dagger, jambia (the curved dagger 

generally ux)m). 
Damascus. Sham. 
«^ Dathce, mchezo, pl. michezo. 

S^ames of dances, gungu, msapata, 
hanzua, kitanga cha pepo, 
(j Boma. 

Dandy, malidadL 

Mtongozi, pl. watongozi, a man 

who dresses himself up to attract 

women. 

.•^-s Danger, hatari, khofu, kicho. 

«*— Darknessy kiza, giza (these are only 

two ways of pronouncing the 

same word, but the first is some- 

times treated as though the ki- 

toere a prefix and it belonged to 

the fourth doss, while the second 

is taken as belonging to the fifth ; 

• it i8 probably f however, most 






correct to refer them both to the 
fourth). 
Dark saying, fumbo, pl. mafumbo, 
maneiio ya fumba. ^ 

Darling, kipendi, pl. vipendi. " 
Dates, tende. 

Date-tree, mtende, pl. mitende. ' 
Daughter, binti, mtoto mke, mwana, ^ 
kijana. 
Daughter-in-law, mkwe, pl. wa- 
kwe. ^ 

Dawn, alfajiri, kucha. -^ 
Day (of twenty-four hours, reckoned 
from sunset to sunset), siku. 
{time of daylight), mcbana, mtana 

(M.). 
All day, mchana kutwa. 
Day labourer, kibania, pl. vibarua 
(so called from the ticket given 
to workpeople, which they give 
up again when paid). 
Daylight, mchana, mtana (M.). 
Dazzle, kiwi. 

Deal (wood), gunobdri.^^ 
Death, kufa (dyings mQ,\xi\, ufu, 

mafu. 
Debt, deni 
Deceit, hila, madanganya, udanga- 

nifu, hadaa, uwongo. 
Deck, sitaha, dari. 
Deep water, kilindi, pl. vilindi. 

Chreat depths. Undo, pl. malindo. 
Defect, upungnfu,^ ila, kombo, ki- 

punguo, pl. vipunguo. 
Deficiency, kipunguo, upungufu. 
Defilement, ujusi. 
Deliverance, wokovu. 
Demand in marriage, poso, pl. 

maposo. 
Dependant, mfuasi, pl. wafuasi. 
Depth, kwenda, chini, uketo. 
Derision, mzaha, thihaka. 



38 



SWAEIL2 HANDBOOK, 



Design^ knsudi, pi. makosudi, nia. 
Descent^ n^huko, pi, mishnko. 
Desert, wangwa, jangwa, pi, ma- 
jangwa. 
^ Desolaiion, ukiwa. 

Destruction, kuharibika, knpotea. 
Destructiveness, uharibivn, upotevu. 
Detachment (of soldiers, &g.), kikofii, 

pi, vikosi. 
Device, bila, shauri, piL mashanri 
-^ Devil, shetani, pit, maflhetani. 
Devotee, mtaowa, pi. wataowa. 
Dew, umande. 

Dhow (native craft), chombo, pi, 
vyombo ; when very iar^e, jombo, 
pi. majombo. 
Kinds of dhoios : — 
Dau, pL madau, a smaU open 
vessel sharp at the stem,with a square 
matting sail. They belong to the 
original inhabitants of Zanzibar, 
and are chiefly employed in bringing 
firewood to the town, 

Mtepe, pi, mitepe, a large open 
vessel ^mrp at the stem, with a large 
square matting sail; the prow is 
made to resemble a cameTs head, and 
is ornamented voith painting and 
little streamers. The planks are 
sewn together. There is always a 
white pennon at the masthead, Tliese 
vessels belong chiefly to Lamoo, and 
the country near it. 

Betela, the common dhow of Zan- 
zibar : it has a square stem, with a 
low poop and a head much like those 
of European boats. 

Bagala, pi. mab^igala, large dhows 
with very high square stems and tall 
poops, and long projecting prows. 
The Indian dhows are mostly of this 
class; they have very often a small 



second mast rising from the poop 
(mlingote wa kalmi). 

Ghangi, they resemble the Bi- 
galas except in not being so high in 
the poop or so long in the prow. 

Batili, a low vessel with a long 
projecting prow, a sharp stem, and 
high rudder-head. They have often 
a flying poop and a second mast. 
They belong to the piratical Arabs 
from the Persian Oulf. 

Bedeni, a cPiowunth^a sharp stem 
and high rudder-head, and a per- 
pendicular cutwater ; there is often a 
piece of board attached to it, making 
a kind of head ; when this is absent 
the vessel is an Awesia. Bedens 
may easily be distinguished among 
other dhows by their masts being 
upright ; in all other dhows the matts 
incline forward. They belong to the 
coast of Arabia, especially thai on the 
Indian Ocean. 

Dhow sail, dunmi. 

Prow, gubeti. 

Poop, shetri. 

Quarter gaUeries, meikanadili 

Joists of deck, darumeti. 

Chunamfor bottom, deheni. 

Place fox stowing things likely to 
be soon wanted, feuli. 
Dialect, maneno, Ingha. 

Dialects and languages are usually 
expressed by prefacing ki- to the 
name of the place or people, 

Einngnja {for Maneno ya ELiu- 
nguja), the dialect of Zanzibar 
(Unguja). 

Kimyita, the dialect of Mombas 
(Mvita). 

Kiamu, the dialed of Lamoo 
(Amn). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



39 



Eigunya, {he dialect of Siwi, dtc, 
Kiarabu, Arabic, 
Eigala, the GaMa language. 
Kimashamba, a country dialect. 
Eisheozi, the talk of some uncivil- 
ized nation. 
Kiungwana, a civilized language. 
Eizangu, the tanguages spoken by 
Europeans. 
Diamojid^ almasi. 
s ViarrhcRo, tumbo la kuenenda. 
Diet, maaknll. 
Differenccj tofauti, siyimoja. 
DifficuUyj shidda, ugumu, ma«haka. 
Dinner (v/Ud-day), chakula cba 

mcbana. 
Direction (bidding), fundisbo, pi. 
mafundisho, agizo, pi. maagizo. 
-iWrt, faka. 

' Disease^ maiathi, uweli, ugonjwa. 
Disfigurement, lemtta. 
Disgrace, aibu, ari, fetheba. 
Disgust, macbuMo. 
' Dish, oabani, kombe, pi. makombe, 
mkungu wa kiilia, buugu, 
kitunga, pi vitunga (the first 
is the usual voord for European 
dishes^. 
An eartlien dish to hake cakes on, 
waya. 
Disorder {confusion), fujo. See 

Disease. 
Display, wonyesbo. 
Disposal, amn. 

To put at his disposal, kmnwamria. 
Dispute, masbiudano, tofauti. 
Disquiet, fatbaa. 
Dissipation, aaberati, wasberati, 

usberatL 
Distortion (by disease), lemaa. 
Distress, sbidda, tbulli, utbia, msiba, 



District 'of a toum, mta, pi. mita. 
For the districts of Zanzibar see 
. Part IL, p. 330. 
Disturbance (riot), fitina. 

(trouble), kero. 
Ditch, haudaki, sbimo, pi. masbimo. 
Divine service, ibada ya Muuuku. 
Division (arithmetical), mkasama. 
Divorce, talaka. „.-*— 
Dock for ships, gadi. 
Doctrine, elimu, ilm, matbbab. 
Document, kbatL 

Dog, inbwa.^ , 

Very large, jibwa, pi. majlbwcL 
Bize, a wild hunting dog. 
Mbwa wa koko, the houseless dogs 
outside Zanzibar. 
Doll, mtoto wa bandia. 
Dollar, leale, rea. — . 

Spanish Pillar doUar, le&h ya 

mizinga. 
Black dollars, reale ya Sbam. 
American 20-dollar piece, reale ya 

tbababu. 
French silver 5-franc piece, reale 
ya ki&ansa. ^ 

For the parts of a doUar see in the 
section on Adjectives under 
Numerals— fractions, p. 93. 
Dome, zege. 
Ihminion, mamlaka, bnkomu. 

Donkey, punda. ^^ 

Donkey from the mainland, kio- 
ngwe, pi. viongwe. 
Door,m\&ago,pl. milango (vulgarly ^^ 
mwango, pi. miango). 
Leaf of door, ubau, pi. mbau* 
Centre piece, mfaa. 
Door-keeper, mgoja miango. 
Door chain, riza. 

Door frame, top and bottom pieces, 
kizipgiti, pi. viziDgid. 



40 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Side pieces, mwimo, miimo. 

Outer beading, upapi. 
Dotage, mapiswa. 
Doubt, shaka, pi, mashaka, tashwi- 

shi, waswas. . 
Dove, hua. See Pigeon & Birds. 
Dowry, paid by the husband to the 

wif^s friends, mahari. 
Dragon-fly, keriiig'ende. 
DragorCs blood, mazlwa (or macho), 

ya watu wawili. 
Dream, ndoto. 
Dregs, chembe. 
Dress, nguo, mavazi, mav£io, uvao. 

Slay^ and very poor men wear 
generally an nguo only, that is, d 
loin doth of white or blue calico. 
Women wear a kisuto, or long doth 
of blue, or printed, or coloured calico 
wrapped tightly round the body 
immediately under the arms, and on 
the hecid an ukaya, a piece of blue 
calico unth two long ends ; it has a 
string passing under the chin, to which 
a silver ornament, jebu, is attached. 

Well-dressed men wear a loin cloth 
with a coloured border, kikoi, a long 
shirt-like garment in white calico, 
' — kanzu, a shawl, amazu, twisted 
\w round the waist, a waistcoat, kisibao, 
and a l<mg hose coat, joho. On their 
h^aih tJit^ wear a red or white shuU- 

— cap, kofia, and twisted rouaid it a 

— Itkrhau., kilemba. Their feet are 
j/m, clipped mto sandals, viatu. 

^ Womeifi wear trousers, soruali, a 
kaT3zu f^^ coloured materials and a 
kofia (tap) adorned with gold and 
iiptiugleej or more commonly a silk 
handkf.rdmf, dusamali, folded and 
fami^ii^d <m the head so as to hide the 
hair* They also wear sometimes a\ 



kisibao (embroidered waistcoat), and 
nearly always a mask, barakoa. 
When they go out tliey throw over all 
a large square of bla/ik silk, lebwanL 
On their feet tJiey carry wooden chgs 
held by a button (msuniake) grasped 
between the toes. 
Dressing of calico, dondo. 
Drill, keke. The iron is called 

kekee ; ihe wood it is fixed in^ 

msukano ; tl^e handle in which it 

turns, jivu ; and the bow, uta. 
Drink, kinwa (or kinywa), pi. vinwa, 

kinwaji, pi. vinwaji. 
Drinker, mny wa, pi. wany wa. 
Dripping (fat cooked otU of meat), 

uto wa nyama. 
Drop, tone, pi. matone, kitone, pL 

vitone. 
Droppings (dung), mavi. — ^ 
Dropsy, istiska. 

Drowsiness, leppe, leppe za uzingizi. 
Drum, ngoma. '- - "^ 
Chapuo, a small drum. 
Kumbwaya, a drum upon feet, 
Msondo, d very tall drum, beaten 

on special occasions. 
The skin of a drum, or ftnything 

stretched like it very tightly, ki- 

wambo, pi. viwambo. 
Drunkard, mlevi, pi. walevi. 
Duek, bata, pL mabata. ^* — \ 
Duryan, finessi la kizungu. 
Dust, vumbi, pi. (much dust) ma- 

vumbi. ' 

Dust and sand on a road, tifutifa. 
Duties. See Customs. 
Duties of one*8 position, kiwango, 

pi. viwango. 
Dwarf, kibeti, pi. vibetL "^^ 
Dwelling, makao, makazi, makani,-^ 
Dye, rangi. [masikaui 



1 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



41 



Mkasiri, a tree whoie hark is used 
to dye fishing-nets and lines 
hlack, 

XJngamo, a yellow dye used to dye 
maiting, 
. Dysentery, tmubo la kuhara damn. 



Eagerness (excessive haste), pupa. 
Eagle (?) koho, firkomba, tai, pu- 
ngu, kipanga (all these words 
seem to denote some large hird of 
prey). 
Ear, sikio, pi, masikio. 

Hole pierced in the lower lobe of 

(he ear, ndewe. 
Ear ornaments, a large round 
ornament in the lower lobe, 
jassi, pi, majassi. 
Ornaments in the upper part of 
the ear, if dangling, kipuli, pi, 
vipuli; if shaped like a stud, 
kipioi, pt vipini. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ear of corn, suke, pi, mafiuke. 
See Bunch, Cob. 
Earnest money, arabuni, stakabathi. 
. Earth, inchi, udongo. 

The earth, inchi, ulimwengu, 
EaseyjnhsL, [dunia. 

After pain, faraja. 
East wind, matlaa. 
Eaves, mchilizi, pi. michilizi. 
Eavesdropper, dukizi (or duzi), pi, 

madnkizi. 
Eftony, mpingo. 
Eeho, mwangwi 
Edge (of a precipice), ukingo. 
(Of a piece of doth), pindo, pi. 
mapiodo. 
Edging woven into a piece of dofh, 
taraza. 



Effort, juhudi, bidii. 

Effusion ''of blood), vilio (la damn), 

pi. mavilio. 
^99^ yayi, pi' mayayi. "^ 
White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Tolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
Eggshell, ganda la yayi. 
Empty eggshell, kaka. 
Egypt, Misri, Masri, Massara. 
Elbow, kisigino, pi. visigino, kivi,,* 

pL viyi. 
Elder, mzed, pi, wazee, sheki, pi, 

masbeki. 
Elegance, jamala. 
Elephant, tembo, ndovu. 
Elephantiasis (leprosy), jethamu. - 

(Barbadoes leg), teende. 
Embarrassment, matata, uthia, ma- 

sbaka. 
Embroidery, almaria. 
(stitching), darizi. 
(piping), kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Embroilment, matata. 
Emetic, taplsho, j}2. matapisho, dawa 

la kutapika. 
Employment, kazi, utumwa. 
Emulation, bidii. 
Encampment {of a caravan), kituo, 

pi. vituo. 
Enclosure, uanja, ua, pi, nyua. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 
cocoa-nut leaves, ua wa ma- 
kuti. 
Enclosure made by a fence of 

mtama stalks, ua wa mabua. 
Enclosure with a stone fence, 
Mtalu, pi. vitalu. 
End, mwisho, pi. miisho (finishing), 
hatima, kikomo, pi. vikomo 
(leaving off), 
of a journey, kifiko, pi. vifiko. -^ 
of a piece of cloth, mialamu. 



42 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



End or corners of a turban doth^ «fee, , 
tam^ua, kishungi, pi. vishungi. 
Enemy^ adui, pi. adui or maadui. 
Engagement, shughuli, utumwa. 
Enigma, Idtendawili, ph vitenda- 

wilL 
Enmity, wadui, adawa, khusuma. 
*^ Entrails, matumbo. 

Entrance, kuingia, pakningilia, 

mlango. 
Envy, hasidi, kijicho, Mjito (M.). 
Epilepsy, kifafa. 
Equal {in age), hirimu, marika. 
Equivalent, badala. 
^— ^ Error, kosa, makosa. 

Eructation, kiuDgulia,^^. yiungulia. 
Escape, wokovu, kuokoka. 

(other course), buddi. 
Esteem, mapendo, maafikano. 
Estim>ate, maafikano. 
Eternity, milele. 
^— Eunuch, tawashi, maksai. 

Euphorbia, mtupa, pi. mitupa. 
^-^Europe, Ulaya, Wilaya^ Uzunoni- 

European (or any one wearing a 
^">- European dress), Mzungu, pi. 
WazuDgu. 
Eve, Hawa. 
Evening, jioni. 
Event {startling), shani. 
E'oih uovu. 

Exaltation, ntnkufa, athama. 
Example, mfano, pi. mifano. 
EoictemenU mavi. 
Expense, gharama. 
Extinguisher, mzima (a person), pi. 
wazima, kizima (a thing), pi. 
vizima. 
" Eye, jicho, pi. maoho, jito (M.), pi. 
mato. 
Loss of an eye, chongo. 
Eyebrow, nyushi, nshi (A.). 



Eyelash or Eyelid, kope. 
A stye in the eye, ohochea. 

F. 

Fable, ngano. 
Face, VL80, pi nyuso. ^^ 
Fssces, mavL 
Faggot, iita^ pi. matita. 
Faith, imani 
FdU, maanguko. -^^ 
Falsehood, uwongo. 
Familiarity, mazoezo. 
Family, jamaa, ndugu. • ^ 
Famine, njaa, ndaa (M.).-^ 
Fan, lipepeo pi. pepeo, pepeo, pi. 
mapepeo, kipepeo, pi. vipepeo. 
Fare, naiili. 
Fast, fuDga. 

Fasting month, BamathanL 
Fat, shahamu, mafuta. ^— ^ 
A piece of fat, kipande kilicho- 

nona. 
Fat cooked out of meat, uto wa 
nyama. / 
Fale, ajalL ^ , 
Father, baba. / 

In speaking of one^s own father it 

is polite to call him bwana. 
Stepfather, baba wakambo. 
Father-in-law, mkwe. pi. wakwe. 
Fathom, pima, pi. mapima. 
Fatigue, utuf u, ulegevu. 
Failing, kinono, pi. vinono. 
Fault, hatiya, koaa, pi. makosa. 
Favowr, upendeleo. 
A favour, fathili. 
Favourite, kipendi, pi. vipendi, 

mpenzi, pi. wapenzi. 
Fear, khofu, uoga, kitisho, pi. 
vitisho, kioho, pi. vicho. 



Feast, karamu. ^^ 
Fea^t day, siku kuu. 



>'A 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



43 



Fectther^ rinyoa, pi. nyoa, nyoa (or 
nyoya), pi. manyoya. 
A wing feather^ ubawa,pZ. mbawa. 
Feeder^ mlishi, pi. walishi. 
FeUow-servanty mjoli, pi. wajoli. 
^^ Fence^ na, pi. nyua. 

Stone fence, kitalu, pi. yitalu. 
Femtgreek, watu. 
Ferry , kivuko, p\. vivuko. 
FetterSy pingo. 
Fever, homa. 
Swelling of the glands of the groin 

followed hy fever, mtoki. 
Dengue fever, kidinga popo. 
-^ Field, koonde, pi. makoonde, mgu- 
nda (Yao). 
Field labourer, mkulima, pi. waku- 
lima. 
— Fierceness, ukali 
^ Fig, tini. 

Fig-tree, mtini, pi. mitini. 
Fight, mapigano. 

Figure of speech, mfano wa maneno. 
Filagree work, temd. 
. File, tupa. 
Fillet, utepe, pi. tepe. 
^ FiUh, uchavu, janaba. 
Fin, pezi, pi. mapezi. 
Fine for a murder, dia. 
— ^Fineness, uzuri. 

'^^ Finger, kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cha 
mkono, chanda (M.), pi. yyanda. 
■^ Fire, moto, pL mioto. 

Pieces of wood to get fire by twist- 
ing, upekecho. 
"^ Firewood, kani, one piece, tikimi. 
A half -burnt piece of firewood, 

kinga, pt yinga. 

The act of pushing the wood further 

into the fire, or an instrument for 

doing «o^chocheo,kitoteo (M.). 

Fireplacej jiko, pi. meko, meko, 



pi. mieko, Itence kitchen, jikoni, 
mekoni. 
Three stones to set a pot over the 
fire tipon, jifya, pi. mafya, figa, 
pL maflga. Jifya is Uie word 
most used in the town, figa ihat 
used in the country. 
Firefly, kimurimuri, pi. yimurimuri, 

kimetimeti, pH. vimetimetL 
Firmament, anga (?). 
Firmness, nsimeme, n^Jtobiti, (in 

building) mtomo. 
Fish, samaki. — — 
Dagaa, very small, small fry. 
Njombo, barred with black and 

yellow. 
Taa, a very large flat fish. 
Pono, a fish said to be nearly 

always asleep. 
Other kinds, Chafl, Changn, 
Ghewa, Kungu, Mchumbuluru, 
Mkizo, Mwewe, Mzia, Nguru, 
Nguvfl, Panzi, Pungu. The 
varieties of fish are exceedingly 
numerow. 
Ghinnsi, a kind of fish or evil 
spirit never seen, but which is 
supposed to seize men a^d held 
them under %oater until they are 
drowned. 
Fish-trap, dema, lema, ema. 
Fish poison from a species of 
Euphorbia, utupa. 
Fisherman, mvuvi, pi. wavnvi. 
Fist, konde, pi. makonde. — 
Fit», Mfafa. 
Flag, bandera. - — ' 
Flat (of a sword, Ac), bapa. 
Flatterer, msifu, pi. waslfu, msifu- 
mno. 
Self-flatterer, mwajisifuni. 
Flattery, kasifu. 



44 



SW4EILI HANDBOOK. 



\ 



' Flavour ^ luththfl, tamu. 
Flaxy katani, kitani. 
Flea, kiroboto, pi, viroboto. 
^ Fleshy nyama. 
Fleshiness, mnofu. 
Flint gun, bunduki ya gumegume. 
Flood, gharika. 
Floor, chini. 

Chunammed floor, sakafu. 
Upper floor or roof, dari. 
Flower, ua, pi. maua. 
Flue, Tumbi, pi. (much) mavumbi. 

A flue, dohaau. 
Flute, filimbi, pi. mafilimbi. 
Fly, inzi, pi. mainzi. 
Foam, povu. 

Fog, umande, kungu, shemali. 
Fold {of cloth), upindo. 

Cattle-fold, zizi, pL mazizi. 
Foliage, majani. 

Follower, mfuasi, pi, wafuaHi, cho- 
kora, pi, maohokora (a hanger- 
on), 
^^" Folly, upumbafa. 

Fondness, mahaba. 
— ~ Food, chakula, makuli (Ar.), kande 
(Mer.). 
Food saved from an evening meal 
to he eaten in the morning, wali 
wa mwikuu, bariyo (A.). 
Bokoboko, a dish made of wheat 

and m>eat. 
Bumbwi, rice flour pounded up 

with cocoa-nut. 
Pilao, an Indian pillaw. 
Birinzi. 
^"^Fool, mpumbafu, pi, wapumbafu. 

" Foot, mguu, pi. miguti, guu, pi. 

maguu, mjiguu, pi. mijiguu 
{large), kijiguu, pi, vijiguu 
(small). 
' Footprint, uayo, ph nyayo. 



Footing — to m^ike him pay his foot- 
ing, kuiudhika liakali. 

Forbidden thing, haramu, marufuku. 

Force, nguvu.r"*^ 

Ford, kivuko, pi. vivuko. 

Forehead, paji la uso. 
Brow, kikomo cha use). 

Foreigner, mgeni, pi. wageni, mja 
na maji, pi. waja na maji (from 
over seas). 

Forelock, panja. 

Foreskin, govi mbo. 

Forest, mwijtu, msitu.-^^^* 

Fork, kiuma, pi, viuma.^ 

Forking of a road, tree, &c., panda. 

Form (outward shape), umbo, pi, 
maumbo. 

Fort, gereza, ngome, husuni. 

Fortune, bahati, nasibu.'^ 

Fortune-teUer(by m^ansof diagrams\ 
mpiga raanli, pi. waptga ramli. 

Foster brother or sifter, ndugu 
kunyonya. 

Foundation^ msingi or. msinji, pL 
misiugi. 

Fowls, k'uku..— • 

Fox, mbwehav.^ 

Fraud, hadaa, madanganya. 

Freedom (from, slavery) huru, (per-r 
mission) ruksa, ruhusu. 

Freight, nauli. m 

Friday, Jumaa. /* 

Friend, rafiki,pZ. ranki or marafiki, 
sahibu, pi. as*habu, bhoga 
(amongst women, and in Zanzi- 
bar only. See Catamite). 

Fright, khofu, woga. 
(a start), kituko. 

Fringe, matamvua. 

Frog, chula, pi, vyula. — 

Fruit, tunda, pi, matunda, zao, pi, 
mazao. v^_ 



' SUBSTANTIVES. 



45 



Bungu, ph mabungu, ahout the 
size of a medlar, vsith a thick 
russet skin. 
Mazu, a hind of banana. 
Zambarau, like a large damson. 
Cliokochoko, a red prickly skin, 
a large kernel, and white pulp. 
Kunazi, something like a sloe. 
Kitoria, pi. vitoria. — Kooia, pi. 
makoma. — Fuu, pi. mafuu. 
— Mtofna. 
Fruit which drops prematurely, 

poozti, pi. mapooza. 
Fruit-stalk, (of cloves) kikonyo, 
pi. vikonyo, (of bananas) mku- 
ngu, pi mikuD^. 
Frying-pan, . (metal) tawa, pi. 
matawa, (earthsn) kaango, pi. 
makaango. 
Fugitive, mkimbizi, pi. wakimbizi. 
Fume, azma, fukizo. 
Fun, mchezo, mzaha. 
Funeral, kuzikani. 
Furrmce (for melting metal), kalibu. 
Fumitur^^s^Avabo la nyumba, 

vyombo. 

G. 
Gain, fayida. 
Gait, mwendo. 
Gdlago, komba. 
Galhanumy ubani. 
Gall, safura. 

Galla, Mgala, pi. "Wagala. 
Game, (produce of hunting) mawi* 
ndo, (amusement) mchezo, ma- 
cbezo. 
"Bduo, played on a board with thirty- 
two holes in it. 
Maliyandimu, a gams in which 
one holds down his head, some 
other knocks it, and he guesses 
who struck him. 



Tiabu, played by throwing up 
sticks, &c., and watching their 
fall 
Dama, played on a board like 

chess. 
iDasa, a game of tou6h. 
Tinge, a game consisting in follow- 
ing the movements of a leader. 

Garden, bustani, shamba. - — ' 

Gate, mlango, pi milango. ^ 
Gate of Paradise, kilango cha 
jaha. 

Gazelle, paa. 

General, jemadari, pi majemadari. 

Generation, kizazi, pi vizazi. 

Generosity, ukarimu. 

Genius, Jini, pi Majini. 

Gentleman,mugwana., pZ. wangwana. 

Gentleness, npole. 

Georgian woman, Jorjiya. 

Gettings, pato, pi mapato. 

Ghee, samli. 

Ghost, kivuli, pi vivuli. 

Ghoul, zimwi, pi mazimwi. 

Giddiness, raasua, mbasua, kizu- 
nguzungu. 

Gift, zawadi (a keepsake), tunu (a 
choice thing), bashishi (largess), 
ada (customary gift), kilemba 
(gift on the completion of a work 
or to the bride's father), wapo. 

Ginger, tangawizi. 

Giraffe, twiga. ' 

Girder, mhimili, pi mihimili. 

Girdle, mshipi, pi mishipi, masombo 
(of cloth), maazamu (a shawl), 
kibobwe, pi vibobwe (a piece 
of cloth tied round the body 
during hard work). 

Girl, kijana, pi vijana. 
Slave girl, kijakazi, pi vijakazi. 

Girth, kivimba. 



46 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Gizzardy firigisi. 
Oladness, fiiralia. 
Glance, nathiri. 
Glare, aaga. 
GlasSy kioo. 
Looking-glasSj kioo, pi, vioo. 
BrinMng-gUisSy bilauri. 
Gutter, klmeta. 
Glory, eifa, fakhari, utukufu. 
Glue (or gwn), embwe. 
Glutton, mlafi, pL welafi. 
' Goai, mbuzi. 

A strong he-goat, bebera (Ar.). 
Go^tween, kijumbe, pi. vijumbe. 
GOD, MUUNGU,i)Z. miungu. 
Goitre, tezi. 
- Gold^ thahabu. 
Goldsmith, mfua tbahabu, pi. wafua 

thahabu. 
Good luck, ghauima, jaha. 
Goodness, wema. 

Goods, mali (possessions), vyombo 
(utensils), bithaa [merchandise). 
Goose, bata la Buklni, pi. mabata 
ya Bukini. 
* Gonorrhoea, kisunono. 
Gourd. See Pumpkin. 
Gout, jongo. 

Governor, wall, liwali, pi. maliwali. 
^ Government, serkali, dauIatL 
An official, mtu wa serkali. 
Chrain. See Corn. 
Cleaned grain, mchele. 
Cooked grain, walL 
Chains of com, punje, ohembe. 
Grandchild, mjukau, pi. wajukuu. 
Great-grandchild, kijukuu, pi. 
vijnkuu, kitukuu, pi. vitukuu, 
kilembwe, pi. vilembwe. 
(h'eat-great'grandchild,\sm\Ti^^xak 
pi. viningina. 
•^ Grandfather, babii. 



Grandmother, bibi. ^^ 

(jhreat-grandmother, mzaa bibi 
Grammar, sdruf. x 

Grapes, zabibu. 
(jhraiitude, shukraui. y 
(Srass, nyasi, majani^nyika. 

grass cut for fodder, ukoka. 
Grasshopper, panzi, jtZ. mapanan. 
Grave, kaburi, pi. makaburi. 
Jn the grave^ after death, ahera, 
kuzimu. 
Grreainess, ukubwa, nkuu, utukufu. 
(h'eediness, choyo, roho, tamaa. 
(jhey hairs, mvi. 
Chridiron, uma wa kuokea nyama, 

pi. nyuma za kuokea nyama. 
Ghrief, sikitiko, kasarani, msiba^ 
huzuni, hamu, simanzi. 
(for a loss), majonzL 
Grime (on a pot), masizL 
Chrit (smaU stones), chaogarawi. 
€rroom, mchunga, pi. wachunga» 

mtunga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Ground, chiui, inchL 
Ground nuts, mjugn nyasa, (a hard 

round kind) mjugu mawe. 
Grudging person, hiana. 
Chrud, uji. 

(xuard, mlinzi, pL walinzi. 
Ghmva, mpera, pi. mapera. 

Cruavortree, mpera, pi. mip^. 
Guest, mgeni, pi. wageLi^^ 
Guide, rubani, kiongozi,2?Z. viongozi, 

mkuu genzi. 
Guitar, kinanda, pi. vinanda. 
(xuineafowl, kanga. — - 

(a crested kind), kororo. 
(xum (birdlime, (fee), ulimbo. 
(xum {of the teeth), ufizi, pi. fizL 
Gum Arabic, haba, sumugh. 
Gum Amini or Copal, sandarusi. 
Gun, bunduki. , - — 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



47 



Flint ^un.bunduki ya gumegmne. 

Gun-harrel^ kasiba. 

Nipple, kifa, pi, vifa. 

Qun-cdp, fafakL 

Gun-lock, mtambo, pi. mitambo. 

(cannon), nmnga, pi. mizinga. 

Gun-carriage, gorudumo la 
mzinga. 
Gunpowder, barntL "^^ 
Gut, tumbo, pi. matumbo. 

H. 

H. The guttural Arabic h, ha ngoe. 
The softer Arabic h, he mdawari. 
Habits, mazOezo, mathehebu. 
SaeTnorrhoids, bawasir. 
Haft, mpini, pi. mipini, Mpini, pi. 
vipini. 
^^ Hair, nyele (or nwele), sing, unyele. 
(of the heard), ndevu, sing, udeyn. 
(of the body, especially of the 

pvbes), mavuzi, sing. vuzi. 
(of {he eyebrow), nyushi, sing. 

tmyushi. 
(of the eyelash^ kope, sing, nkope. 
(of the hand and arm), malaika, 

sing, laika. 
(of an animal), singa. 
Straight hair, nyele za singa. 
WooUy hair, nyele za kipilipili. 
^^^Half, nusa. 

A half orange, cocoa-nut, <fe<5.,kizio, 
pi. vizio. 
Halyards, henza. 

Bopes passing through the pulley 
of the halyards, jararL 
- — Hammer, nyundo. 
^ Hand (or arm and hand), zokono, 
pi. mikono. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkonOfpl vitangavya mikono. 
FrorU of the hand, kofi, ph makofi. 



Inside of the fingers, kikofi, pi. ' 
vikofi. 
Handful {that mil lie on the hand), 
uknfi, pi. kufi. 
(that which wiU lie on the two 

hands), chopa, pi. maehopa. 
(thai can be grasped in the hand), 
konzi, pi. makonzi. 
Handkerchief, leso. ^,^-— 
Pocket handkerchief, leso ya ku- 
futia kamasi. 
Handle (like a knife-handle), mpini, 
pi. mipini, kipini, pi. vipini. 
(projecting like that of a sauce- 
pan), kono, mkono, pi. mikono. 
(bowed like that of a bucket), 
utambo, pi. tambo. 
Handwriting, khati, mwandiko. 
Hanger-on, ohokora, pi. macbokor». 
Happiness, furaha, forahani, raha. 
Harbour, bandari, bundari. 
Ha^d^ess, ugamn. - — - 
Hare. See Babbit 
Harrh,, mathara. 
Harness, matandiko. 
Harp, kinubi, pi. vinubi. 
Harpoon, chusa, pL vyusa. 
Harvest, mavuno. 
Haste, haraka, hima. 
HaU chapeo. 

Hatchet, kifihoka, pi. vishoka, kitoka 
(M.), pi. vitoka, upamba, pi. 
pamba. 
Hatred, machukio, buothu. 
Hawk, mwewe. 
Hawker, dalalL 

Head, kitwa -^(pr kichwa), pi. 
vitwa. 
A little head, kijitwa, pi. vijitwa. 
Head of a ship, omo. 
Head winds, pepo za omo. ^ 
Head doth worn by women, ukaya 



48 



6WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



(of blue calico), dusamali (of 
silk), 
Hectdehip, ujnmbe. 
Healing things, mapoza. 
Health, uzima, afia, hali (state). 
Heap, fungu, pi. mafungu, 
chungu. 
of stones, boma, pi. maboma. 
of wood and sticks, biwi, pi. 

mabiwi, kichaka, pi. vichaka. 
of earth, kisugulu, pi visugulu. 
(a raised bed), tuta, pi. matuta. 
Heart, moyo, pi. mioyo, or nyoyo, 

mtima, pL mitima. 
Heat, moto, hari (sweat), harara 

(prickly heat). 
Heaven, mbingu, sing, nwingu, 

samawati (Ar.). 
Heaviness {weight), uzito. 

(sorrow), hamu. 
Hedge, ua, pi. nyna. 
Hedge made in the sea for taking 
fish, uzio, pi. njruzio. 
Heel, kifundo (or kisigino) cha 

mguu. 
Heifer, mtamba, pi. mitamba. 
Heir, mri^M, pi. wari^M. 
Help, msaada. 
Hem, upindo. 

Hemp. See Cannabis Indica. 
^Hempen rope, kamba ulayiti. 
' Hen, k'uku. 

Laying hen, koo, pi. makoo. 
Hen, full grown^ but tliat has not 
yet laid, t'embe. 
Henna, hina. 

Herd, kundi, pi. makundi. 
Herdsman, nichunga, pi. wachunga, 

mtunga (M.), pi. watunga. 
Hero, shujaa, pi. mashujaa, fahali, 

pi. mafahali. 
Heroism, ushujaa. 



Hesitation, msangao. 
(in speaking), kubabaika. 

Hickupy kwikwe. 

Hidden thing, fumbo, pi, mafumbo. 

Hide, ngozi.*^- 

Hill, kilima, pi. vilima. «*-^ 
A rocky hiU, jabali, pi, maja- 
bali. 

Hilt, kipini, pi vipini. 

Hindrance, kizuizo, kiznio, kizuizi. 
It is said that Dr. Krapf, being 
on one occasion delayed from 
day to day, in obedience to 
superior orders, said to those 
who delayed himt — Kesho na 
keslio ni madanganya, ao ni 
niakatazanya. " To-morrow 
and to-morrow is deceiving or 
forbidding ,-** to which they re- 
plied: — Si madanganya wala 
si makatazanya, ni niazuiza- 
nya. " It is not deceiving, and 
it is not forbidding, it is delay- 
ing:* 

Hinge, patta, bawaba. 

Hip, nyonga (?), tokono (h.)/^ 

Hippopotamus, kiboko, pi viboko,-- 
tomondo. ' , 

Hire, taja, ijara, ujira. 

History, hadithi. 

Hoarseness, kupwewa na sauti. ^ 

Hoe, jembe {or gembe), pi, ma- 
jembe. 

Hoeing-up time, mapalilo. 

Hold (of a ship), ngama. 

Hole, tundu, pi matundu. ^" 

(through anything), kipenyo, pi. 

vipenyo. 
{dibbled for seeds or plants), ko- 

rongo, pi, makorongo. 
Hole to give light and air, mwa- 
ngaza, pi miangaza. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



49 



EoU in the lower lobe of the ear, 
ndewe. 
Holiness, utakatifu, matakatifu. 
Hollow (of a tree), mvnngu. 
Hollovmess, uviimngu. 
Home, kwaDgxi, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kw^nn, kwao, according 
to the person whose home it is. 
1 have some at horns, iko kwangu. 
Honey, asali ya nyuki. 
Honour, heshima, ukarimn, utu- 

kufa. 
Hoof, ukwato, pi. kwato, kwata. 
Hook (fish-hook), doana. 

(used to steady work with), 
knlabu. 
Hope, matmnaini. 
Hordeolum, cliokea. 
—Horn, pembe, pi. pembe or ma- 
pembe. 
An antelope's horn used as a 
trumpet, baragumu. See 
Musical Instruments. 
. Horse, farasi, fras. 
Host (army or multitude), jeshi, pi. 
msjesbi. 
Host (entertainer), mwenyeji, 'pl. 
wenyeji. 
Hostility, wadui, adawa. 
' j5bttr,8aa.« 
. House, nyumba. 

(large), jumba, pi. majumba. 
{small), kijumba, pi. vijumba. 
Household of slaves, kijoli. 
Hum, mavumi 
Humility, unenyekeo. 
Hwnp (of an ox), nundu. 
{of a humpback), kigongo. 
^Hunger, njaa, ndaa (M.). 
' Hundred, mia. 
- Tvjo hundred, miteen. 
Hunter, mwinda, pi. wavrinda. 



Hurry, haraka. 

Husband, mume, pi. wamne. 

Husk, ganda, pi. maganda. 

Husk and bran of rice, kumvi. 

Husk of the cocoa-nut, makumbi. 
Hut, kibanda, pi vibanda. 
Hyssna, fisi, pisi. 

Spotted hyxna, kingubwa. 
Hydrocele, mshipa, pumbo, kito- 

nga(?) 
Hypocrite, mnafiki, pi. wanafiki. 

I. 
Ibo, Wibo. 
Idiot, hayawani. 
Idleness, uvivu. 
Idolater, kafiri. pi, makafiri. 
Ignorance, ujinga. 
InMge, sanamu. 
Imperial. See Beard. 
Imprecation, apizo, pi. maapizo. 
Imprisonmnent, kifungo. 
Incense, buhuri, ubani, uvumba 

uudi. See Censer. 
Income, pato. 
Independence, upweke. 
Indian (healhen), Banyani, pi. Ma 

banyani. 
Indian (Mdhommedan), Muhindi • 

pi. Wahindi. 
Indian rubber, mpira.^ . 
Indian corn, muhindi. See Maize 
Infection, kuambuMza. 
Infidel, kafiri, pi. makafiri. 
Infirmity, utha^u. 
Information, babari. 
Ingenuity, uyuzi, imiaheli. 
Inheritance, vaithi. 
Inheritor, mri^^i, pi. warithi. 
Ink, w^o. — ^ 
Inkstand, kidau cba wino. 
Inlaid work, njumu. 



50 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Innovation^ mznzi, pi. miznzi. 
Innovator, mzushi, pi. wazushi. 
Insect, mdudu, pi. wadudu. 

Paange, gadfly. 

Manyjga, hornet. 

Dudu vule, a hoHng hornet. 

Bunzi, pi. mabunzi, a stinging 

fly- 

Vunja jungo, a mantis. 
Boroshoa, a long-shaped black 
insect found in dust-heaps. 
Insolence (self-sufficiency), kinaya. 
Instruction, mafundisho. 
Instruments (nautical), vipande vya 

kupimia. 
Insult, tukano, pi. matukano. 
^Intellect, akili {generally treated as 
a plural noUn of Class III.). 
Intention, nia, kasidi. 
Interpretation^ tafsiri. 
Interpreter, mkalimani, pi. wakali- 

mani, posoro. 
Intestines, matumbo. 

Small intestines, chango. 
Interruption, kizuizo, pi. vizuizo. 
Intoxicating thing, kileo, pi. vileo. 
Intoxication, kileo, kulewa. 
Intruder, kizusbi, pi. vizusbi, fisadi 
(one who enters a hou^ vjithout 
lawful purpose). 
Invalid, mgonjwa, |)Z. wagonjwa. 
--Iron, chuma. 

A piece of iron, chuma, pi. vyuma. 
Iron bar, mtaimbo, pi. mitaimbo. 
- Island, kitiiwa, pi. visiwa. 
-^Itch, upele, pele. 
Itching, mnyeo. 
-^ Ivory, pembe. 

a large tusk, buii. 

J. 

Jackal, mbwa wa mwitu. 



Jackfruit, fineei, pi, mafinesi. 

Jackfruit tree, mflnesi, pi. mi- 
finesi. 
Jar (for carrying water), mtuDgi, 
pi. mitnngi. 

Jar (large), kasiki. 
Jasmine, jsksmini. 
Jaw, taya. 
Jealousy, uwivu. 

Jealous anger, gheiri. 

To weep for jealousy, kulia Dgoa. 
Jewel, johari 
Jin, jini, pi. majini. 
Johanna, Anzwani. 
Joint, kiungo, pi. viuugo. 

(in a cane), fundo, pi. mafundo. 

(piece between ttoo joints in a 
cane), pingili. 
Joist, boriti. 
Joke, ubisbi. 
Journey, safari, mweDdo. 

Two days* journey, mwendo wa 
siku mbili. 
Joy, furaha. 

Judge,' kathi, pi. makatbi, mwa- 
muzi, pi. waamuzi, mwamua, 
pi. waamua. 
Judgment, hukumii, maamuzi. 
Jug, kopo, pi. makopo. 
Juice, maji. 
Justice, baki. 

K. 

Keel, mkuku, utako (Mer.). 
Kernel, kisa, pi. visa. 
Kettle, kanderinya. 
Key, ufunguo, pi. funguo. . — 
Kick, teke, pi. mateke. 
Kidney, nso, figo (M.). 
Kind, naiTiDa, ginsi, aina. 

Kind, sort or style is expressed by 
ki. prefixed to the place, thing, 

I c -^ 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



61 



or people, Kihindi, 'the Indian 
sort, KizuDgu, (he European 
sort 
Yiatu yya Kihindi, shoes like 

those worn by the Indians, 
Viazi'vya Kizungu, sweet potatoes 
of the European sort^Q- potatoes, 
Mavazi ya kifaume, rohes of the 
kingly sort, royal robes. 
Kindness, wema. 

Every kindness, Mlla jambo la 

wema. 
A kindness, fathili. 
Kindred, ndugu, jamaa. 

Utani, {he belonging to a kindred 

race. 
Mtani, pi. watani, a person of a 
kindred race. 
King, mfalme, pi. wafalme, malki, 
maliki. 
Chess king, shah. 
Kingdom, ufSalme, ufalume, ufaume, 

milki, mulki. 
Kinsman, ndugu, jamaa. See 

Kindred. 
Kiss, busu. 

Kitchen, jikoni, mekom. 
Kite (bird), mwewe. 
(toy), tiara.. 
^^ Knee, gote, pi. magote, ondo, pi. 
maou4o (A.). 
Knife, kisu, pi. visu. 
(large), jisu, pi. majisu. 
Kotama, a curved knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Shembea, a kind of curved knife. 
Knight (chess), frasi. 
Knot, fundo, pi. mafundo. 
Knowingness, ujuvi, ujuzi, werevu. 
Knowledge, maarifa, elimu, hekima. 
^ Koran, korani, furakanu, msahafu. 
It is divided into thirty juzuu, 



which together make a khitima 
nzima. 



Labour, kazi. "^ 
Labour pains, utungu. 

Lac (100,000), lakM. 

Ladder, ngazi 

Ladle made out of a cocoantut, kata, 
pi. makata (deep, used to dip 
up water with); upawa, pi. 
pawa {shallow, used for gravy, 
curry, (fee). 

Lady, bibi, mwana mke wa kiu- 
ngwana. 
Lady of the house, mwana. 
Ladylove, mchumba. 

Lake, ziwa la maji, pi. maziwa. 

Lamoo, Amu. 

Lamp, taa. ,^ ^ 

Lampstand, a piece of wood with 

two flat pieces projecting at 

right angles on which the lamp 

is placed, mwango, pi. miango. 

* Lampwick, utambi, pL tambi. 

Land, inchi, nti (M.). ^, 

Landing-place, diko, pi. madiko, 
liko, pi. maliko. 

Language, lugha, maneno^^ The 
language of a place or nation 
is expressed by the use of tlie 
prefix ki-. Maneno ya Kiu- 
nguja or Kiunguja,^ language 
of Zanzibar. Kinyamwezi, Oie 
language of the Nyamwezi 
tribe. See Dialect 
Filthy and insulting language, 
matukano. 

Languor, utepeteyn. 

Lantern, fanusi, kandili, pi. ma- 
kaudili 

Lappet, kishungi, pi. yishungi. 

E 2 



52 



SWAEILI BANBBOOK. 



Xargfess/takarima, bashishi. 

Laihe, keezo. 

Laugh, cheko, pi. macheko, kicheko, 

pi. vicheko". 
Law, slieria, hukiimu. 
"Lead, risasi, msasi. 
(Jor sounding), bildi. 
Leader, kiongozi, pi. yiongozi. 
Leaf {of a tree), jani, pi. majani. 
(of a cocoa-nut tree), kuti, pi. 

rnakuti. 
Leaf (of a hook), nknrasa, pi. 
kurasii. 
Lean-to, kipt^u, pL v^nu. 
Learning, elimu. 
A man of learning, mwana wa 
chuoni. 
. Leather, Dgozi) ngovi. 
Leave, ruksa, ruhusa. 

To take leave, kuaga. 
Leaven, chachu, hamira. 
Lee side, npande wa chini 
Leech, mruba, pi. mimba, mdudu 

afyonzaye damn. 
Lefthandedness, shoto. 
. Leg (or foot), mgnn, pi. miguu. 
(of a native bedstead), tendegn, 

pi. matendegu. 
Loss of the use of the legs, kitewe, 
kiwete. 
Leg ring. See Anklet. 
Legend, haditbi. 
Leisure (private time), faragha, 

makuii. 
Lemon, limao, pi. malimaa 
. Length, urefu. 
Leopard, chui, tui (M.). 
Leprosy, ukoma, balanga, jethamu, 

matana. 
Letter, waraka, pi. nyanika, barua, 
khati. 
Letter (of the alphabet), beiufu. 



Lever, mvukuto, pi. mivukuto. 
Liar, mwongo, pi. wawongo. 
Liberality, ukarimu. 
Licentioumes», washerati. 
Licorice, sua. 
Lid, lafamko, pi. yifttniko, kibia, pi. 

Tibia, mkuDga wa kufunikia. 
Lie, wongo, uwoDgo. 
Life, uzima (heaMh), maisha (con- 
tinuance), roho (soul). 
Light, nura, weiipe, mwanga, pi. 
mianga, anga, pi. maanga 
(glare). 
Lighthole, mwangaza, pi. mia- 

ngaza. 
Lights (of an animal), yavuyavu. 
Lightning, umeme. 
Like (similar thing), kifani, pi. 

vifani. 
Likeness, mfano, pi. mifano, kifiano, 

pi. yifano, sanamu, sura. , 
Lime, chokaa. 

Lime (fruit), dimu. 
Sweet lime, dimu tamu. 
Limit, mpaka, pi. mipaka (boun- 
dary), kinga (block), upoo 
(what cannot be surpassed). 
Line, mstari, pi. mistari (drawn), 
safu (row), ugwe {cord), sbuiri 
{line of verse). 
Linen, kitani. — 
Lining of a kanzu round the throat, 

kaba. 
Lion, simba. — — 
Lip, mdomo, mlomo, or mwomo, pi. 

midomo, milomo, or miomo. 
Lip-ring, ndonya. 
Liquid, maji, kiowevu. 
Lisp, kitembe. 
Litter (carried by four men), 

machera. 
Little pieces, vidogo, sing, kidogo. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



63 



^Livery ini, pL maiiH. ^'"'^ 
Lizard, mjusi, pi. wajugl >^ 
Large water lizard, kenge. 
Kinds of lizards, mgunigam, pi. 
waguruguru — gorong'ondwa — 
Iri ^imft . mbuzi — mjumbakaka — 
mjisikafirL 
Load, mzigo, pi. mizigo. 
Loaf, mkate, pi. mikate. 
Loan, maazimo, karatha. 
Lock, Mtasa, pi. vitasa (Jbox lock), 
komeo or gomeo (a native 
wooden lodk), kufuli, pi. maku- 
full {padlock). 
Locust, mzige, pi. wazige, nzige. 
I^t gogo, pi. magoga 

(nauticaJ), batli. 
Loin chth, nguo, doti, kikoi, pi 

vikoi (with a striped border). 
Loins, kiuno, pi. viuno. 
Longing, uchu, tamaa, hawa. 
Look, nathari. 

Looking-glass, kioo, pi. vioo. 
Loop, kitanzi, pi. vitanzi. 

Loops to hatU up a hoai by, 
kifihwara. 
Loss, hasara. 
Lots, kura. 
Louse, chawa, tawa. 
Love, shauko, mapenzi, habbA, 

mahabu, pendo, mapendo. 
Luck, babati, nasibu. 

Messenger of iU lu^k, korofi. 
Ziiikewarmnes^, uvugUTOgii. * 
. Lumbrici, chango. 
Lump, fungo, pL mafungo, fumba, 
pi. mafumba. 
Lump {as in flour), kidonge, pi. 
vidonge, vumbu, pL mavumbu. 
Lwnp (of meat), chinyango. 
J^ncuiy, kioh&a,' soda. 
hunaiiOi mweiiji kichaa. 



Lungs, pafa, pumu, yavuyavn (of 

an animal). 
Lust, hawa. 

M. 

Mace {spice), basbaed. 

Machine, samani, mtambo, pi. mi- 

tambo. 
Madagascar, Buki, Bukini. 
Madness, wazimo, mahoka (oountry 

dialect). 
Magadoxa, Mknohyo. 
Magic, uchawi (black magic), 

uganga (white magic). 
Maggot (funza). 
Magnesia (sulphate of), ohumyi ya 

haluli. 
Maiden, mwana mwali. ' 

Maize (plant), muhindi. 
half-grown, matindi. 
(corn), mahindi. 
(com cob), gunzi, pi. magunzi. 
(young cob), ngara. 
(parched com), mbisL 
Majesty, enzi, ezi. 
Malice, uovu. 

Man (person), mtu, pi. watu. 
(male), mwaDamume, pi. waa- 

naume. 
(huma.n being), mwana Adamu, 

bin Adamii (Ar.). 
A very large man, jitu, pi. majitn. 
A young man whose beard is 
beginning to appear, mvulana, 
pi. wavulana. 
Man of tht world, mtu mwerevu. 
Mango, embe, embe (M.), ph ma- 
embe. Embe za dodo, large 
mangoes. 
Mango-tree, mwembe, jjZ. miembe. 
Mangouste, mchiro, pi. wachiro. 
Mangrove, mkoko, pi. mikoko. 



54 



'SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Manner^ ginsi. 
An elegant manner ^ madaha. 

^Manifiers, destorl, mathehebu 

Good manners^ adabu, tasfida. 
Mantis, yuDJa jungo. 
^ Manure, samadi. 
Manuscript, mwandiko, pi. mia- 

ndiko. 
Mark, alama., 
Marks made by dragging anything 

along, mkokoto, pi, mikokoto. 
Tribal mark, nemba. See Spot, 
Blotch. 
' Market, soko, pi. masoko. 
Marriage, odoa, mikaha. 
■^ (the ceremony), harusL 

(intermarriage), kuoana. 
Marrow, boDgo. 

Martyr, shahidi, pi. mashahidl 
Mask, barakoa. 
Mason, mwashi, pi. waashi. 

Mason^s trowel, mwiko, pi. miiko. 
Mass, the mass of, jamii ya. 
Mast, mlingote, pi. milingote, 
mgote, pi. migote. 
Small mizen-mast, mlingote wa 
kalmi or galmi. 
Master {of a house, or of slaves), 
bwana. 
Master {of a school), mwalimu, pi. 

waalimo. 
Master's son, bwana mdoga 
Master workman, fundi. 
One's ovm master, 'mweza mwe- 
nyewe. 
Mat (coarse matting), jamvi, pi. 
majamvi. 
Sk'eping mat, mkeka, pi. mikeka. 
Slf^eping mat made like a hag with 

one side open, fumba. 
Oi^ul prayer mat, musala,,^. mi- 
@nla. 



Bound mat on which food is laid 

out, kitanga, pi. vitanga. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiting 

fine mats, myaa, pi. miyaa. 
Strips of palm leaf for plaiting 

coarse mats, mwaa, pi. miwaa. 

Narrow strips ready to he sewn 

^together to make coarse matSy 

shupatu, pi. masbupatu. 

Strips for making fine mats, 

nkiri, pi. kiri. 
The thick edge of strips of 

malting, ng'ong'o. 
Busati, a sort of malting brought 
from Muscat. 
Matchmaker, kijumbe, pi. vijumbe. 
Malches, viberiti.# — ^ 
MaUer (pu%), usaha. 
A matter, jambo, jawabu. 
Whal is the matter f Euna liini ? 
What is the matter vjith youf 
Una nini. 
Mattress, godoro, pi. magodoro. 
Mayotte, Maotwe. 

Meal (food), chaknla. 

First meal after a fast, futarL 
Meal (flour), unga. 
Meaning, maana. 
Meanness, unyonge. 
Means, njia. 
Measles, ohuruwa. 

Measure, kadri, kiasi, oheo, kipimo. 
A measure, kipimo, pi. vipimo. 
Measuring rod, line, Ac, ohenezo» 
' pi. vyenezo. 

See Cubit, Fathom, Span, Weight. 
The weights are wed<M measures 
for such a capacity as vjould 
contain that weight of millet 
Meat, nyama. t ^ [ (mtama). 

Small pieces cooked on a skewer^ 
msbakiki, pi. mishakikL 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



55 



Fieees cooked on two parallel 

stickSf subana. 
MeatinesSj mnofu. 
MedcUer, pingamizi. 
Mediator (j?«ac6-TOa&€r}, mselehisha, 

pi, waselehisha, msuluhisba, 

pi. wasuluhlsha, mpatanishi, 

pi. wapataniahi. ^^ 

Medicine, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
(medical knowledge), utabibu, 

uganga. 
Medicine man, mganga, pi. wa- 

ganga. 
Meekness, upole. 
Melancholy, huzuni, bamu. 
Memorandum' (written), kbati. 
Memorial, kumbukufabu, uku- 

mbusbo. 
Memory, ukumbuka, ufabamu. 
Menstruation, heth. 
Mention, kumbukumbn. 
Merchandise, bithaa. 
Merchant, mfanyi biasbara, pi. wa- 

fanyi biasbara, tajiri, pi. ma- 

tajiri (a rich man), ta^biri, 

bazazi {huckster). 
Mercury, zebakb. 
Mercy, rehema, buruma. 
Merit, ajara. 
Merka, Marika. 
Message, maneno, babari. 
Messenger, mjumbe, pi. wajumbe, 

mtume, pi. watume, tiuue. 
' Metal, inadini. 
■^ Middle, katL 

Middle of a piece of cloth, mji. 
Midge, usubi. 
Midnight, usiku saa a sita, kaid ya 

ufliku, usiku wa manane. 
Midwife, luzalisba, pi. wazalisba. 
Mildew, kawa. 
^Milk, maziwa. 



Curdled milk, maziwa mabivu. 
Buttermilk, mtindi. 
MiU, dinu, pi. vinu. 
Steam mill, kinu cba moshi. 
Oil miU, kinu cba kushindikia. 
Hand mill, mawe ya kusagia 
{{his last only is used for grind' 
ing com. Kinu is properly a 
wooden mortar, and the common 
oil mills consist of a lever turned 
in a mortar by camels). 
Millipede, jongoo. 
Millet, mtama. 
fully formed hut unripe, mtama 

tete. 
Millet stalks, mabua, sing. bua. 
kinds of millet, kibakuli, kipaje. 
Mind, moyo (heart), akili (wits)^ 
Mine, madini. [nia (intention). 

Mint (herb), nana, fidina (?}. 
Minute, dakika. 

Miracle, mwujiza,|)Z. miujiza, ajabu. 
Miscarriage, kubaribu mimba. 
Mischief, mathara, uharabu. 
Miser, bakhili, choyo. 
Misery, sbidda, tbulli. 
Misfortune, ms&)&,pl. misiba, taabu. 
Missile, kimwondo, pi. zimwondo 
{used to mean shooting stars, 
because said to be cast at the 
Jins by the angels). 
Missionary, mpeekwa, pi. wa- 

peekwa. 
Mist, kimgu, mnande, sbemali. 
Mistake, kosa, makosa. 
Mistress (of slaves), bibi. -— 
[of the house), mwana. It is 
reckoned good manners in 
Zanzibar to speak of one*s own 
mother as mwana. 
Mistress (kept woman), kinyumba. 
Mistress {sweetheart), mchumba. 



56 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 



Mizen-mcLst, mlingote wa kajmi or 

galmi. 
Mockery, usimanga. 
Moderation, kadri, kiasi. 
Modesty, haya. ' 
Mohilla, Moalli. 
MoU, fako (?). 
f MomhaSy Mvita. 
Monday, Juma a tatu. 
Money, fetha. 
Monfia, Mafya. 
, Monkey, kima. 

Tumbili, a small light'colowred 

monkey, 
Ngedere, a smaU black monkey. 
Mbega, pi. wabega, a black 
monkey wifh long white "hair on 
the shoulders. 
Monsoon {northerly winds), mnsimi. 
T Month, mwezi, pi. miezL 

T?ie months of the Arab year are 
determined by the sight of the 
moon, or by the lapse of thirty 
fuU days. The months practi- 
cally begin from the end of the 
fasting month, and are called 
Mfunguo wa mosi, — ^wa pili, — 
wa tatu, — wa'nne, — ^wa taoo, — 
wa sita, — wa saba, — ^wa nane, 
— wa keDda, Bajabu, Shaabani, 
Bamathani. See Time. 
A month of less than thirty days, 

mwezi mpungufa. 
A month of thirty fuU days, mwe- 
zi mwangamu. 
Monthly pay, mshaara. 
^ Moon, mwezi. 

Moonblindness, kiwi. 
Moonlight, bala mwezi. 
- Morning, subui, assubui, ussubui. 

Morning air, umande. 
^Morocco, Magharibi. 



Morsel, kidogo, pi. vidogo. 
Mortar for pounding and cleaning 
grain, dtc, kinu, pi. vinu. 
Mortar for throwing shells, ko- 

mbora. 
Builder's mortar, chokaa. 
Blatters used as mortal^ boards, 
cbano, pi. vyano. 
Mosque, meskiti, moskiti, mesjid. - 
Mosquito, imbu. — ""^ 
Moth, noondo. 

Mother, mama. It is polite in Zan- 
zibar to speak of one*s oum 
mother <m mwana. 
Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Mother-in-law, mkwe, pi. wakwe. 
Mould, kalibu. 

(jnoutdiness), ukmigu, kawa. 
Mound (of earth), kisugulu, pL vi- 
sugulu. 
Mound {of stones), boma, pL ma- 
boma. 
Mountain, mlima, pi. milima. 
Mourning (grief), msiba. 

To make a formal mourning, 

kukaa matanga. 
To finish a formal mourning, 

kuondoa matanga. 
To live ^ery privately during 
mourning for a husband, ku- 
kalia eda. 
The feast with which a mourning 
concludes, bitin^u. 
Momtdche, muomo, pi. miomo. 
Mouth, kinwa, pi. yinwa, kanwa, pi. 

makanwa. 
Mucus {from the nose), kamasi. 

(from the vagina), utoko. 
Mud, tope ; much mud, matope. — 

Muddiness in water, vumja*-— 
Mule, nymnbu, bdgbala. / [ruba. 
Multiplication (arithmetical), th6- 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



57 



Multitude, makntauo, kcmdi, pi. 
makundi, jeshi, pL majeshi, 
nmaati. 
Mummy, mmnyam. 
Mungoose, mohiro, pi. wachiro. 
Murderer, muuwaji, pi. wauwajL 
Musde, taf 11. 

Mushroom, kioga, pi. yioga. 
Music, ngoma. 

Musical Instruments. See Drum. 
Baragumu, a spiral antehp^s 

horn used as a trumpet. 
Kayamba, o sort of ratUe. 
Einanda, pi. yioanda, a stringed 
instrument, used of European 
instruments generally. 
Kinubi, o harp. 
Matoazi, sing, toazi, cyTtibals. 
Mbui, a buffalo's horn played by 

healing. 
Paanda, a trumpet. 
Upato, a pU4e of copper sounded 

by beating. 
Vngo, a large horn sounded by 

beating. 
Zeze, a three-stringed lute. 
Zomari, a sort of clarionets 
Musk, mesiki, meski 
Mussel (shellfish), kijogoo, pi. vijo- 

goo, kome, pi. makome. 
Mustard, kharadali. 
Myriad, kikwi, pL vikwi or zikwi. 
Myrrh, monemane. 

N. 
Nail (finger), ukucha, pi. knoha. 
(iron), mBomari, pi. misomari. 
Name, jina, pi majina. 

What is your name f Jina lako 
nani? 
Namesake, somo, pi. masomo. 
Nape of the neck, ukosi, kikosi 



Napkin, Mtambaa, pL vitambaa. 
Table napkin, kitambaa cha 
meza. 
Narcotic, laleo, pi. vileo. 
Nation, taifa, p^. mataifa. 
Native, mzalia, pL wazalia, kizao, 

pi. vizao, kivyao, pL vivyao. 
Nature, asili, tabia. 
Nautical instruments, vipande Tya 

kupimia. 
Navel, kitovu, pi. vitovn. 
Necessaries (especially as supplied 
by .God^s providence), riziki, 
ziriki (M.). 
(useful things), vifaa. 
Necessity, farathi, lazima, ukwasefii. 
Neck, shingo, pi. mashingo. 8ee 

Back, Nape. 
Need, uhtaji, kutaka, matakwa. 
Needle, aindano. 
Neighbour, jirani. 
Neighbourhood, iipande wa, ki- 

yambo (?). 
Nest, tundn, pi. matnndn. 

(o laying place), kiota, pi. viota. 
Net, msbipi, pi. mishipi. 
used to take gazelles, dtc., wavu, 

pi nyavu, chavu, pi vyavu. 
jStake net, hedge made in the sea, 

uzio, pi. nynzio. 
Bound casting -net, kimia, pi. 

yimla. 
Seine made of European cordage, 

jarifa (or jarife), pi majarifa. 
Seine made of cocoa-nut fibre, 

juya, pi majuya. 
Fisfi trap made of basket wwk, 
dema. 
NetUe, kiwavi, pi. yiwavi (used also 
News, habari. [of seamettl&s). 

Night, nsiku. -i.. 

All night, usiku kuofiSTlf 



58 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 



Fowr whole nights, siku nne nsikn 

kucha. 
Four days arid nights, eikn nne 
mohana na usiku. 
Nightmare, jinamisL 
Nipple, chiiohu ya ziwa, titi, 
bubu(A.). 
of a gun, kifa, pi. vifa. 
Nobody, si mtu. 

Hiere is nobody, hapana (or 
hakuna) mtu. 
Noise^ sauti. 
of voices, kelele, pi. makelele, 

uthia. 
See Bellouj, Boar, Hum, Cry. 
Nonsense, upuzi, puo. 
^0071, athuuri, jua kitwani. 
Noose, tanzi, pi. matanzL 
North, kibula, kaskazinL 

Northerly winds, kaskazi. 
Nose, pua, yl. pua or mapua. 
Nose ornament shaped like a stud, 

kipini, pi. vipini. 
Nose ring, azama. 
Nostril, tundu ya piia, 'mwanzi wa 

pua (?). 
Notch, a place where a triangular 

piece is broken out, pengo. 
Note, bania, khati. 
Number, heRabu, kiwango. 
Nurse, yaya (dry nurse), 'mlezi, pi. 
walezi (of a child), mugnzi, pi.- 
wauguzi (of a sick person). 
Nut, kokwa, pi. makok^a. See 

Ground, Cashew, &c. 
Nutmeg, kungumanga. * 



Oar, kasia, pi. makasia. 

Oaik, uapo, pi. nyapo, kiapo, pi. 

viapo, yamini. 
Obedience^ mutia. 



Objections, makindano, makatazo. 
Occupation, shnghulL 
CEsophagus, umio. 
Offering, sadaka (gift), thabihu 

(sacrifioe), kafara (a sacrifice to 

avert calamity ; it is buried or 

ihrovm away). 
Officer, akida, mknu wa asikari. 
Officiousness, futhuli, ufuthuli. 
Offspring, mzao, pi. wazao. [ujuvi. 
OH, mafuta. 
Castor-oil, mafuta ya mbarika. 
Semsem-oil, mafuta ya uta. 
Ointment, marhamu. 
Old age, uzee, ukongwe (extreme), 
lj)ld person, mzee, pi. wazee, ki- 

kongwe, pi. vikongwe (ex- 
tremely old). 
Omelette, kiwanda, kimanda. 
Omen, fall. 
Omnipresence, eneo la Muungu {the 

spread of God)., 
Onion, kitunguu, pL vitunguu. 
Open place, kiwanja, pi. viwanja, 

wangwa, wanda. 
piece of waste ground in a tovm, 

uga. 
Opinion, weisia. 
Opium, afyuni. 
Opportunity, nafasL 
Ophthalmia, well wa macho. 
Orange, ohungwa, pi. maebungwa, 

chungwa la kizungu, danzi la 

kizungu. 
Bitter or wild^ oranges, danzi, pi. 

madanzL 
Mandarin oranges, kangaja. 
(a larger sort), chenza, ohenza za 

kiijjemi. 
Order. See Command, 
(regularity, or a regular order), 

taratibu. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



59 



'Ordealj kiapo, pi, viopo. 
Origin, asili, chimbuko, mwanzo» 
Ornament, pambo, pi. mapambo, 
• Mpambo, pi. vipambo. 
rHJia, a yeUow cosmetie. 
Ndonya, lip-ring worn by the 

Nyassa toomen, 
Sarafa, a email gold plate worn 

on the forehead. 
Shangwi, an ornament worn 

between the shoulders. 
XIrembo, black lines painted upon 

thefa4ie, 
TJzuri, cosmetic applications. 
Yidani, collars of gold or silver, 
&se Anklets, Bra^lets, Ear, Nose, 
Orphan, yatima. 
Os coccygis, kifundugu. 
^ Ostrich, buni. 
Otto of roses, hal wiradL 
Outlett pakutokea. 
Outrigger (of canoes), mateogo. 
Outskirts of a town, kiunga. 
Oven, tanuu, taniiru. 
Over-looker^ msimamizi, pi. wasi- 
mamizi, mwangalizl, pi. waa- 
ngalizi 
Owl, bundi 
Oumer, mwenyewe. 
^ Ox, jig^omhe or gnombe, lyaksai. 
Oyster, cheza, kome (?), pi, ma- 
kome, kombe za pwani 



Pace, mwendo. 

Package, packet, or parcel, robota, 

gora (of cloth), peto, pi, ma- 

peto. 
Small packet, kipeto, pi. vipeto. 
Pad of grass, rfrc, used to carry a 

load on the head upon, generally 

twisted into a ring, kata. 



Pad used as a saddle for donkeys, 
kborj. 
Paddle, kafi, pi. makafi. 
Padlock, kufuli. 
Pail, ndoo. 

Pain, mamnivu, nchungu, kumna. 
Paint, rangi. 

Pair, jozi, jura, jeuzi, janzL 
Palace, jumhsk. 
Palanguin, macbera. 
Palate, kaaka, kaa ]a kinwa. 
Palisading, zizi, kizizi. 
Palm of the hand, kitanga cha 
mkono, pi. vitanga vya mikoDO. 
A sail-maker's palm, dofra, pU 
madofra. 
Palm-tree, See Cocoa-nut, Date, 
Leaf stem of a palm-tree, upongoe, 

pi. pongoe. 
Mkocbe, has an edible fruit 
Mlala, hyphasne, branching palm. 
Mvuma, borassus palm. 
Palm-oil tree, mchikichi, pi, micM- 
kichi. 
its fruit, cbikicbi, pi. maeblkiohi. 
the small nuts contained in the 
fruit, kichikicbi, pi. vicbikichi. 
Palm-vjine, tembo. 
Spirit made from palm-wine, 

zarambo. 
Palm-wine syrup, asali ya tembo. 
Palmar abscess, kaka. 
Palpitation of the heart, kiherehere 

cha moyo. 
Panniers, ehoi, shogi. 
Pap, ubabwa. 
Papaw, papayi, pi. mapapayi. 

Papaw-trect mpapayi, pi. mipa- 
Paper, karatasi. [payi. 

Parable, methili, methali, mfano, 

pi. mifano. 
Paradise, peponi. 



60 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK 



Gate of paradiie, kilango cha 

jaha. 
ParcUysiSj kipooza, tiwo (?). 
ParcUytiCy mwenyi kupooza. 
Parched, maize, mbisi. 
Pardon^ arathi, musama, masameho, 

hisa. 
Parenty mzaa, pJ. wazaa, mzazi, pi. 

wazazi, mzee, pi. wazee. 
Party fungu, pi. mafungu, sehemu, 

upande, pi. pande, kisma. 
Partner^ msharika, pi. washarika. 
Partnershipy usharika. 
Partridge, kwale (?). 
Kering'ende, the red-legged par- 
tridge. 
Party (faction), aria. 
" PasSy or passporty cheti, pi. vyeti 
Passage (hy)y pito, pi. kipito. 
(through), kipenyo, pi. vipenyo. 
A very narrow passagCy kioho- 

choro, pi. vichochoro. 
Paich (in cloth), kiraka, pi. viraka 

(in planking), hasho. 
'' Path, njia, pito, pi. mapito. 
Patience, saburi, subiri, uvumilivu, 

utulivu. 
Paitem, namna. 

(to work from) kielezo, pi. yielezo. 
Pauper, kibapara, pi. vibapara (an 

insulting epithet). 
Pawn (chess), kitunda, pi. vitunda. 
Pay, ijara, njia, faritha, mshahara 

(^monthly). 
Pea, dengu {tJiey are not grown in 

Zanzibar, but are brottght dry 

frofn India). 
A small pea-like bean, chooko, 

chiroko. 
Peace, amani, salamu. 
Pea^-maker, mpatanishi, msele- 

hisha, msuluhisba. 



Peacock, tausi. 

Peak, kilele, pi. vilele. 

Pearl, lulu. 

Pebble {very smaU), mbwo. 

{or small piece of stone), kokoto, 
pi. makokoto. 
Peelf gauda, pi. maganda. 
Peg, chango, pi. vyango. 
Pelvis, tokoni. 
Pen, kalamu. -—7 

Eeed pen, kalamu ya 'mwanzi. 
Penis, mbo. ^-* 
People, watu. 

People of this world, walimweugu. 

Other peoples, -a watu. 

People like us, kiua sisi. 

AbdallaVs people, kina Abdallab. 
Pepper, pilipili manga. <• — 

Bed pepper, pilipili hoho. 
Percussion cap, fataki. 
Perfection, ukamilifu, utimllivu. 
Perfumes, manukato. 
Period {or point of tims), kipindi, 

pi. kipindi. 
Perjury, aziir, zuli. 
Permission, ruksa, ruhusa. 
Persia, Ajjemi. 

Persian Gulf, Bahari il *ali. 
Person, mtu. 

A grown, person, mtu mzima. See 
Old,&o. 
Perspiration, hari, jasho. 
Pestilence, tauni, wabba. 
Pestle, mchi (or mti), pi. miohi, 

mtwango, pi. mitwango. 
Phantom, kivuli, pi. vivuli. 
Phlegm, belghamu. 
Phthisis, ukohozi. 

Physic, dawa, pi. dawa or madawa. 
Physician, tabibu, mtabibu, pk 
watabibu, mganga. pi. wa- 
ganga. 



BVB8TANTI7E8. 



61 



J^ice, pesa, ph pesa or mapeOL 
Pickle, achari. 

Picture, taawira, sura, sanamu. 
Piece, kipande, pL vipande. 

Piece of Madagascar gran dofh, 

ramba, pi. maramba. 
Piece let in hy way of patch (in 
planhing),hfiaho. See Firewood, 
- Pig, nguruwe, nguuwe. 
Ji\d, a wild hog. 
Pigeon, njiwa, ndiwa (M.). 
Tame pigeon, njiwa manga. 
Wild pigeon, njiwa wa mwitu. 
PUe of sticks, &c., for turning, biwi, 

pi. mabiwi. 
Piles (hasmorrhoids), bawasir. 
Pilgrimage, haj. 
PiU, Mdonge, pi. yidonge. 
PiUar, ngnzo. 
I PUlow, mto, pi. mito. 

Wooden head rest, msamilo, pi. 
misamilo. 
Pilot, rubani. 

Pimple, kipele, pi. yipele, npele, pi. 
pele (large), kiwe,pZ. viwe (o 
small kind). 
Pincers, koleo. 

Pine-apple, nanasi, pi. mananasi. 
Pinna {shellfish), kaya,|)2. makaya, 

panga, pi. mapanga. 
Pipe (water), nelli. 

(clarionet), zomari. 
^^ (tobacco), kiko, pi. viko. The 
\ native pipe consists of a howl 
(bora), a stem (ftigali) leading 
from the howl into a smaU vessel 
of water, which last is properly 
the kiko ; the stem from the kiko 
to the motUh is the shilamu. 
The bubbling of the water when 
it is being smoked is the malio 
ya kiko. 



Piping, kigwe, pi. vigwe. 
Pirate, haramia. 
Pistol, bastola. -^ 
Pit, shimo, pi. mashimo. 
Pitch or Tar, kuui 
Pity, hunima. 
Place, mahali, pahali. - — ' 
Place may often be expressed by 

the prefix pa-. 
Panyamavu, a quiet place. 
Pakutokea, a place to go out at. 
Panginepo, elsewliere. 
or by the use of penyi. 
Penyi mti, the place where the 

tree is, or was. 
An open place, kiwanja, pi 
▼iwanja. 
. A dear spa^ in a town^ uga. 
A place whtre offerings are made 
to propitiate spirits supposed to 
haunt it, mzimu, pi. mizimu. 
Plague, taiini 
Plain, uwanda* 
Plan, shauri, pi. mashauri. 
Plane, randa. 

Plank, ubau, pi. mbau. ^ — . 
Planking, mbau. 

A plank laid over the body before 

* the earth is filled in, kiunza, pi. 

Plant, mbegu, mbeyu. [viunza. 

A young plant, mobe, pi. miche, 

cbipukizi, pi. vipukizL 
Upupu, cowitch. 
Mbaruti, o thistle-like plant with 

a yellow ficwer. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant throw- 
ing up a head of red flowers. 
Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Afu, the wild jasmine. 
Kirukia, a parasite on fruit trees. 
Mpungati, a kind of cactus. 
Plantains, ndizi. V 



62 



aWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



'Plantation, shamba, pi. mashamba. 
.^Plate, kisahani, pi. visahani. 

A plate of metal, bamba, pi. ma- 
bamba. 
Platter of wood, cbano, pL vyano. 
Pleasure, anasa, furaha. 

PleaMng things, mapendezL 
Pledge, raJiani, amani, kabathi. 
Pleiades, kilimia. 
Plenty, wingi, ungi (M.), mari- 

tiiawa. 
Plumb-line (a stone "hung by a strip 

of banana leaf), timazi. 
Plug, ngunizi, zibo, pi. mazibo. 
Plummet, chubwi. 
• Pocket, mfuko, pi. mifuko. 
^ Pocket-handkerchief, ieso. 
Poem, masbairi, utenzi (religious). 
Poet, mtunga masbairi, pL watuuga 

masbairi. 
Poetry , masbairi. 

One line of poetry, sbairi. 
Point, ncba. 
Poison, smuu, ucbangu. 

Fish poison, utupa, 
Pole, mti, pi. miti. 
for carrying burdens on^ mpiko, 

pi. mipiko. 
for propelling a canoe, npondo, pi. 
pondo. 
Politeness, adabu. 
Pomegranate, kamamanga. 
Pomeloe, furungu, pi. mafuruDgn. 
Pond, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
Pool, ziwa, pi. maziwa. 
Pool left by the retiring tide, 
kidimbwi, pi. vidimbwi. 
Poop, sbetri. 
Poor free man, maskini ya Muu- 

ngu. 
Porcupine, uungu. 
Pores, nweleo, matokeo ya hari. 



Porpoise, pomboo. 
Porridge, ugali, uji, fuka, basida. 
Porter. See Doorkeeper, 
(carrier), baiikali, pi. mabamali.- 
(in a caravan), mpagazi, pi. wa-"" 
pagazi. 
Port Dumford, Burikao. 
Position in the iwrld, cbeo, kiwa- 

ngo. 
Possessions, mali, milki 
Possessor, mwenyewe. 
Possessor of, dc, mwenyi, &o., pi. 
wenjri, &c. 
Post, mti, pi. mitL 
Bearing post, i^bimili, pi. mihi- 
mili. 
Posterity, wazao. 
Pot. See Cooking-pot, Censer. 

A lobster-pot, dema. 
Potash (nitrate of), sbiira. 
Potatoes, viazi vya kizungu. .^ 
Sweet potatoes, viazi, sing, kiazi. 
Raised beds for planting viazi, 
tuta,pZ. matuta. 
Potshefd (broken piece of pottery or 
gUss), kigai, pi. vigai, gai, pi. 
magai (a large piece), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyeiiza (a 
very small piece, a splinter). 
Potter, mfinangi, pi. wafinangi, mfi- 
nyanzi, wafinyanzi. 
ApUu:e to bake potter's ufork,}oko. 
PovUry, k'uku. 
Poverty, muasikini. 
Powder, unga. 

(xunpowder, baruti. 
Power, uwezo, nguvu, mamlsika, enzi. 
Practice, mtaala, mazoezo. 
Praise, sifa, bamdi. 
Prattle, vijineno. 
Prayer (worship), ibcMla. 
(entreaty)^ kuomba. 



L, 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



63 



{the prescribed forms), sala. The 
regular Mohammedan times of 
prayer are, Magaribi, directly, 
after sunset; Esha, an hour or 
two later ; Alfajiri, hefore sun- 
rise ; Athuuri, at noon ; Alastri, 
about half-way between noon 
and sunset, 
Precbcher^ mwenyi Jcukhutubu, or 

kuayithi. 
Precept, mafandisho. 
Pregnancy, mimba. 
Present (see Gift), zawadi. 
Chistomary present^ ada, kilemba. 
Customary presents at a wedding ; 
to the brides father, mahari, 
Mlemba ; to the bride^s mother, 
mkaja, ubeleko; to the brides 
kungu, kiosha miguu, kifunua 
mlango; to the bride herself, 
kipa mkono. 
Press or Pressure, shinikizo. 
Prey, mawindo. 
Price, kima, fAamani. 
Prickly heat, vipele vya hahara. 

A medicament for it, liwa. 
Pride, kiburi. 

Priest, kahitii, pi. makabini (used 
in the sense of soothsayer). 
(Christian), kasisi, pa(b:e or pa- 
diri, pi. mapadiri. 
Prison, kifungo, gereza. 
Privacy, faragba. 
Privy, cboo. 

Proceeds, pato, pi. mapato. 
Produce (fruit, seed, (fee), zao, pi. 

mazao. 
Profit, fayida, ghanima. 
Progeny, mzao, pi. wazao. 
Progress; kiendeleo. 
Prohibition, makatazo. 
Promise, ahadi, wabadi. 



Promissory note, awala. 
Pronunciation, mata'mko. 
Prop, mbimili, pi. miliimili, mate- 
gemeo. 
A prop to keep a vessel upright 
when left by the tide, gadi. 
Property, mail, milki. 
Prophet, nabii, mtume, pi. mitume. 
Prosecution, mstaki, pi. mistaki. 
Proselyte, mwojigofu, pi. waongofu. 
Prostitute, kababa, pi. makababa. — . 
Protection, bami, bamaya. 

Under British protection, fi ba- 
mayat al Ingiez (Ar.). 
Proverb, mfano wa maneDO. 
Provision, madaraka. 
Provisions, vjakula. > 

Provocation, ekerabi. 
Prow, gubeti. 
of a small vessel, Mkono, pi. 

vikono. 
(head), omo. 
Prudence, busara, fikira. 
Pulley, kapi, pi. makapi, gofia. 
Pulpit, mimbara^ 
Pump, bomba. 
Pumpkin, boga, pi. maboga. 
plant, mboga, pi. miboga. 
shell used to carry liquids in, 

dundu, pi. madundu. 
Mumunye, pi. mammnnuye, a 

sort of vegetable marrow. 
Tango, pi. matango, eaten raw 

like cucumber. 
Kitoma, pi. vitoma, a smaU 

round sort. 
TiMti, pi. matikiti, a round kind 
of water-melon. 
Punch, keke. 

Purchaser, mnunuzi, pi. wanunuzi. 
Purgatipe, dawa la kabara. 
Purity, raasafi, utakatifu. X 



64 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Purpose, kuBudi, pt makusudi, 

kasidl, nia. 
Purse, kifuko cha kutilia fetha. 
Push in the cheek, mdukuo. 
Putridity, kioza. 
Putty, chaki. 
Python, chatu. 



Quail, tombo, tomboroko. 
Qvuility, tabia, ginsi, jM, aina. 
Quantity, ^kiasi, kadiri, cheo 

(meoMtrement). 
Quarrel, mateto, tofauti, nazar, 

ugomvL 
Quarrelsomeness, ugomyi. 
" Quarter, robo. 

Three-quarters of a doUar, kassa 

robo. 
Quarter of a town, mta, pL mita. 
Queen, malkia. 
{chess), kifihi. 
Question, maulizo, Bwali. 
Quieting thing, kitulizo,|)2. vltulizo. 
Quietness, utulivu, makim, kimya. 
Quiver, podo. 

R. 

Bdbhit, sungura, kisungura, pi. 
visungura, kitungule, pi vitu- 
ngule, kititi. 
Ra^x, mashindano. 
Softer, boriti {for a stone roof), 
kombamoyo, pi. makomba- 
moyo {for a thatched roof), 
pao, pi. mapao {very thin). 
Bag, kitambaa, pi. vitambaa, 

utambaa, pi. tambaa. 
. Bain, mvua. 

Bain cloud, ghubari, pi. maghu- 
Bainy season, masika. [ban. 

Lesser rains, mvua ya mwaka. 



Bainbouj, upindi wa mma, kisiki 

cha mvua (M.). 
Bammerfor heating roofs, kipande, 

pi. vipande. 
BampaH, boma, sera. 
Bank, daraja, cheo. 
Bansom, kombozi, pi. makombozi, 

ukomboo, ukombozi, fidia, 

ufidiwa, ukombolewa. 
Barity, t'unu, hedaya. 
Bash {small pimples), vipele. 
Bat, panya. — » 

a very large hind, buku. 
Bations, po^. __ — 
Bawness {of meai, &e.), ubichi 
(dulness), ujinga. 

Bazor, wembe. , 

Beaton, maaua, sababu, huja, akili. ' 

Beasoning, huja. 

BebeUion, maasL 

Becess, kidaka, pL vidaka, Mshu- 

baka, pt vishube^ka (a pigeon- 
hole). 
WaU at the ha^k of a recess, raff. 
Becommendation, maagizo. 
Bectitude, adili. 

Bed coral, marijani ya fethaluka. 
Bed 8ea, Bahari ya Sham. 
Bedeemer, mkombozi, pi. wako- 

mbozi. 
Beed, unyasi, pi. nyasi, 'mwanzi, pi. 

miwanzi. 
Beference, maregeo. 
Befuge, makimbilio. 
Begret, majutio. ,' 
Begularity, kaida. 
Beign, ezi, enzi. 

Bein, kigwe, pi. vig^e. %, 

Bejoicing, furaha, shangwi. 
Belations {relatives), akraba, ndugu, 

jamaa. 
A near relative, karibu. 



8UP8TANTIVE8. 



65 



BeUuDoiion (foo$emngX tdegefu. 

Bdigion, dini, dua. 

BeUsh (sometiUng to he eaien with 

rice or porridge), kitoweo. 
Remainder, msazo, masaso, mftbakia, 
Remedy, dawa, inapoza. [baki. 

Reminder, ukumbusho. 
Renrnaion (of Hm), maghofiia, ma- 

ondoleo. 
Remnant, mabakia. 
Rent,ijaiA, 

Repenianoe, toba, majuto. 
Representative, wakilL 
Reproaches, matayo. 
Reprobate, baa» pi. mabaa, 
RqftttU (?). 
KeDge, a monitor (?), a very large 

slender lizard. 
P*ili, a large snake. 
Chatti, apyihnn. 
See Snake, Crocodile, d:e. 
Request, haja, matakwa. 
Residue. See Remainder* 
A litUe left in a Jar, «fee., kisbinda. 
pi. yifihinda. 
Resin, iilimbo. 

Respiration, kntanafoBi, kashusba 
Rest, raha, pumziko. [pumzi. 

Resting-place, pumzikio, kituo, pi. 

zituo or vituo. 
Restlessness, fathaa. 
Resurrection, ufafuo, ufufulio, ki- 
yama (the general resurrection). 
Resuscitation, (actively) kuftifua» 
kuhnisba, (neuter) kufiifiika, 
kuhuika. 
Retainer, mfiiasi, pi wafoaai. 
BetoZsotum, kasasi, klMMd. 
Return, maregeo, marejeo, kuja 
^^ zao, &a 
JBeMn^e, majilipa. 
Reverence, unenyekeo. 



Reviling, mathntumti, mashntumio, 
matayo. 
RevivaU See Resuscitation. 
Reward, ijara, ujira, majaeo, iha^ 
wabu (espedaUy from God). 
Reward for finding a lost thing, 
kiokosi, pi. yiokoai ^ ' 

Rheumaiism, baridiyabis, aweli wa 

viungo. 
Rhinoceros, Idtskfn, pi. yifarn, pea. «^ 
Rib, ubanu, pk mbavn, kiwa^u 

ohana (A.). 
Riee, grouping, or yet in the husk, 
mpuDga. 
cleaned froDn (he husk, mchele. <^ 
cooked, wall. 
watery, and imperfectly cooked, 

mashend^a. 
cooked so that (he grains are 
dry and sepa/rate, pukute ya 
wali. 
scorched in the cocking, nkoko, 

Qtaadu (A.). 
left from overnight to he eaten in 

the morning, wall wa mwikuu. 
Kinds of rice, sena, buogala^ 
Bbindano» garoftiu, kapwai, ki- 
fungo, madem* mwanga, nfara, 
ucbukwi. 
Ric\es, mail, utajiri, nkwaei. 
Rich man, tajiri, pi. mat^iri, mwe- 
nyi mail, mkwasi, pL wakwasi. 
Ridicule, mzaha, tbihaka. 
Right, baki, wajib, adilL 
Righteousness, baki. 
Rind, ganda, pi. maganda. 
Rind of a lemon, Ac, after the 
inside has heen squeezed or 
extracted, kaka. 
Ring, pete, pi. pete or mapete. 
Rings on the scaibbard of a sioord, 
ike., ukoa, pU koa. 



66 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Blng where the blade enters the 

haft, noleo, pi. manoleo. 
Ear-ring, pete ya masikio. 
Ring-worm, choa. 
Ripple, viwimbi. 
Risk, in trading, juku. 
" River, mto, pi. mito. 
•^Road, njia. 
Roar, ngunimo, vumi. 
Robber, mnyang'anyi, pi. wanya- 
ng'aDyi, haramia. 
People who wander about at night, 
robbing and committing violence, 
mruDgura, mpakacha. 
Rock, mwamba, pi. miamba. 
A small rock, kijamba, pZ. vi- 

jamba. 
in the sea, kipwa, pi. vipwa. 
Rolling of a ship, mramma. 
Roof, dari, sakafu (stone roof or 
floor), paa, pi. m'apaa (thatched 
roof). The thatched roofs con- 
sist generally of a front and 
back slope, kipaa cha mbele and 
kipaa cha nyuina, and hips for 
the ends, which are carried up 
under and wifhin the main 
slopes; these hips are called 
visusi, sing, kisusi. 
A Zean-foj.kipenu, pi. vipenu. 
The roof over a watching-place in 
the fields, duDgu, pi. madungii. 
Rook (chess), fil. 
Room (spa^x), Dafasi. 

(apariutcnt), chumba, pi. vyumba. 
Utiimbi, haU or porch ; it is within 
a intone house, but outside an 
faHkm one. 
Sebulti or sebula, parlour, recep- 
tion room. 
Orfa, orofa, or ghdrofa, an upper 



.-\#^ 



Ghala, a dark room on the ground- 
floor, a store-room. . 
Root, 8hiDa, pi. maahiDa. 
Rootlets, mizizi, mizi (M.). 
Rope, kamba, ngol^ (Mer.). 

Hempen rope, kamba, uhiyiti. 
Rosary , (Mohammedan beads), tas- 

biih. 
Rose, waradi, waridi. 
Otto of roses, hal wdradi. 
Rose-water, marashi ma waridi. 
Rose apple, darabi, pi. madarabi. 
Roundness, myiringo. 
Row (line), safa. 
Row (noise), uthia, kero.^ 
Royalty, kifaume, ufaume. * 
Rubbish (from old buildings), ftisi, 
kifuai. 
(small articles), takataka. 
Rudder, sliikio, sakani, msukani, pZ. 

misukani, iisukaiii,^Z. sukani. 
Ruddle, used by carpenters to mark 

out their work, iig^u. 
Rudeness, safihi. 
Ruin or Ruin*, maanguko. 
Runaway (from a master, home, &c.), 
mtoro, pi. watoro. 
(from a fight, &c.), mkimbizi, pi. 
wakimbizi. 
Rupee, rupia. 
Rupia or any similar skin disease, 

buba. 
Rust, kutu. 
Rustling, mtakaso. 

S. 

Sabre, kitara, pi. vitara. 

Sa^yrifice, sadaka (an offering), fidia 
{giving up), tbabihu {sacrific- 
ing), mathabuha (the victim), 
kafara (an animal or thing 
offered hU not eaten). 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



67 



Saddle, kiti. cha firasi, roatandiko, 
seruji (cm Arab saddUyt khorj 
(the pad wed, for a donkey). 
Sadness (see Grief), rammu. 
Saf^y^ ealamu, salama. 
Saffron, zafarani. 
Saih tanga, pi. matanga. 
^ Dhow'sail, duumi. 
SaU-cloth, kitali. 
^<w Sailor, baharia. 
Saint, walli. 
SaJce, ajili, huja, maana. 

For my sake, unipendavyo (as you 
love me), 
SaJ^ (auction), mnada. 
Salesman, dalali. 
Saliva, mate. 

Salt, chumvi, munyo (A.). 

Saltpetre, shura. 

Salute (fired), mizinga ya salamu. 

(salutaiion), salamu. 
Salvation, wokoyu, snudi, njema. 
Salver, smisk, pi. masinia. 
Sanction, ithini. 
, - Sand, mchanga, mtaDga (M.). 

, Sandals, viatn, sing, kiatu, viatu 

vya ngozi 
strap' of a sandal, gidam. 
Sandalwood, liwa (?). 

, Sandfly, usubi. 

Sap, maji. 
« — Saturday, Juma a mosi. 
Saucepan, sufun'a. , 
Saviour, mwokozi, pi waokozi. 
Savour, luththa, tamu. 
Scah, Mgaga, pi vigaga. 
Scahhard, ala, pi nyala. 

TJie metal rings on a scabbard, 
ukoa, pi koa. 
Scaffold (for building), jukwari. 
Scales (of a fish), magamba, mamba 
(M.). 



Scales (Jbalances), mizani. 

Scale pans, yitanga vya mizani. 
Scar, kovu, pi makovu. 
Scarf (often vjorn round the waist), 

deuli. 
Scent, harufU) manuka, nukato, pi 

manukato, meski, marashi (a 

scent for sprinkling), 
Tibu, a kind of scent. 
See Rose, Ambergris, Aloes wood. 
School, chuoni. 
Scissors, makasi.^ — 
Scoop. See Ladle, 
Sdore(2(y),koTi&. 
Scorn, tharau, thihaka. 
Scorpion, nge. 
Scraps left after eating, makombo, 

sing, kombo. 
Scrape (slide), para. 
Scratch, mtai, pi mitai. 
Scream, kiowe, pi viowe (cry for 

help), kigelegele, pi vigelegele 

(a trilling scream raised as a 

cry of joy). 
Screw, parafujo. 
Scrip, mkoba, pi. mikoba. 
Scrofulous and gangrenous sores, 

mti. 
Scrotum, pumbo, mapumbu. 
Scull, kitwa, pi. vitwa, fuvu or 

bupuru la kitwa. 
Scum, povu, mapovu. 
Sea, babari. ^ — ' 
A sea, mawimbi, wimbi. 
A seaman, mwaua maji. 
One from beyond seas^ mja ua 

majf. 
Seaweed, mwani. 
Seal, muburi. 
Seam, mshono, pi. mishono, bandl 

(tacked), upindo (a hem). 
Season, wakati, 

P 2 



68 



8WABILT HANDBOOk, 



The prinoipfd «eotoiif tn Zanaihar 
are ^-^tiaimi, Vie Hme <if (he 
northerly toituU (kazkasi), thai 
iiy December^ Jatmofy^ amd 
February. For Manh^ AprU, 
and May, the rainy Moaon, 
masika; after (hat, the cold 
time, kipnpwe ; (hen, ab(ml (he 
end of Angwty demani, or 
mwaka. Th$ toutheriy winds 
(kiisi) begin to drop in Oatohery 
and in (he intervale betufeen 
them and (he northerly Hfind» 
come the timee of eaeterh/ and 
westerly i^jmb, mal^leci or tanga 
mbili. 

Btaeoning, See Meliih. 

Seat, kikao, makazi. 

The stone or ear(h teat n$ar a 
door, bamza, kibaraza. 

Secrecy, siri, ft^ragfaa. 

Secrets, mambo ya siri. 

Secretary, mwaiMlishi,p{. waandishi, 
khatibo, karani. 
Secretary of StaU^ waziri, pi. 
mawaairi. 

Sect, mathhib, mathehebu. 

Sediment, mashapo. 

I^eed, mbegu, mbeyu. 

SeecUing^ mche, pi. miobe. 

Self, moyo, nafai, nafttsL 

Self-content, kinaya. 

Semen^ shabawa, manni. 

Semsem, ufUta. 
Semsem oH, maftita ya uta. 
Wkai is Uft after the oU has been 
pressed out, ahudn. 

Senna, saDamaki. 

Sense, akili. 

Sentk^el, mngcja, pi. wangoja. 

Servant, mtumidii, pi. watumishi, 
mtumwa, pi watmawa, ooker. 



One who mnes at tdUe, mwa^ 

ndikaji, pi. iraandlkajl. 

Jfi a thamba (here ate genm-ally 

three chief servants. 1. Msi- 

mamizi, generally a free man. 

2. Nokoa, (he chief shsme. S. 

Kadamn, the second head slave. 

Service, utumwa, hudumo, hidiipa. 

Setting-out, things set out or the p^aee 

for them, maandiko. 
Shaddock, furanga, pi. mafttrongiL 
Shade, uvuli, ruli, mTuli, mviU^ 

kiyuli. kitua. 
Shadow, kivuli, pi. vivali. 
Shame (disgraeey, aibu. , 

(modesty), haya. 
(a thing causing confueion), art, 

fetbeba, bezaya. 
having no shame, mjanja, pi. 
wajanja. 
Shape, kiasi, kalibn, namna. 
Share, ftingu, pL mafungu^ Mmebn, 

kisma. 
Sharing, usharika. 
SJiark, papa. 
Sharpness, ttkali. 
Shaving (of wood), usafi. 
Sliawl, BhaM.^ 

worn round the waist, mahaeamu. 
Sheaf, or bundle of cut rice, Biganda, 

pi. miganda. 
Sheaih, no, pi. maiio, ala, pL nyaK 
Sheave (of a pulley), roda, koradani. 
Shed, banda, pi. mabanda, kibanda. 
pi. vibanda. 

Sheep, kondoo. 

Sheet, sbuka. 
of a sail, demani. 
of a book, gombo, pi. magombo. 
of paper, uknrasa, pi. kurasa. 
Sheff, kibau, pi. vibau. 
in a recess, rufiif. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



69 



Su8o,jp2. mBauBOi a JUnd of Jitrng- 
ingsMf. 
Shell (jiea «fteZ^Xshelle, pi, maabelle. 
(hwk\ ganda, jpL maganda. 
{wvpty 8^22), fayu, >pl. mafuvu, 
bupuru, j^ mabupura» kaka. 
Shepherd, mliahi, pU waliahi, mchn- 

Ti^ia^pi. waohunga. 
Sherd, See PotahmU 
Shield, ngao. 

Shin, mmindi wa gun (A.)i 
Ship, merikebu, marikabn, jahasi. 
Man-of-war, mauowari, merlkebti 

ya mizinga. 
Merchant ship, merik«Hiu ya t^a* 
St^am ship, merikebu ya dohaaoi 

merikebu ya moshi. 
Ship belonging to the gavimment, 

merikebu ya gerkali. 
FuU-rigged $hip, merikebu ya 

milingote mitatu. 
Barque, merikebu ya miliugote 

miwili na nuss. 
Native craft, chombo, pL vyombo. 
-Shirt, kanzu. 
Shivering, kitapo, kutetema, ku- 

tetmueka. 
Shml (hank), fungu, pi. mafungu. 
Shock, sbindo. 

Shoe, kiatu oh a kizuBgu or cha 

kihindi, pi viatu vya kiiungu. 

Shoemaker, mshoni yiatu, ph wa- 

fihoni viatu. 
Shoots chipukizi, uohipuka, pi. 
chipuka. 
A pointed shoot like Ikoit oontotn- 
ing a spike of flower, kllele, pi 
vilele. 
Shop, duka, pi maduka. 

Shops with toareroomSf bokbari. 
Shot (smail), marisaa. 
Shot4>eU,\)^U, 



Shoulder, bega, pi. mabega, fnzi, pi. 

*mafuzi (A.> 

Shoulder-hlade, kombe la mkono. 
Shout, ukelele, pi kelela, kelele, pi 

makelele. 
Shower, inanyunyo. 
Shoudng, wanyeaho. 
Shrewdness, werevu. 
Shroud, saanda. 
i8fen«6,kljiti,i)LTijiti. 

See Thorn. 

Mwango, pi miwango (?). 
Sick person, mgonjwa, pi magoigwa, 

mweli, pi waweli. 
Si6kn$t$, ugoDJwa, uweli, marathi. "^ 
Side, upande, pi paude. 

Side of the body, mbavu, mata* 
mba?u. 

The other sids of a river, &c., 
ng'ambo. 
Siege, mazingiwa. 
Sieve, kiyamba. 
SifUf^s of rice afUr pounding, 

wisbwa. 
Sighing, kuugua. 
Sign, dalili. 
Signal, idk9i%» 

Ukonyezo, pi konyezo, a sign 
made by raising the eyebrows, 

Kikorombwe, a kind of signal cry. 
Silence, nyamavu, kimya. 
SUk, bariri. 
SiUinws, mapiswa, puo. 

SiUy talk, upuzi. 
Silver, I'etha. — 
Silversmith, mfoa fetba, pi. wafua 

fetha. 
Simpleton, n\jinga,|>2. wajiuga. 
Sin, tbambi, pi. thambi or ma- 

tbambi, makosa, tak«iri. 
Singleness, upweke. 
^tp, funda(?); 



70 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



^Sir! Bwana! 
Sister, umbu, pi. maumbu, iwHigii, 
ndugu mke. 
Aa a term of endearment, dada. 
Foster-sister, ndugu kunyonya. 
Sister-in-law, shemegi. 
Sitter, mkaa,j?Z. wakaa. 
Sitting, kikao, pi. vikao, kitako, pi. 

yitako. ' 

Size, ukuu, ukubwa, kiasi, ketdiri, 
cheo. 
- Skeleton, mzoga (?) 
Skilful workman, mstadi, pi wa- 

stadi. 
Skilled or master-workman, fundi. 
^Skin, ngozi^ 
Sky, uwingu. 
Slackness, ulegevu. 
Slander^ masingizio, fitina {smoing 

of discord). 
Slaughter-house, matin do. 
Slave, mtumwa, pi. watumwa, mu- 
hadimu, pi. wahadimu, mtwana» 
pi. watwana. 
A slave hoy, kitwana, pi. vitwana. 
A slave girl, kijakazi, pi. vijakazi. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 

jakazi. 
A concvMrhe slave, suria, pi. ma- 

suria. 
A slave horn in the house or 

country, mzalia, pi. wazalia.^ 
A runaway slave, mtoro, pi, wa- 

toro. 
A fellow slave, mjoli, pi. wajoli. 
A household of slaves, kijoli, pi. 

vijoli. 
Piece of land allotted to a slave 
for his own use, koonde, pi. 
makoonde. 
Slavery, utumwa. 
Sleep, uzingizi, zingizi. 



Sleeping place, malalo. 
. Things to sleep upon, malazi. 
Sleeve, mkono, pi. mikono. 
Sling, kombeo, pi. makombeo. 
Slip of a tree, &c., mobe, pi. miche. 
' A slip which has put forth leaves^ 
mcbe uliochanua. 

One which hqs made a new shootj 
mcbe uliocbipuka. 
SUpperiness, utelezi. 
Sloth, uvivu. 
Slovenliness, fujofujo. 
SmaUness, udogo. 

Small-pox, ndui. ^^^ 

Smell, barufu, manuka, azma. ^^ 
Smith (worker in metal),' mfua, pi. 

wafua. See Blacksmith, &c. 
Smoke, mosbi, pH. miosbi. .^ 
Snail, koa, pi. makoa, konokonb. 
Snake, nyoka, joka, pi. majoka 
(large). 

Cbatu, python. 

P*ili, oohra (?). 
Snare, sbabuka. 
Sneezing, cbafya. 
Snoring, kukoroma. 
Snuff, tumbako ya kunuka, or 

kunusa. 
Snuff-box, tabakelo. 
Soap, sabuui. >. — 
Soda, magadi. 
Solder, lihamu. 

Soldier, asikari. 

Sole (of the foot), uayo, pi. nyao. 
Soliftide, upekee, ukiwa. 
Somauli Coast, Banada. 
Somebody, mtu. 

Some one else's, -a mwenyewe. 

(yhild of somebody, i.e., of respect- 
able parents, mtoto wa watu, 
mwana wa watu. 
Somersaulty Mtwangomba» -^ . 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



71 



8o7k, mwana, pi. waana, kijana, 
mtoto mume. 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohammed*» 

son. 
Bin Abdallah (Ar.), Ahddlhih's 

son. 
Hamisi wa Tani, Hamisi the son 

of Tani {Othman). 
8on-in4aw, mkwe, pi. wakwe. 
Song^ idmbo, pi nyimbo. 
Soot, kaa moshi, makaa ya monhi. 
Soothing thing, kitulizo, pi. yitulizo. 
Soothsayer, kahini, pi. makahinL 
Sore, donda, pi. madonda, kidonda, 
pi. Tidonda, jeraba. 
Sores in the leg, nyungtmyungu, 
mti 
Sorrow, kasarani, hnzuni, sikitiko, 
matukio. 
Sorrow for a loss, majoozi. 
Sorrow for something done, ma- 

jutio. 
Excessive sorrow, jitimai. 
Sort (kind), gmai, nanma, aina. 
T?i€ sort is often expressed by 
the prefix ki-. Kizungu, the 
European sort, kifaume, the 
kingly sort. 
Soul, loho. 
Sound, aautL 
Soundness, uzima. 
Source, asili, chimbuko. 
South, kusini, suheli. 
SotUherly wind, kusi. 
Sovereign^ mwenyi ezi, mwenyi 
inohi, mwenyi mji. 
(coin), robo Ingrezi. 
Sovereignty, ezi, enzi. 
Space, nafasi. 
(of time), mnda. 
(open space), uwanda, uga. 
Spade, jembe la kizimgu. 



Span, faturi, shibiri, shibri. 

Spangles, puluki. 

Spark, chechi, pi. macheebi 

Sparkle, kimeta. 

Speaker, mneni, pi. waneni, msemi, 
pi. wasemi, msemaji, pi. wa- 
Bemaji. 

Speaking, kuaema, kunema. ^i 
A dark obscure way of speaking, 

kilinge cha maneno. 
An enigmatical way of speaking, 
in which the last syllable is 
taken from the end, and made 
to begin the word, kinynme, 
kinjTuma. (See Appendix I.) 

Spear, fumo, pi. mafumo (flai- 
Uaded) mkuke/^. miknke, 
(three-edged) sagai, pi. masagai. 

SpeetOiCles, miwani. 

Speech (speaking), kunena. 
(oration), mataguso, milumbe. 

Spider, buibni. 

Spinal oolwnn, nti wa maimgo. 

Spirits, mvinyo. "" 
Evil spirit, pepo. 
Kinds of spirits, jini, pi. majini, 
milhoi, mahoka, dungumaro, 
kitamiri, kizuu, kiznka, koikoi, 
mwana maua, &c. 

Spit, van&, pi. nyuma. 

Spittle, mate. 

Spoil, mateka. 

Spleen, wengo. 

Splint, gango, pi. magango, banzi, 
pi. mabanzi. 

Splinter (of wood), kibanzi, pi. 
V vibanzi. 

(of glass or earthenware), kige- 
renyenza, pi. vigerenyenza. 

Spoon, mwiko, pi. miiko, kljiko, pi. 
vijiko (a tea-spoon), mkamshe, 
pi. mikamshe (a wooden spoon). 



72 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Sport, mohezo, mzaba. 

Spot, waa, pi. mawaa, Idpakn, pit. 

yipaku. 
SpotU (from a roof), kopo 1a 

HTumba, marizabu. 
Sprain, kuteuka. 
Spread, eneo. 
^ Spreading a meal, maandika 
Spring, mtambo, pH. mitambo. 

of waier, ohemobem, jioho la maji. 
Sprinkle, manyunyo. 
Sprinkler {for scents), mrashi, ph 

mirashi 
Spwr of a cook, kipi, kipia, pi, vipia. 
Spy, mpelelezi, pi. wapelelezi, 
V mtumbuisi (A.). 
^ Square, mrabba. 
Squimt, ipakengeza. 
Stable, banda la irao, fsja la frasi. 
Staff, gongo, pi. magongo, mkongo- 
jo, j92. mikoQgojo. 
. Stagnation, vilio, pi. mayilio. 
Stain, waa, pi. mawaa. 
'^ Stairs, daraja, ngazi. 
Up-stairs, juu, darioi. 
Dovon-stairs, chini. 
SiaXks, cf mtama, bua, pi. mabua. 
of a hwd of miLlet chewed like 

sugar-cane, kota, pi. makota. 
of cloves, &c., kik(myo,|)2. Yikonyo. 
Stall keeper, mcburuzi, ph wa- 

churuzi. 
Stammering, kigugumui. 
Stamp, muhuri, cbapa. 
Staple, pete, pi. mapete, tumbuu. 
".^i^tar, iiyota. 

Falling stars, nyota zikisbuka. 
Shooting stars, kimwondo, pi. 
yimwondo. 
Starch, kanji, donda 
Start {fright), kituka 
{beginning^ fell, pi. maftili. 



thing, meaxkgu, p^. mi- 
zunga. 
A thing to frighten people, kioya- 
go, pi vinyago. 
&ate,holl 
Statue, sanamu. 
Stealing, kwiba. 
Steam, mvuke.^^ 

A steamship, merikebu ya moshi. 
Steel, feleji, pua. 
Steelyard, miKani. 
Steersman, mshiki sbikio. 
Stem of a tree, sbina, piL maehina. 

of mtama, bna, pi. mabua. 
St^ (stepping), hatua. 

{of stone, dtc), daraja. 
Step-father, baba wa kambo. 

Step-mother, mama wa kambo. 
Steward, msimamizi^^J.wasimamizL 
Stick, fimbo, nfito, pi. fito (thin), 
l)akora (a waiking-stick with a 
handle hent at right angles). 
A short heatfy stick, kibarango, 
pd. nbarango, mpweke, pH mi- 
pweke. 
A staff, goDgo, pi, magoDgo^ 
mkoDgojo, pi. mikoDgojo (an 
old man^s staff), 
StiUness, kimya. 

Stirrup, kikuku oha kupandia ft9M. 
Stocks (for the feet), mkatale. 
Stomach, tumba ._ 
Pit of the stomach, chembe cha 
moyo (A.). 

Stone, jiwe, pL mawe or m^jiwa , 

A stone house, nyumba ya mawe. 
Small stones or pieees </ tione, 

k(^oto, pi. makdkoto. 
Very smaU stones, not larger than 

an egg, mbwe. 
Very small grit, obangarawi. 
Fresh corali matumbawi 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



73 



Prmmii $tone», kito, pi vito. 

Stones of fruity kokwa, pi, ma- 

kokwa. 
Stooping, kiiDamizi. 
-Stop (end), Wkomo, kinga. 

(stopping), Hkmzo, kiziiizi, kizuio. 
Stoppage in the nose or vjind-pipe, 

mafua. 
(stagnationX vilio, pi. mavilio. 
Stopper, zibo, plL mazibo, kizibo, pi, 

vizibo. 
Store (prU by), akibft. 
Store-room, ghala, ' 
Storm, tbdraba, tufanu. 
Story, hadithi, habari. See Tale, 
^outnese, uoene. 
Strainer, kunguto, pi makunguto 

(of hcuhet-voorh). 
Straite (distress), sMdda. 

(narrow seas), kilango cha baliari. 
Strands of a cord, meno, noha. 
Stranger, mgeni, pL wageni 
Strap, ukanda, 
Straiagem, hila. 
Stream, mto, pi, mito, kijito, pit, 

vijito. 
Strength, ngUYU. 
String, ugwe, uzi, katani. 

String of heads, kigwe, pi Tigwe. 
String-'cowse, usbl. 
Strip, See Mat, 
Stripe (line), uzi, pi, oyuzi, mfuo, 

pi mifuo, utepe, pi tepe. 
Study, mtaala. 
Stumble, kwao, pi makwao. 
Stumbling-block, kwao, pi, makwao. 
Stump^ ^ioa, pi, maahina. 
Stupor, kurukwa na akilL 
Stye in the eye, chokea. ' 
Style (of writing), dibaji, a good 

style. 



Subject, rayia. ' 

Substance, asili. 

Subtlety, bll8a^^ werevn. 

Subtraction (ariUkmetieaC), baki. 

Suburbs, kiuoga. 

Sugar, sukari. — 

Sugar-cane, mua, pH. miwa. ^" 

Suit of clothes, kiaua. 

Sulphate of copper, mrutatu. 
of magnesia, chumTi ya hahili. 

Sulphur, Mberiti. • 

SuUanship, usultani. 

/S^m, junda. 

Summary, muhtasari. 

Summit, kilele, pi vilele (used of 
any sharp-pointed top or p^ah, 
of the centre shoot of a cocoa- 
nut tree as well as of the peak 
of a mountain). 

Sun, jua, pi, majua. — ' 
The coming out of the sun after 
rain, kianga. 

Su/nday, Juma a pili ••^ 

Sundries, takataka. 

Sunset, magbaribi, mangaribi. 

Supercargo, karani. 

Superciliousness, kitoiigotongo. 

Superintendent, mwaiigali2di» pi ira- 
angalizi, maimamizi, pi, wa&l- 

Supper, chakula cba jioxu. 

Suppuration, kutunga. 

Surety, mtbamini, tbimin, thamana, 

lazima. 
Surf, mawimbi 
SwaUow (bird), barawai» mbili- 

wili (?), mbayuwayu (A.). 
Sweai, hari, jaabo, vukuto. ^** 
Sweetheart, mcbumba. 
Svjeet lime, dimu tamu. 
Sweetne$8, tamo. 
Sweet potatoes, yiaii, sing, kiazi. 



74 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Swindler, tbaliinu. 
Swing, pembea. 
Swine, nguruwe, nguuwe. 
Switch, ufito, pi. fito. 
Sword, upanga, pi. panga. 
curved sword, kitara, pi. vitara. 
straight two-edged sword vrithout 
/ any guard, upanga wa feleji. 
vjith a small cross hilt, upanga 
wa imaui. 
Syphilis, sekeneko, kijaraha cha 
mboni, tego (a virulent kind 
supposed to be the resuU of a 
charm). 
Syria, Sham. 
Syrup, €ksali. 



'"^'^ Table, meza. 

Table-cloth, nguo ya me^a. 
Tahle - napkin, kitambaa oba 
meza. 
Tack of a sail, gosbi. 
Tacking {sewingy, bandi. 
*'*^Tail, ctikia,jp2. mikia. 
- ^*^ Tailor, msboni, pi, washoni. 
Taking away, maondoleo. 
Tale, haditbi, kisa, ugano. 
Tale-bearer, mzuzi. 
Talipes, kupinda na mguu. 
Talk, usemi, 

Silly talk, upuzi. 
Talker, msemaji, ph wasemaji. 
Tamarind, ukwaju. 

Tam^irind tree, mkwaju, pi. mi- 
Tangle, matata. [kwaju. 

Tap, bilula. 
Tape, utepe, pi. tepe. 
Tar, lami. 

Tartar on the teeth, ukoga. 
Taste, tuinu,tamu, lutbtba, nyonda, 
maondi, maonji. 



TaMer, mwonja, pi. waonja, mwo- 

nda (M.), pi- waonda, kionja» 

pL Vioiija, kionda (M.)» V^- 

vionda. 
Tea, cbayi, cha. ^^ 
Teacher, mwalimu, pi. waalimu, 

mkufunzi, pL wakufunzi. 
Teaching, mafundisbo, elimu. 
Teak, msaji. 

Teapot, bull, pi. mabuli. 
Tear, chozi, pi. maobozi, tozi (M.^, 

pi. matozi. 
Teazing, tbihaka. 
Tediousness, uchovu. 
Telescope, dui*abini. 
Temper, tabia. 

Temperance, tawassuf, kadiri. 
Temple, bekalu (a great thing, the 

temple at Jerusalem), baniya 

(a building, the temple at 

Mecca). 
Temptation, majaribu, nyonda. 
Ten, kumi, pi. makumi. — 

a decade, mwongo, pi. miongo. 
Tent, kbema, bema. ^^^ 
Testicles, mapumbu, tamboa. — 
Testimony, usbahidi. 
Thanks, sbukuru, usbukura, salamu, 

ahsanta, marababa. — > — 
Thatch, makuti (of cocoa-nut leaves). 
Thin sticks used to tie the makuti 

to, upau,^?. pau. 
See Cocoa-nut 
Theft, uizi. . 
Thicket, kicbaka, pi. vicbaka, koko, 

pi. makoko. 
Thickness, unene. ^x 
Thief, mwivi, pi. weVi, mwibaji, pi. 



Thieving, kwiba^ uizi, wibaji. 
Thigh, upaja, pi. paja, paja, pi, ma- 
paja. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



^5 



Tkinible, subana. 
Sailtndker*8 palm, dofra, pi. ma- 

dofra. 
hing, kitu, pi. vitu (a thing of the 
senses), neno, jkmbo, mambo 
(things of the inteUeet). 
I have done nothing, sikufanya 

neno. 
I see nothing, sioni kitu. 
A hind thing, jambo la wema. 
Strange things, mambo mageui. 
Third (a third paH), tteluth. 
Thirst, kiu. * 

Thorn, mwiba, pi. miiba or miba. 
Mchongoma, pi, michougoma, a 

thorny shrvb used for hedges. 
Mkwamba, pi. mikwamba, a 
thorny shrub. 
Thought, wazo, pi. mawazo, fikara, 
thamiri, nia. 
. Thousand, elfu, pi. elfu or alafu. 
a thousand or myriad, kikwi, pi. 

zikwi or vikwL 
a hundred thousand, lakki. 
Thread, uzi, pi. nyuzi, kataui. 
Threat, wogofya, tisho. 
Throat, koo, pi. makoo. 
Thwmb, kidole cha gumba. 
Thunder, radi (neajr), ugurumo 
iditiant). 
J Thursday, Alhamisi. 
Ticket, Mbarua, pi. vibarua. 
Tickling or tingling, mnyeo, Muye- 

nyefu. 
Tickst papasi {in houses), kupe (on 

came). 
Tide, maji kujaa na knpwa. 
Spring tides, bamvua. 
Neap tides, maji mafu. 
Tiller, kana, gana. 
, Tiller ropes, mijiari, aing, mjiari. 
Timber, miti, mibau. 



Time, wakati, wakti, majira. 
(sufficient), nafasi. 
(hour), saa. 
(leisure), faragha. 
(first, nkc), mara. 
(fixed term), mohnlla. 
Times {age), ^amani. 
Spaxie of time, muda. 
Period of time, kipindi. 
A short time, kitambo. 
Times, in multiplication, fi. 
Six times eight, sita fi the- 
manya. 

Divisions of Time. 

There are two years io nse in 
Zanzibar ; that which is most com<' 
monly heard of is the Arab year of 
twelve lunar months. It cannot be 
more than about 355 days long, and 
has therefore no correspondence to 
the seasons. The months are de- 
termined by the sight of the new 
moon, or by the expiration of thirty 
days since the beginning of the 
previous month. It happens some- 
times that some of the coast towns 
will begin their months a day before 
or after what was taken as its first 
day in Zanzibar. A gun is usually 
fired from one of the ships when 
the month begins. Practically the 
Bamathan is treated as tiie first 
montii, and the rest are reckoned 
from it; the word by which they 
are denoted seems to mean- not 
facing, as though the Bamathan 
being the month of fasting, the rest 
were the first, second, third, &o., 
of not foisting, until the months of 
Bajah and Shaaban, which have 
both a special religious character. 



76 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



The following are the nametf of the 
Arab months, with their Swahili 
equivalents : 



SirABHJ. 



Moharram. 


Mftinguo a 'nne. 


Safr. 


Mftinguo a taiio. 


RabUalaowal. 


Mfbngno a sita. 


Rabla al akhr. 


MfangQo a 8at>a. 


Jemad al aowal. 


Mfungoo a naoe. 


Jemad al akhr. 


Hfunguo a kenda. 


B«Oab. 


. Rajabu. 


Bhaaban. 


Shaabant. 


Ramathan. 




Shaowal. 


MAiDgao a mod. 


Th'U ka'ada. 


MfunguoapUl. 


Th'll hi^Jiah. 


Hfunsuo a tato. 



The two great Mohammedaa 
feasts are held on the first of 
Shaowal^ when every one gives pre- 
sents, and on the tenth of Th'U 
he^ah^ when every one is supposed 
to slaughter some animal and feast 
the poor. 

The other year in use am(xig the 
Swahili is the Nautical and Agri- 
cultural year ; it is roughly a solar 
year, having S65 days. It is 
reckoned to begin from the Siku a 
wuoaka (answering to the Persian 
Nairuz)t which now occurs towards 
the end of August. The last day 
of the old year is called Kigunsif 
and the days are reckoned by 
decades, called mitmgo^ sing. mi4x>- 
figo. Thus — Muoongo vfa nUa con- 
sists of the days between 90 and 
100. Mwongo wangapif asks which 
decade it is. The 8%ku a mwaha is 
kept as a great day, and formerly 
had a number of special observances 
connected with it. In the night or 



early in the m(»ning every one used 
to bathe in the sea: the women are 
particularly careful to do, so. They 
afterwards fill a large pot with 
grain and pulse, and cock them. 
About noon they serve out to all 
Mends who come; all the fires are 
extinguished with water and lighted 
again by rubbing wood. Formerly 
no inquiry was made as to any one 
killed or hurt on this day, and it is 
still the custom to go armed and 
to be on the guard against private 
enemies. It used to be a favourite 
amusement to throw any Indiana 
that could be caught into the sea, 
and otherwise ill-use them, until 
the British Government interfered 
for their protection. The year ia 
called after the day of the week on 
which it began; thus, in 1865 it 
began on Thursday and was 
Mwaka AlhamiH; in 1866 on 
Friday, and was Mwaka Juma, and 
so on. 

The seasons wOl be found briefly 
mentioned under that word. 

The week has been reoonstmeted 
on the Arab week, retaining only 
the Arab names of two days, AOia^ 
misi and Juma (Thursday and 
Fi;iday), which answer to our Sator* 
day and Sunday for Mohammedan 
religious purposes, and are the days 
which slaves in the country are 
generally allowed for their own 
recreation or profit. Juma is so 
named from the assembly held on 
that day for public worship; the 
Arab names of the rest are merely 
those used by English Quakers, 
first, second, third, &o. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



Ekoush. 
Snnday. 
MoDday. 
Tuesday. 
Wednesday. 
Thvandsf. 
Friday. 
Satorday. 



AKAua 
AliUiad. 
Ath theneen, 
Ath thelnih. 
Ar robua'. 
Alkhamis. 
Jama'. 
Aaaabt. 



SWAttlU. 

Juma a pUi* 
Jtimaatata. 
Juma a 'mie. 
Juma a tano. 
Alhamist. 
Juma. 
Jtuna a mOBL 



The day begins at stmset ; tonight 
therefore in the mouth of a Swabili 
means what an Englishman would 
call last night As the days are of 
a ^ery nearly uniform length there 
is little practical incorrectness in 
taking sunset as six o'clock in the 
evening and reckoning the night 
first and then the day from it, hour 
by hour. Thus, seven, eight, and 
nine are the first, second, and third 
of the night (saa a hwanza, a ptltt 
a tatu ya tmJcu). Midnight is the 
sixth hour, saa a sitci. Five in the 
morning is the eleventh hour of the 
night, 8aa a edhashara. Nine 
o'clock in the morning is the third 
hour of the day, saa a tatu. Twelve 
at noon is the sixth hour, ma a sita^ 
and four and five the tenth and 
eleventh hours, soa a humif Boa a 
edhasJiara. Sunset is determined 
by observation, and a gun is fired, 
and the Sultan's flag hauled down 
to mark it. During the Ramathan a 
gun is fired at half-past two in the 
luoming to warn every one of the 
s^proach of morning, that they may 
get their cooking and eating over 
before dawn. This gun-fire is called 
daahuu. 

There is another way of marking 
the time by reference chiefly to the 
hours of prayer (see Prayer); the 
following are the chief points : 



Magaribi, iunset. 

Mshuko wa magaribi (coming mit 

from sumel prayers), about 

half'-paM 9ix. 
Esha or Isha, from half -past six 

to eight 
Mshuko wa esha, about half -an- 

hour later. 
Nuss ya usiku, midnight 
Karibu na alfajiri, between three 

and four in the morning. 
Alfajiri mkuu. rising of the morn- 
ing star, about four. 
Alfajiri mdogo, dawn. 
Assubui, the morning, i.e., after 

sunrise. 
Mchana, the day from ajasubui to 

jioni. 
Mskfnngulia ng'ombe (letting out 

of cattle), about 8 a.m. 
Mafangulia ng'ombe makuu, is 

earlier, mafungulia ng'ombe 

madogo, is later than eight 

o'clock. 
Jua kitwani, noon. 
Athuuri or Azuuri, noon, and 

thence till three o'clock. 
Awali athuuri, between twelve and 

one. 
Alasiri, abovi half-past ffiree, ar 

from three to five. 
Alasiri kasiri, about five, or thence 

to half -past. 
Jioni, evening, from c^nmt five or 

half -past till sunset. 



Tin, bati. 

Tip, ncha, nta (M.). 
Tithes, zaka. 
Toha>cco, tumbako. - 
To-day, leo. • 



78 



SWAHILI EANDBbOK. 



To€y kidole, pi. vidole, kidole cha 

mguu. 
ToJcen, dalili, buruhani, 
Tonib, kabuii, pi. makaburi. 
^^ To-morrowy kesha 

the day after ^ kesho kutwa. 
<Ae day after thaty mtondo. 
after that^ mtoDdo goo. 
TongSy koleo, pi. makoleo. 
^ T(mgti€f ulimi, pi; ndimi. 

A piece of chth, &c.y to lie under 
an opening f lisani. 
Tool, samani 
Carpenter* 8 tool for marking lines, 
mahati. 
' Tooth, jino, pi. meno. 
cuspids, chonge. 
Dirt on the teeth, ukoga. 
He has lost a front tooth, ana 

pengo. 
Tooth stick or brush, msuaki, pt 
misuaki, 
Top, juu. 

{the toy), pia. 
Torpor, utepetefu. 
Tortoise, kobe. 
Total, jumla. 
^^^^oire^jkitambaa cha kufutia uso, &c. 
Tower, mnara, pi. minara. 
Town, mji, ph miji. 
Tra^, dalili. 
Track, nyayo. 
_^ Troche, biasbara. 

' Trader, mfanyi biashara. 
Traitor, kbaini. 
Trap, mtego, pi. mitego. 
(with a spring), mtambo, pi. mi- 
tambo. 
Traveller, msafiri, pi wasafiri. 
Tray, ainia, pi masinia. 
Treacle, asali ya mua. 
Treasure, hazina, kanzi, khazana. 



Treatment, mwamale. 
Tree, mti, pi miti. 

Mkadi, Pandanus. 

Mtomondo, Barringtonia. 

'iltondoo,Calophyllum inophyUum, 
Trench, handaM. 

Trench for laying in foundations, 
msinji, msingi. 
Trial, majaribu^^^^'- — 
Tribe, kabilaftaifa, pi mataifa. 

(taifa is larger than kabila). 

Of what tribe are you i Mtu gani 
wee? 
Trick, hila, cherevu, madanganya. 
Trot, mashindo {of a horse), matlf 1 

(of an ass). 
Trouble, taabu, utbia. 
Trousers, soruali — ^^' 
Trowel {masmCs), mwiko, pi miiko. 
Trumpet, paanda. 

Trunk, shina, pi mashiiia, jiti, pZ. 
majiti. 

(cut down), gogo, pi magogo. 

(the human trunk), kiwiUwjlli. 
Truth, kweli — -^ 

A truth teller, msemi kweli 
Trying, maonji, majaribu. 
Ttib, pipa, pi mapipa. 
Tuesday, Jmna a nne. 
Turban, kilemba, pi vilcmba. 

A turban doth, utambi, pi tambi. 

ends of turban doth, utamyua, pi. 
tamyua, kishiingi, 
Turkey, bata la mzinga, pi mabata 
ya mzinga. . 

Turmeric, manjauo. 
Turn, zamu, pi maz£unu. 

By turns, kwa zamu. 
Turner, mkereza, pi wakereza. 
Turnery, zikerezwazo. 
Turtle, kasa. 

Hawkshead turtle^ from which 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



79 



tmioisesheU is obtained, ug'a- 

mb^, gnamba. 
Turtle dove, hua. 
Twirl, pacha. 
Tvjist, pindi, pL mapindi. 
Type (for printing), chapa, ph ma- 

cbapa. 

U. 
Udder, kiwele. 
Ulcers, donda ndugu. 
Umbrella, mwavuli, pZ. miavuli. 
Native umbrella, dapo, pi. ma- 

dapo. ^ 

Undeanness, janaba, ucbavu. 
Uncle, mjomba, pi. wajomba, baba 

mdogo (moiher^s brother), amu 

{father's brother). 
Undergrowth, magiigu. 
Understanding, akili (pi). 
Underwood, makoko. 
Unity, \uno}a,. 
Universe, ulimwengu. 
Uproar, fajo,kelele, makelele, uthia, 

kero* 
Urine, mkojo. 
Use, kutumia, kufaa. 

(habit), mazoezo. 
Useful things, vifaa. 
Usurer, mlariba, pi. walariba. 
Uswry, iriba. 
Utensils, vyombo. ^ 
Uterus, mji. ^ 
UvuZa, kimio. 



Vagabond, bana kwao (homeless). 

Vagina, kiinuk — ^ 

VaUey,^ boonde, pU boonde or ma- 

boonde. 
Value, kima^ ^^amani, kadin, kiasi, 

upataji, uthani. 



What is it worth ? Chapataje ? ' 

Vapour, mvuke, fukizo. 

Vapour bath, mvuke. 
Vault, or vaulted place, kuba, kubba. 
Vegetables, mboga. 

Dodoki, pi. madodoki, a l^ig 
many-angled seed pod. 

Fijili or figili, a large white 
radish. 

Jimbi, pi. majimbi, a root very 
mu4:h like a hyacinth root. 
Vegetable marrow, mumunye, pi. 

mamummiye. 
Veil, utaji, shela. 
Vengeance, kasasi. 
Verses, mashairi. 

Utenzi, religious verses. 

Utumbuizo, wr«w sung at a dance. 
Vesicular eruption on the skin, 

uwati. 
Vial, kitupa, pi. vitupa. 
Vice, uovu, ufisadi, ufiski. 

(the tool), jiliwa, pi. majiliwa, 
iriwa. 
Vicegerent, kaimu, pi. makaimu, 

nayibu, kalife. 
Victim, mathabuha. 
Victuals, vyakula. 
Vigil, kesba, pi. mcikesha. 
Village, mji, pi miji, kijiji, pi. vjjiji. ^ 
Vine, mzabibu, pi. mizabibu. 
Vinegar, siki. 
Violence, jeuli, nguvu. 

Kwa Bguvu, by violence . 

Ana jeuri, he attacks people wan- 



Virgin, bikiri, kizinda. 

Viscera, matumbo. 

Vizir, wazlri, pi. mawaziri. 

Vizirship, uwaziri. 

Voice, eauti. 

Vow, nathiri, naziri. 



80 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Voyage^ eafan. 
Ftttture, taL 



W. 



Wages^ ujira. 
mmOdyy mahabara. 
8ailon\ halasa. 
WaUing^ maombolezo. 
Waistcoat, kisibau, pL Yifibao. 
deeved, cha mkono. 
sleevelete, kisioho mkono or cha 
yikapa 
Walk, mwendo. 
A walk, matembecL 
tp go for a walk, kwenda tembea. 
Wall, ukuta, pi, kata, kikuta, pi. 
vikuta, kitalU) pL Titalu (of an 
6ndo8ure), kiyambaza {mud 
and stud), 
WaUrplate, mbati, mwamba, pL mi- 

amba. 
Walnut, jozi 
Wandering about, mztmgoko, pi 

mizunguko. 
Want, uhtaji, upnng-afd, kipunguo. 

(poverty), shidda, umasikkii 
War, vita, kendo (Her.). 
Wareroom, gbala. 
Warehouse and ^ujp, bokhari, 
.bohari. 
Warmth^ moto, uharank 

Lukewarmnees, nyngnmgci. 
Wart, cbunjua. 
Wcuiherman, dobi. 
Wa$te, npotevn, nbaribmu 
Waster, mpotevu, pi, wapotevu, 

muharibiTn, pi. wahaxibiyu. 
Watch, saa. 
(mgU), kesba, pH. makesha. 
(time or place of watching), ki^ 

ngojo, pi. vingojo. 
(watching-plaoe). Undo. 



Water, rQB,}\. ^^ 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji 

yapepo. 
Waier-closei, choo, ohiro. 
Water" cooler (earthen botOe), 
gudawia, gudulia, knzi (a 
larger kind with handles and 
spout), 
I Water Jar, mtungi, pi. mitnngi. 
Water melon, battikh. See 

Pumpkin, 
Water shin, kiriba. 
Wave, wimbi, ph mawimbi. ^ 
Way, njia. 

(he shortest way, njia ya kukata. 
Weakness, uthaiftt. 
Wealth, mali mengi, utajiri, nkwasi. 
Weapon, selaha, mata (weapms, i.e,, 

bows and arrows). 
Weather, wakatL 
Weather side, npande goahini, 
upande wa juu. 
Weaver, mfuma, pL wafuma. 
Wedding, haiu&ir^^^ 
Wedge, kabari. 
Wednesday, Juma a tana 
Weeds, magugu» 
Kinds of weeds, kitawi, mdago, 
gugu mwitu, mbarati. 

Week, jnmaa. 

Weight (see measure), ntbani. 
How mui^ does it weigh ? Tapata 

kassi gani utbani wake? 
Native Weights : 
Wakia, (he weight of a silver 

dollar, about one ounce. 
Battel, sixtemi wakia, about one 

pound. 
Kibaba, pL vibaba, om xattel amd 

a half 
Hani, two rattel and Ikree^ 
quarters. 



SUBSTANTIVES. 



81 



Piahi, four vibaba, or eix rattel. 
FrasHa, thirty-five rattel, or twelve 

mani. 
Farra ya mti, 8evevty-two rattel, 
or ttoelve pishi. 
, Wdly Msima, pi visima. 
Weeping^ kilio. 
. West, maghribi 

West windy umande. 
Wet, rataba, maji. 
Whale, Byamgumi, ngumi. 
, Wheat, ikgoxio. 
Wheel, gurudumu, jpZ. maguru- 
dumu. 
Wheeled carriage, gari, jl. ma- 
gari. 
WlietsUme, kinoo, pi. vinoo. 
TF^ip, mjeledi, pi. mijeledi. 
A plaited thong carried by over- 
lookers and schoolmasters, ka- 
i(Lbaa, kikoto (M.). , 
Whirlwind, kisusuli, pepo za cha- 

mchela. 
Whistling, maonjo, miunsi. 
White ants, mcbwa. 
White of egg, ute wa yayi. 
Whiteness, weupe. 
Whitening, cliaki. 
Whitlow, mdudu. 

Wick of a lamp, utambi, pi. 
tambi. : 
of a candle, kppe, pi. makope. 
Widow, mjani, mjaani, mke aliofi- 

wa na mmnewe. 
Width, upana. 

Wife, mke, pi. wake, mtumke, pi. 
watuwake, mwaoamke, pi. wa- 
anaake. 
WUdemess, bara, nyika, nnyika. 
Wild people, washenzi. 
WHd animals, nyama za mwitu, 
nyama mbwayi, uyama wakali. 



Will (mind), moyo, nia, kosudi. 

(testament), wasio. 
Wind, upepo, much ujind, pepo. ^^ 
See Cold, Whirlvjind, Storm, East, 

West. 
Northerly Winds, which blow from 

December to March, kaskazi. 
Southerly winds, which blow Jrom 

April to November, kusi. 
Head winds, pepo za omo (also 

stern winds). 
Wind on the beam, mataoga kati. 
Winding, kizingo, pi. vizingo. 

of a stream, maghuba. 
Windlass, duara. [dirisba. y 

Window, diriaba, pi. dirisba or ma- 
Wine, mvinyo (strong wine), divai 
Wing, bawa, pi. mabawa. [(^claret). 
A toing feather, ubawa, pi. mbawa. 
Wink, kupepesa. 
Wire, masango, uzi wa madini 
Wire-drawet^s plate, cbamburo. 
Wisdom, bekima, busara, akili 
Wit, ujuvi (?). 

Witch, mcbawi, pi. waobawi. 
Witchcraft, uchawi. 
One who uses witchcraft against 
another, wanga. 
Witness, sbabidi, pi. masbabidi. 

(testimony), usbi^idi. 
Wits, akili. 

Wizard, mchawi, pi. wachawi. 
Woe, msiba. See Grief. 
Woman, mwanamke, pi. waanaake '^ 
or waanawake. 
A young woman, kijana,^Z. vijana. 
A young wom^xn who has not yet 
left her father^ s house, one whose 
breasts are not yet flattened, 
mwanamwali. 
A slave woman, mjakazi, pi. wa- 
See Person, Old, Staj^e. [jakazi 



82 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Womb, tumbo, matumbo, mji. 
Wonder, ajabu. 

Wonders, mataajabu. 
Wood, mti. See Firewood, Timber, 
A wood, msitu wa miti. 
A piece of toood, kfjiti, pi, vijiti. 
Kinds op wood. 
Finessi, the wood of the jcuih-fruit 

tree; it has a yellow colour. 
• Mche, a reddish wood much used 

in Zanzibar, 
Mkumavi, a red wood. 
Msaji, teak. 
Mtobwe, the wood of which the 

best bakora are m,ade, 
Sesemi, Indian black wood. 
Simbati, a kind of wood brought 

from near Cape Delgado. 
Sunobari, deal. 
Wooden clogs, viatu vya mti. 
The button which is grasped by 
the toes, mduruaki, pi. miBu- 
ruaki. 
Woollen cloth, joho (broadcloth). 
Thick woollen fabrics, blanketing, 
busbuti. 
Word, neno, pi. maneno. 
Bad words, matukano. 
* Work, kazi. ' 
Workman, mtenda kazi. 
(skilled), fundi. 

(skilful, a good hand), mstadi, pi, 
wastadi. 
Workshop, kiwanda, pi. viwanda, 

kiwanja,|)Z. viwauja. 
World, ulimwengu, dunia. 
People of this world, walimwengu. 
Worldly affairs, malimwengu. 
Worm, nangonango, change, 

mnio (?). 
Worth, kima. See Value. 
Wound, jeraba, donda, pi, madonda. 



kionda, pi, vionda, kidonda, pi, 

vidonda. 
Wrath, ghathabu. 
Wriggle, piticji, pi, mapindi. 
Wrist, kiwiko cha mkono, kilimbilL 
Writer, mwandishi, pi. waandishi, 

akatabao, pi, wakatabao (writer 

of a letter). 
Writings, maandiko, maandishi 
Writing-desk, dawati. 
Wrong, thulumu, sivyo. • 

Y. 

Yam, kiazi kikuu, pi. viazi vikuu. 

A kind of yam like a "hyacinth 
root, jimbi, pi. majimbi. 
Yard (of a ship), foramali. 

(an enclosure), uanda, iianja, ua. 
Yawn, miayo. [jiJ. nyna. 

Year (see Tims),m^iik.Q.,pl, miaka. 

Last year, mwaka jana. 

The year before last, mwaka juzi. 
Yesterday, jana^-^ 

The day before yesterday, juzi ^ 
Yolk of an egg, kiini cha yayi. 
Young of birds, kinda, pi, makinda. 

See Chicken, &c. 
Youth, ujana, udogo. 

A youth, kijana, pi, vijaua. 

Z. 

Zanzibar, Unguja. ^ ,, 

The language or dialect of Zanzi- 
bar, Kiuuguja. In Zanzibar, 
Kiswahili is understood to msan 
chiefly the langvxige used on the 
coast north of Mombas. 
The original inhabitants of Zanzi- 
bar, Muha(iimu,|)Z. Wahadimu. 
Their sultan is the Munyi 
Zeal (effort), juhudi. [mkuu. 

Q'ealousy), uwivu. 
Zebra, punda milia, 



ot 



in the fire 



fing m- 

heingsj 

-;ae first 

. vizir: 

anging 

± many 



the eight following Classes. 



hanging ki- or oh- into vi-. Kitu 
things : vyombo vingi, many dhows. 
, one chest : makasha mengi, many 

5 u- is omitted in the plural. If 
ny-. Ukucha mmoja, one claw : 
bo nyingi, many songs, 
engi, many places, 
^ir dying. 




r 




( 83 ) 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



Adjectives. 

Adjectives always follow the Substantives they 

agree with. 

Mtu rmoemay a good man. 

Begolar Swahili Adjectives are made to agree with 
the Substantives they qualify by prefixing to them the • 
initial syllables proper to the class of their Substan- 
tives, in the singular or plural, as the case may be. 
The minor rules laid down in regard to the prefixes of 
Substantives are applicable to Adjectives and theii^b 
prefixes. The following instances will illustrate the 
ordinary application of these rules : 

Glass L M-iu *m-bay<i, a bad man. 

Wa4u wa-hayay bad men. 
M-tu rmo-eupef a white man. 
Wa-tu to-eupe, white men. 

Substantives of whatever class denoting living beings 
may have their Adjectives in the forms proper to the 

first class. 

Mbuzi mrkubtoa, a large goat. 

Mbuzi wa-hubwa^ large goats. 
Mhuzi mw-ekundu^ a red goat. 
Mbuzi w-ekwndUf red goats. 

Q 2 



f 

4 

t 



84 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. - 

Waziri mwema, a good vizir. 

Mawaziri wema^ good vizirs. 
Kijana mwema, a good youth. 

Vijana wema, good youths. 

Class II. M-ti m-zuri, a fine tree. 

Mi'tt mi'zuri^ fine trees. 
M-ti mv-ema, a good tree. 

Mi-ti mi-emat ox m-ema, good trees. 

Class HI. Ny-umha n-zuri, a fine house. 

Ny'Umba n-zuri, fine houses. 
Ny-umba ny-ewpe^ a white house. 
Ny-umba ny-eupey white houses. 

Class IV. Ki-tu ki-refu, a long thing. 

Vi-tu vi-refUf long thingi. 
Ki-tu ch-epesi, a light thing. 
Vi'tu vy-ejpesi, light things. 

Class V. Kasha zitOj a heavy chest. 

Ma-kaeha ma^zito, heavy chests. 
Kasha j-ekundu, a red chest- 

Ma-kasha m-ekundu, red chests. ^ 

Class VL U-imbo m-zuri, * beautiful song. 

Ny-imbo n-zuri, beautiful songs. 
U'hau m-refu, a long plank. 
M-hAu n-defu, long planks. 

Class VIZ. Mahdli pa-pana^ a broad place, or broad places. 
Mahali p-eusi, a black place, or black places. 

Class VIII. Ku-fa ku-zuri, a fine death. 

Ku-fa kvD-ema^ a good death. 

It will be seen at once from the above examples how 
to make the Adjective agree with its Substantive in 
ordinary cases. The following rules must be remem- 
bered in order to avoid mistakes ; — 

1. Adjectives beginning with a vowel require pre- 
fixes which end in a consonant, wherever possible, as 
in the above instances, mweupe, mwekundu, mwema, 
chepeai, kwema. 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



85 



2. Adjectives beginning with a vowel mtist hate j- 
prefixed when they are made to Agree with nonns like 
kcuiha, as in the instance given above of kasha jekundu, 
a red chest. Monosyllabic adjectives prefix ji, as in 
kMhajipya, a new chest. 

3. Prefixes ending in -<i, when they are put before 
adjectives beginning with e-, merge the a into the 
first letter of the adjective, as in the instances, weupe, 
ufehundtt, mehundu^ peuai. This suppression of the a is 
more noticeable in Adjectives than in Substantives, 
and occurs even in the few Adjectives which begin 
with -0-; -a before <- coalesces with it and forms e. 



Weusi = wa-euH, 
Pema = pa-ema. 
Wengi= toa-ingi. 



Meupe = ma-eupe, 
Mororo = ma-ororo. 



4. Adjectives beginning with a consonant are subject 
to the same rules when n is to be prefixed as Substan- 
tives of the third class and plurals of the sixth. The 
rules are given at length under Class VI. of Substan- 
tives. The following instances will show their appli- 
cation to Adjectives : 

Nyuwba j ndogo, Jittle 

Mbau \ ngeni, strange n prefixed. 

Nyimbo I nzurit fine 

lidefu, long— t becomes d. 

mbovu, rotten — » becomes m. 

mhiUf two— WM> becomes nib. 



Jn^noa, great 
nene^ thick 
paoM, broad 
tamuy sweet 
chaehet few 
fupi, short 



n suppressed. 



86 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Besides the many apparent irregularities in these 
n formations, there are two or three really irregular 
forms. These are ngema or njema (not nyema), good, 
and ^mpya (not j>ya), new. 

Adjectives beginning with a vowel are, like the cor- 
responding Substantives, regularly formed by prefixing 
wy-, as in the instance given, «yewpe, from -eope, white. 

Instances are given in the list of Adjectives where 
there is likely to be any practical difficulty in kno^ng 
what form to use. 

-Ote, all, and -enyi, or -inyi, having or with, are not 
treated as Adjectives, but as Pronouns. Instances 
illustrating their changes will be found under each. 
On the other hand -ngapiy how many ? is treated as an 
Adjective. 

Irregular Adjectives. 

Although Swahili is rich in Adjectives when com- 
pared with other African languages of the same family, 
it is very poor in comparison with English. The place 
of the English Adjective is supplied — 

1. By Arabic words which are used as Adjectives 
but do not vary. 

BahiH, cheap. Laini, smooth. 

2. By a verb expressing generally in the present 
imperfect to hecome^ and in the present perfect to he, 
possessed of the quality denoted. 

Fimibo imenyoha, the stick is straight. 

Fimbo iliyonyokay a straight stick 
Fimbo imepotokat the stick is crooked. 

Fimbo iliyopotokay a crooked stick. 
Mtungi um^aa, the jar is fall. 

Mtungi uliqjaa, a full jar. 



ADJECTIVES* AND NUMERALS. 87 

3. By a Substantive connected with the thing quali- 
fied by the particle -a, of. 

Mtu wa choyo, a greedy person. 

Mtu wa dkilif a man of understanding, a wise man. 

If it is wished to predicate the quality of any person 
or thing, the verb hiwa na, to have, must be used. 

Ana choyo, he is greedy. 
Kina taka, it is dirty. 

. 4. By the use of the word -enyi or -inyi, which may 
be translated by having or with, 

Mtu mwenyi afia, a healthy person. 
Kitu chenyi mviringo, a round thing. 
Kamba zenyi nguvu, strong ropes. 
' Emhe yenyi maji, a juicy mango. 

When -enyi is followed by a Verb in the Infinitive, 
it answers to our participle in -ing. 

Mwenyi kupencUit loving. 

5. By the use of Adjectival Substantives which 
change only to form the plural. 

Ktpo/tt, blind, or a blind person, pi. Vipofu, blind, or blind people. 

Where in English a special stress is laid upon the 
Adjective, in Swahili the relative is inserted. 

Jiwe Tcvhwa^ a large stone. 

Jiwe lililo huhwa, a large stone, literally, a stone that is large. 
Mtu wa hdki, a just man. 

Mtu aliye wa haJci, a just inan. 

/ The Comparison of Adjectives. 

There are not, properly speaking, any degrees of 
comparison in Swahili. 



88 SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 

The Comparative degree as it exists in English is 
represented in several ways. 

1. By the use of JcuUkoy where there is, the idea being 
that when the two things are brought together one of 
them is marked 'by the possession of the quality men- 
tioned, whence it follows that it must possess it in a 
more eminent degree than the other. 

8aa hit njema ktUiko He, this watch is good (or the best) where 

that is, «.6., this watch is better tlian that * 
Tamu kultko asali, sweeter than honey. _ 

2. By the use of zayidi ya, more than, or of punde^ a 
little more. 

Unguja mji mhuhwa zayidi ya Mvita, Zanzibar is a large town 
more than Mombas, t.e., Zanzibar id a larger town than 
Mombas. 

Kitu hire/u punde, something a little longer. 

3. By the use of kupita, to pass or surpass. 

Salimu ampita AbdaUahy Salim is better than Abdallah. 
Ndiyo tamu yapita asalif it is sweet, it passes honey, t.c, it is 
sweeter than honey. 

4. Comparison of one time with another may be ex- 
pressed by the use of the Verbs kuzidiy to increase, 
kupungua, to diminish. 

Mti umezidi kuzaa, the tree has borne more fruit than it did 
previously. 

The Superlative may be denoted by the use of the 
Adjective in its simple form, in an absolute sense. 

Mananasi mema ya wapi f Where are the best pines ? 

Ndiyo mema, these are the best. 

^t yupi aiio mw&ma ? Who is the best of them? 

When this form is used of two only, it is more 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 



89 



correctly Englished by the Comparative than by the 
Superlative. So conversely where the Comparative 
forms are so used* as to apply to many or all, they 
must be translated by Superlatives. 

Soui hii njema kuliko zote, this watch is the best of all. 

Alt aioapita wote, All surpasses them all, or, is the best of all. 



Numerals. 

There are two sets of numerals in use in Zanzibar ; 
one is properly Swahili, the other Arabic, but in a 
Swahiliized form. 

The numbers from one to ten are as follows : 



Engush. 


SwAmLi. 


Arabic. 


One 


Mon 


Wdhid 


Two 


Mi 


Theneen 


Three 


Tutu 


Thdatha 


Four 


'Nne 


*Aroha 


Five 


Tano 


Hamsi 


Six 


Sita 


Sita 


Seven 


Saha 


Saba 


Eight 


Nane _ — 


' Themanya 


Nine 
Ten 


Kenda , 
Kumi — 


Tisia or Tissia 
- ^Aahara 



It will be seen that for six and seven there are only 
the Arabic names. The other Arabic numbers under 
ten are not very commonly used, but for numbers above 
ten the Arabic are more used than the pujer Swahili. 



English. 


Swahili. 


Arabic. 


Eleven 


• Kumi na moja 


Edashsara 


Twelve 


Kumi na mbili 


Thenashara 


Thirteen 


Kumi na tatu 


Thdathatashara 


Fourteen 


Kwm na *nnA 


Arohat€uhara 


Fifteen 


Kumi na tano 


Hamstathara 


Sixteen 


Kumi na nta 


Sitashara 


Seventemi 


Kumi na saha 


Sabatashara 



90 



8WABILI HANDBOOK. 



English. 


SWAHIIJ. 


Arabic. 


Eighteen 


Kumi na nane 


Themanyatashara 


Nineteen 


Kumi na kenda 




Twenty 


Makumi maunli 


Asharini or Ishrin 


Thirty 


Mahumi matcUu 


rheUdhini 


Forty 


Makiimi manne 


Ardbaini 


Fifty 


Makumi matano • 


Hamsini 


Sixty 


Makumi sita 


Settini 


Seventy 


Makumi saha 


Sabvoini - 


Eighty 


Makumi manan^ ^ 


Themantni* 


Ninety 


Makumi kenda 


TisMini 



The intermediate numbers are expressed in the pure 
Swahili by adding na moja, na mhili, &c. Thus forty- 
one is maJcumi manne na moja ; forty-jive is vndkumi manne 
na tano, and so on. In the Arabic, the smaller number 
precedes the larger. Twenty-orhe is todhid u ishrm, forty- 
five is khamd u arohain. The mode of counting most 
usual in Zanzibar is to employ the Arabic names for 
the larger numbers, but to follow the Swahili order, 
tbas — 



Twenty-one 

Twenty-two 

Twenty-three 

Twenty-four 

Twenty-five 

Twenty-six 

Twenty-seven 

Twenty-eight 

Twenty-nine 

Thirty-one 



Aifharini na m^ja 
Anharini na mbili 
Asharini na taJtu 
Asharini na *nne 
Atharini na tano 
Anharini na sita 
Asharini na saba 
Asharini na nane 
Asharini na kenda 
Thelaihini na mqja 



There is no negro word in use for a hundred ; the 
Arabic mia is universally employed, and for several 
hundreds the numeral follows it, as mia tatu, three 
hundred. If the Arabic numerals are used .they pre- 
cede the word mia, thelatha mia = three hundred. The 



ADJECTIVES AND NUMERALS. 91 

Arabic dual miteen is very commonly used to express 
two hundred. ( 

There is a Swahili word for a thousand, Icikwiy but it 
is very rcfrely used except in poetry. The common 
word is the Arabic dfu. This is used in the same way 
as mia ; thus, elfu tatu is three thousand, elfu tano, five 
thousand, &c. The Arabic dual elfeeuj two thousand, 
is more common than elfu mhili. If the Arabic nu- 
merals are employed the small number comes first, the 
plural form aldf is employed, and the final of the small 
number is heard, thus theldthat aldf is three thousand, 
IchSmset aldf five thousand, and so on. 

LaTcki is used for ten thousand, and the word milydn 
is known, but is rarely employed, and perhaps never 
with exactitude. 

Ftmgate occurs for seven, as denoting the days spent by 
the bridegroom in his bride's company after marriage. 

Mwongo, plur. miongo, occurs for a ten or a decade, in 
reckoning the nautical year. 

Both thase words occur in cognate African languages 
as cardinal numbers. 

When used in enimierating actual things, and not 
in mere arithmetical computation, six of the Swahili 
numbers are treated as regular Adjectives, the other 
four remaining unchanged. The following table will 
show the forms proper to feach class of Substantives. 



Mtu 


Mti 


Ntumba 


KiTU 


1. mmoja 


mmoja 


moja 


kimoja 


Watu 


MiTI 


Ntumba 


ViTU 


2. wawili 


miwili 


mbili 


viwili 


8. wafatn 


mitata 


tatn 


vitatu 



92 



2 


SWAHILI EA2WB00K. 




Watu 


Km 


'NtUMBA 


Vmr 


4. wanne 


minne 


'nne 


vlnne 




initano 


tano 


vitano 


B. sita 


sita 


sita 


^sita 


7. saba 


saba 


saba 


saba 


8, wanane 


iDinane 


nane 


vinane 


9. kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10. kumi 




kximi 


kumi 


Kasha 


UlMBO 


Mahau 


KUIPA 


1. moja 


mmoja 


pamoja 


kumoja 


Makasba 


Nyimbo 


Mabau 


KXJTJL 


2. mawili 


mbiU 


pawili 


kuwiU 


8. matata 


tatu 


patatu 


kutatu 


4. manne 


'nne 


panne 


kunne 


5. matano 


tano 


patano 


kutano 


6. sita 


sita 


sita 


sita 


7. saba 


saba 


saba 


saba 


8. manane 


nane 


panane 


kunane 


9. kecda 


kenda 


kenda 


kenda 


10. kumi 


kumi 


kuaA 


kumi 



The nmiLbeT always follows the Substantive. 
One man, mtu mmqja. 
If an adjective is employed, the numeral follows the 
adjective, thus exactly reversing the English order. 
Two good men, watu wema wawili. 

The Ordinal numbers are expressed by the use of the 
variable particle -a. (See Prepositions.) 

The third man« mUa wa tatu. 
The fourth house, nyumba ya *nne. 
The fifth chair, kiti cha tano^ 

The Ordinal numbers «Ere : 



First, -a mosif or more com- 
monly -a hwanza. 
Second, -a pili. 



Third, -a tatu. 
Fourth, -a *nn€. 
Fifth, -a tano. * 



1 



ADJECTIVES AND MUMEBALS. 93 

Sixth, -a Bita. Tenth, -a humi. 

Seventh, -a aaba. &c. &c. 

Eighth, -a nane. Last, -a mwisko. 
" Ninth, -a henda. 

Once, twice, &c., are denoted by the use of marra^ or 

inara, a time. 

Once, mara 7»q/a. 

The first time, mara ya kwanza. 
Twice, mara mbili. 

The second time, mara ya pili. 
How many times ? Mara ngapi f 

Often, mara nyingi. 

Fractioi^ may be expressed by the use offungu^ a 
part, as 

Fungu la thelathiniy a thirtieth. 
The only fractions in common use are the parts of a 
dollar, which are thus expressed in forms borrowed 
from the Arabic : 

One-sixteenth — Nuas ya ihemuni. 

One-eighth — Themuniy or Thewm, or Ze*mni, 
. Three-sixteenths — Themuni na nusa ya ihemuni. 

One-fifth — Zerenge. 

One-quarter — Rdbo. 

Five-sixteenths — Bobo na nuss ya themuni. 

Three-eighths — Rcibo na themuni. 

Seven-sixteenths — Rdbo na ihemuni na nuas ya ihemuni. 

Ooe-half — Nuss. 

Nine-sixteenths — Nuss tm nuss ya ihemuni. 

Five-eighths — Nuns na ihemuni. 

Eleven-sixteenths — Nuss na ihemuni na nuss ya Hxemuni. 

Three-quarters — Kassa roho [i.e., a dollar less by a quarter]. 

Thirteen-sixteentlis— JBTcwaa roho na nuM ya ihemuni. 

Seven-eighths — Kassa ihemuni. 

Fifteen-sixteenths— iCa88a nuss ya ihemuni. 

Numbers treated as Substantives make their plurals 
by prefixing ma- : 

Makumi mawili, two tens, i.e., twenty. t 

Mamqja pia, all ones, t.e., all the same. 



94 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



Those words to which no hyphen is prefixed do not^take any variable syllable. 



A quality for which one cannot find 
a word, a sort of o, -nyangd- 
lika. 

Kitu kiay&ngdlika gani? What 
sort of a hind of thing is this ? 

A. 

Ahle^ having ability for, or power 

over J mweza. 
Abortive (fruity Ac), rpooza. 
Active, -tendaji. 
A^acent, 
Mpaka mmoja, having a «ornmon 

boundary, 
Kutangamana, to adjoin. 
Alike, sawasawa, -moja. 
Alive, hayi 

AU, -ote, or -ot'e, varying as a pos- 
sessive pronoun and not as an 
adjective. 
Olabs I. wote. 

„ II. sing, mote, pi. yote. 
„ m. „ yote, „ zote. 
IV. „ chote, „ vyote. 
V. „ lote, „ yote. 
VI. „ wote, „ zote. 
vn. „ pote. 
vm. „ kwote. 



-ote has special forms after the 
particles of time and place. 
po pote, whensoever. 
ko kote, whitJiersoever. 
mo mote, whereinsoever. 
Also after the first and second 
persons plural. 
sisi sote, we aJL 
ninyi nyote, you aU. 
Sote has the meaning of together. 

tu sote, we are together. 
Wote ha^s the meaning of both, 
sisi wote, both of us. 

2. Pia, the whole, all of U or 
them. 

3. Jamii. 

Jamii wa asikari, aU the soldiers. 
Almighty, mweza vyote. 
AUemate, moja bado wa moja. 
Ancient, -a kale, -a zamani, -a 

kwanza. 
Angular. 
Kuwa na pembepembe, to have 
comers. 
Antique, -a kikale, of the old style. 
Artful, -a vitimbi. 
Awake, macho. 
He is awake, yu macho. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



95 



\ 



B; 



BcLdy -baya, making mbayA with 
nouns like nyiunba or nyimbo. 
-ovu or -bovu, making mbovu 
with nouns Uke nyumba or 
nyimbo. -ovu expresses rather 
corruptness than mere badness. 
Utterly had, baa, pi. mabaa. 
Good for very little^ thaifa. 

Bare J -tnpu, making tupu with nouns 

like nymnba or nyimbo. 
Bareheaded, kitwa kiwazi. 
Barren, of land, kame.' 
of animals, tasa. 
of persons, si mzazi. 

Beautiful, -zurL 

Bent, of persons, kibiongo, pi. vibi- 

ongo. 
Best, bora (pre-eminent). 
Bitter, -chungu ( -tungu (M.)), 
making uchungu yyith nouns 
like nymnba, nyimbo, or kasha. 
Dawa uchungu, hitter medicine. 
Tu&da uchungu, hitter fruit. 
^^^^^ Black, -eusi. Sometimes forms occur 
as if from -usi, such as wausi 
for weusi, mausi for meusi, and 
viusi for vyeusi or veusi. It 
makes nyeusi with nouns like. 
nyumba or nyimbo, and jeusi 
with nouns like kasha. 
^^ Blind, kipofu, pi. vipofu. 
-Blue, samawi (sky colour). 

Maji a bahari (sea-water colour). 
Blunt, -vivu (see Idle). 

Eisu hakipati, the knife is hlunt. 
Bold, -jasiri, shujaa, pi. mashujaa. 
Breeding (of animals), koo. 

Eoo la mbuzi, a breeding goai. * 
Broad, -pana, making pana with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 



Careless, -zembe. 
Castrated, maksai. 
Certain, yakini. 

A certain man, mtu mmoja. 
Cheap, rakhisi, rahisi.''— ^ 
Checkered, marakaraka. 
Chief, bora, -knu. See Chreai. 
Choice, -teule, aali. 
A choice thing, hedaja, tunu, 

hikaya. 
Civilized, -ngwana, -a kiungwana 

(of the civilized sort). 
Clear, safi, fJEisihi, -eupe (see White). 
Clear, kweu, mbayani, thahiri 

(manifest), -wazi (see Open). 

-eupe (see White). 
Clever, hodari, mahiri, -a akili. 
Clumsy, -zito (see Heavy). 
Coloured, -enyi rangi. 

Of one uniform colour, -takatifu. 
Comic, -chekeshaji, -testeshi. 
CommoTi, vivi hivi, zizi hizi, &c., 

yee kwa yee, &c. (see Pronouns). 
A common thing, jazi. 
Complete, kamili, -kamilifu, -timi- 

livu. 
Confident, -tumaini. 
Confidential, -siri. 
Consecrated, wakf. 
Cool, wovisi. 
Correct, sahihi, fasihi. 
Countrified, -a kimashamba. 
Covetous, bakhili,- -enyi choyo, -enyi 

tamaa. 
Crafty, -a hila, -erevu. 
Crazy, mafau. 
Credible, mutaabir, -tabari. 
Crooked, kombokombo, mshithah. 
Cross, -kali (see Fierce). • 
Cross roads, i\jia panda. 
Cunning, -erevu, -a hila. 



96 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Damp, kimaji. 
Daring^ -jasiri. 
Dark, -a giza (of darkness), -«nsi 

(see Black). 
Dead, -fu. 
One whose mother is dead, Mtn 

aliofiwa Da matnaye. 
Deaf, kiziwi, pi. viziwi. 
^ Dear, ghali. ^^\vx^J>.\ 
Deceased, mareh^mu. 
Deformed, kilema, pi. vilema. 
Destructive, -harabu, -haribivu. 
Devout, -taowa. 
, ^ Different, -iugine (see Other), mba- 

limbali, ihtilafu. 
Difficult, -gumu (see Hard), 

(see Heavy). 
Disfigured by disease, -enyi lemaa. 
. Disobedient, aasi. 
Distinct, mbalimbali. 
DovhlQ, maradufu. 
Dressed'up, -paiubi. 
Drunken, -levi. 
Dry, -kavu, making kavu with nouns 

like nyamba or nyimbo. 
yabis. 
Dull, -vivu. See Idle. 
Dunib, bubu, pi. mabubn. 

T E. 

Easy, -epesi. See Light. 

Elder or Eldest, -kubwa. See Greai. 

Eloquent, -semaji, -semi. 
""^ Empty, -tupu. See Bare. 
— 'Equal, sawa, sawasawa, 

Eternal, -a milele. 

European, Ulayiti, -a Kizungu. 

Even (level), sawasawa. 
(not odd), kamili. 

Every, kill a or knlla. It always 
precedes its substaiUive, 



Killa mtu, every man, 

Killa nitndapo, whenever I go, 
or, ev^ry time I go. 
Evident, thabiri, -wazi. See Open^ 
Extravagant, mubathaarifu. 

F. 

Fat,- 'Tiono. 
Faithful, amini. 
Feeble, thaifu. 
Female, -ke. 

On the female side, kukeai. 
Few, haba, -chache, making chache 

with nouns like nymnba ' or 

nyimbo. 
'Ziio^^ieroe, -kali, making kali with fumfts 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Filthy, -chavu. 
Fined, tama. 
Fine, -zuri. 
Firm, imara (of things), thabit (of 

persons). 
Fixed (certain), maalmn. 
Flat, sawasawa, panapana. 
Foolish, -pHmbafu. 
Foreign, -geni. 
Forgetful, -sahaxu 
Forgiving, -samelie. 
Former, -a kwanza. 
Fortunate, heri, -enyi bahad, -a 

heri. 
Free, hum, -ngwana. 
Fresh, -bichi. See Baw. 
Fresh water, maji matamu, maji a 

pepo. 

FuU, kujaa, to become fuU. ^ 

Full to the brink, fara, farafara. 
Full of words, mwingi wa ma- 

neno. 
Full grown, -pevu. 
Future, mkabil. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



97 



r" 



Cfenerous, karimu, -paji. 
Gentle, -anana. 

Glorious, -tukufu, -enyi fakhari. 
Gluttonous, -lafi. 

€ri)od, -ema, making njema or ngema 
with nouns like nyiimba or ny- 
imbo, and jema loith nouns like 
ki^sba. 
The idea of goodness may he ex- 
pressed by the suffix -to. 
Manuka, smells. 

Manukato, good smells. 
Kuweka, to put. 

Kuwekato, to put properly. 
Chreedy, -enyi roho, -enyi tamaa, 

-enyi choyo. 
Great, bora, -kuu and -kubwa or 
-kuba, making kuu and kubwa 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo. Kmi is used preferably 
of moral or figurative greatness. 

.Kubwa, of physical size. 

Great, when applied to anything 

not material, is usually rendered 

hy -ingi. 

Ghreen, chanikiwiti, rangi ya majani 

{Fresh, or unripe), -biohi. See 

Baw. 

H. 
Handsome, -zuri. 
Handy, -a mkono. 

A handbook, chuo cha mkono. 
Happy, -a beri, furahani. 
Hard, -gumu. 

Having, with, being with, or who or 
which has or have, -enyi or 
-inyi. It varies like a possessive 
pronoun, as in the following 



Class I. Mtu mwenyi {or mwi- 
nyi) mali, a rich man. 



"Watu wenyi mali, rich people. 
Class II. Mti mwenyi (or mwi- 
nyi) kuzaa, a tree in bearing. 

Miti yenyi (or yinyi) kuzaa, 
trees in-bearing. 

III. Nyumba yenyi {or yinyi) 
dirisba, a house with windows. 

Nyumba zenyi (or zinyi) 
dirisba, houses with mndows. 

IV. Kikapu cbenyi (or kinyi) 
nguvu, a strong basket. 

Vikapu vinyi nguvu, strong 
baskets. 

V. Neno lenyi kweli, a true word. 

Mabakuli yenyi mayayi, 
basins with eggs in (hem. 

VI. Upindi wenyi nguvu, a 
strong bow. 

Pindi zenyi nguvu, strong 
bows. 

VII. Mabali penyi mtende, the 
place where the date-tree stands 

Healthy (of persons), -enyi afia,-zima 

( of places, &c.), -a afia. 
Heavy, -zito. 
High, -refu. See Long, -kubwa 

See Great. 
Hollmo, -a uvurungu, -wazi. See 
Open. 
A hollow stone, jiwe la uvu- 
rungu. 
It sounds hollow, panalia wazi. 
The hollow of open space in or 
under anything, mvimgu. 
Holy, -takatifu. 

Hot, -a moto. " 

I am hot, nina bari. 
Hot-tempered, hararii. 
Human, -a mwana Adamu, -a biua- 

damu, -a mtu. 
j Humble, -nenyekevu. 
I Humpbacked, -enyi kigongo. 

H 



98 



SWAEILI EAljlDBOOK. 



I. 

Idle, -vivu. 

Ignorant (like a simpleton), -jinga. 

lUromeTiedt -korofi. 

Ill-tempered, -kali. See Fierce, 

Immature, -chaoga. 

Infirm, tbaifa. 

Ingenious, -juzi. 

Inquisitive, -pekuzi, -jasusi, -pele- 

lezi. 
Insignificant (mean), -nyonge. 

(unimportant), khafifu. 
Insipid, -dufu. 

J. 

Jealous, -wivu. 

Juicy, -enyi maji. 

Just, sawa, -a haki, -enyi haki. 

K. 

Kind, -ema. See Good. 

(doing kindnesses), -fathili. 
Knowing, -erevu, -juzi. 

L. 

Languid, -tepfeteYU, -chovu. 
Large,.'k.\ihwQ. or -kuba. See Great 

(well-grown), -kuza. 
Lawful, balali. 

Lawful to you, halili yako. 
Laying (of birds), koo, pL makoo. 

Koo la k'uku a layiiig hen. 
Lazy. See Idle. 
Lee, -a damalini, -a cbini. 
Left (hand, &c.), -a kushoto, -a kuke. 
Level, sawa, sawasawa. 
Liberal, karimu, -paji. 

ight (not dark), -eupe. See White. 

(not heavy), -epesi, making nyepesi 
with rumns like nymnba or 
nyimbo, and jepesi with nouns 
like kasba. 

(unimportant), khafifu. 



Lined (of clothes), bitana. 

Little, -^ogo, katiti (A.). -chfwJho 
(few). 
Little water, maji machar-he. 
(Maji and other similar nouns 
being treated as plurals, and 
therefore requiring few and not 
small as their adjective.) 
Kidogo, pi. vidogo, is used as a 
substantive for a little or a little 
piece of anything. 

Living, hayi, -zima. 

iKmg, -pefti, making ndefu with^ 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

Long-suffering, -vumilivu. 

Lukewarm, -enyi uvuguvugu. 

M. 
Mad, -enyi wazimu, -enyi mahoka 

(Country dialect). 
Male, -ume, making mume or ndume 
(as from -lume) with nouns of 
the second class. 
On the male side, kuumeni. 
Manifest, thahiri, waziwazi, liaba- 

yani, -wazi. See Open. 
Manly, -umef. See Male. 
Bebera (a strong he-goat). 
iB'ahali (a bull). 
Many, -ingi or -ngi, making nyingi 
with nouns like nyiunba or 
nyimbo, and jingi with nouns 
like kasba. 
Kathawakatha. 
Maternal (on the mothef's side), -a 
kukeui. 
(motherly), -a mama. 
Mean, -nyonge. 
Merry, -cbekeshaji. 
Middling, kadiri. 
Mischievous, -barabu, -tundu. 
Moderate, kadiri. 



Muchy -ingi (see Many), tele. 
Murderom, kiuwaji, ndali 

N. 

Naked, -tupu, pchi. See Bare. 
Narrow, -embamba, making nyemba- 

mba wi{h nouns like nyumba or 

nyimbo, and jembamba with 

nouns like kasha. 
Nefiessary (unavoidaible), lazim, fa- 

ratbi. 
(indispensable), kanuni 
- New, -pya, making 'mpya with nouris 

like nyumba or nyimbo, jipya 
V with nouns like kasha, and 

pipya unth nouns ofplofie. 
Noble, bora, -kuu. See OreaL 
Notable, mashuhur, mashnr. 
Nice, -ema {see Oood), -tamu. See 

Sioeet, 
Nipping(jpressing closely and HgMly), 

-kaza 

O. 

Obedient, tayi, -tii. 

Obligatory, farathL 

Obstinate, -kaidi, -fihindani, -shi- 
paya. 

Odd (not even), witini. 

(>ffici(yus, -futhuli, -juvi. 

Old (of things), -kukun, making 
kukun unth nouns Uke nyumba 
or nyimbo. Eukuu implies 
being worn otU, Where mere 
antiquUy is to be eaepressed see 
Ancient, 
(of persons), -zee. 
Extremely old, -kongwe. 
How old is he f Umri wake 
apataje? 

One-eyed, -enyi ohongo. 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



99 



y" 



Only, -a pekee, p&ke yake, &o. 
Open, -wazi. 

Other, -ingine or -ngine. ^ 
Glass I. Mgine or mwingine. 

wangine. 
n. Mwingine or mgine. 

mingine. 
in. Nyingine (sing, and plur.) 
lY. Eingine or chingine. 
vingine. 

V. Jingine. 
mangine or mengine. 

VI. Mwingine or mgine. 
nyingine. 

Vn. Pangine or pingine. 
(The) other, -a pili. 
Other people* s, -a watu. 
Another person's, -a mwenyewe. 
(not the same) is expressed by 

adding the relative particle (see 

p. 117). 
panginepo, elsewhere, other places • 



Paternal (on the father's side), -a 
kuumeni. 
(fatherly), -a baba. 
Patient, -stahimili, -vumilivn. 
Perfect, kamili, -kamilifu, -timilifu. 
Perverse, -potoe, -tundu. 
Plain (evident), thahiri, -wazi. 
Pleasant, -tamu (see Sweet), -a ku- 



Plenty, tele. 

Polite, -a adabu. 

Poor, masikini, fukara, fakiri. 

vjretchedly poor, thalili. 

utterly destitute, hohe babe. 
Printed, -a cbapa. 
Profane, -najisi. 
Purct safi, fasihi, -takatifu. 
\ H 2 



J 00 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



gomvi. 



{diV)^ -nyamavu 



Quarrehomei 
Quicky -pesi. 
Quiety -tulivu 
{silent). 

B. 
Bare, nadira, -a tunn. 
Baw, -bichi, making mbichi with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Bichi is used for raw, unripe, 
underdone, fresh, or any state 
which will or might change by 
keeping or cooking, 
{inexperiertced)^ 'iingA. This word 
is specially applied to newly 
arrived staves. 
"Beady, tayari. 

(guick), -pesi, mahirL 
Bebellious, aasi. 
^Bed, -ekundu, making nyekundu 
with nouns like nyumba or 
nyimbo, and jel^du with 
nouns like kasba. 
Begular, -a kaida, taratibu. 
Safa za kaida, regular rows. 
Mta taratibu, a person of regular 
halnts. 
Bemarkahle, mashubur, masliur. 
Bich, -enyi mali, -kwasi, tajiri, pt 

matajiri. 
Eight (handj &c.), -a kulia, -a 
kuume, -a kuYiili. 
"Bipe, -bivu, making mbivu tuith 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Bivu is used as the contradictory 
of bichi. See Baw. 
Gotten, -ovu or -bovu. See Bad. 
Bough, kuparuza, to he rough and 

grating. 
Bound, -a mviringo. 
Boyalt -a kifauma^ 



S. 






0^ 



Safe, salama. 
Same, moja, pi. mamoja.^ 
Sanguine, -tumainL 
Satisfied or content, rathi. 

Self -satisfied, -kinayi. 
Savage, -kali (see Fierce), mbwaiX 

Very sava>ge, nduli. 
Second, -a pilL \^ 

A second in command, akida. 
Secret, -a siri, ndani kwa ndani 
Separate, mbali. 
Severe, -zito. See Heavy. 
Shallow, [maji] baba, [maji] ma;^ 
Sharp, -kali. See Fierce, [chacj»^ 
Short, -fupi, making fupi with nouns 

like nyumba or nyimbo. 
Shrewd, -erevu, -enyi busara. 
Sick, -gonjwa, -welL ^^ 
Silent, -nyamavu. 
A silent man, mtu wa kimya- 
kimya. 
Slim, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Slender, -embamba. See Narrow. 
Sleek, -nene. See Stout. 
Slow, -vivu. See Idle. 
Smooth, lainL 

Soaked (with rain, d:c.), chepeohepe. 
Soft, -ororo, making nyororo with 
nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
and jororo with nouns 2t^ kasha, 
-anana, laini. * 

the soft, teketeke. 
Solid, yabisi. 

Some, baathi ya, aka i ya. 
Some — others — , wangine — wa- 
ngine^. 
Sound (healthy, living, entire), -zima. 
Sour, -kali. See Fierce. 
Spotted, madoadoa, marakaraka. 
Square, mrabba. 
Steadfast, thahit 



LIST OF ADJECTIVES. 



101 



steep, -a kusimama. 

sun, -anana, -tulivu {quiet\ -nya- 

mavu («ZenQ, -zizima (very 

still water, dec). 
Stout (plump, thick), -nene. 
Strange (foreign, surprising), -gem, 
(startling), mzungu, pi mizungu. 
Strong, hod^ri, -enyi nguvu, -ume. 
Sweet, -tamu, making tamu toith 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo. 

T. 

TaU, -refiL See Long. 

A very taU man, -tambo. 
Thick, -nene. 
Thi4sk syrup, asali nzito. See 

Heavy. 
Thievish, kijivi, pi. vijivi, mwibaji, 

pi. webaji. 
Thin, -embamba (see Narrou3),-%i^Gsi. 

See Light. 
Tiresome, -chovu. 
True, -a.kweli, hakika yako, &c. (it 

is true of you, &c.), yakini 

(certainly). 
Trustworthy, amini. 
Truthful, -a kweli, -neni kweli. 



U. 

UndvUized, -a kishenzi 

Uncultivated, -gugu. 

Underdone (half -cooked), -hichL See 

Baw. 
Unhealthy, -well 
Unlawful, haramu. 
Unripe, -bichi See Baw. 
Usual, -zoea. 
We are used to him, tuna mazoea 
naye. 



V. 

Vain, ana maknu, he is vain. 
Valuahle,'^ t^mani. ' 

Vigilant, mfusho. See AumJce. 

W. 

Wasteful, -potevu. 
Watery, obelema. 
Weak, ihsifu. ' 
Wealthy. See Rich. 

Weary, -ohovu. • — 

Wealher, -agostini, -a juu. 
Well See Healthy^ 

WeU done (cooked), -bivn. See 

Bipe, 
Wet, majimaji, rdtaba. 
White, -eupe, making nyeupe tuith 

nouns like nyumba or nyimbo, 
f and jeupe toith nouns like 
I kasha. 
Very white is expressed by putting 

a strong accent on the last 

syllable, and sometimes raising 

the voice on it into a sort of 

falsetto. 
Whole, -zima. See Sound. 

pia, pia yote, ^^pte, &o. 
Wide, -pana. See Broad. 
Wild (of plants), -gugu. 

(of animals), -a mwitu. 
Willing, -epesi, -pesi. 
Worn out, -kukuu (of things), -ko- 

ngwe (of persons). See Old. 

Y. 

Yellow, rangi ya manjano. 

Young (immature), -ohanga, making 

mchanga toith nouns like 

nyumba or nyimbo. 
Younger, youngest, -dogo. 



102 BWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



PEONOUNS. 

Personal Pronouns. 

The full forms of the Personal Pronouns are — 

) I, Mimi. We, Sin or Switwi. 

I Thou, TTeioe. You, Nyinyi or Nwinyi, 

V He or she, Yeye. They, Woo. 

The second and third persons singular are often con- 
tracted into Wee and Tee, The second person singular 
is always used where one person only is to be denoted. 

There are no special forms for it Mid they when 
referring to inanimate things. If any special emphasis 
makes it necessary, the Demonstrative Pronouns 
agreeing with the nouns referred to must be used. 
Similarly, for he or she and they, the Demonstrative 
Pronouns proper to the first class may be used, when 
any special emphasis is to be expressed. 

The objective cases, me, thee, him, her, ua, them, are 
expressed by the same forms as those given above for 
the subjective case, I, thou, &c. 

The possessive case, of me, of thee, of him, &o., is 



FBONOUNS. 103 

generally expressed by the Possessive Pronoiins (which 
see, p. 109); there is thus no distinction between ofnie 
and mine^ of thee and thine, &o, 

Hahari zangu, my news, or news of me. 

The Possessive Pronouns proper to animate beings 
may be used of inanimate things also ; -ake, its, and 
-cu), their, being used for of it and of them, in reference 
to all nouns of whatever class they may be. 

The possessive case may be regarded as an instance 
of the Personal Pronouns in a special form subjoined to 
the variable preposition -a, of. 

The Preposition na, with or and, is commonly joined 
with short forms of the Personal Pronoun to express 
and or with me, and or with you, &c. &c. 

Nami, and or with me. Nasi or Naswi, and or with us. 

Nawe, and or with you. Nanyi or Nanwi, and or with you. 

Naye, and or with him or her. JVoo, and or with them. 

Nao, Nayo, Nacho, Nolo, Napo, Nao, Nayo, Nazo, Navyo, Napo, 
Ndko, and or with it and or. with them. 

The above forms may be used for either the objective 
or subjective cases after and. Nami = and I or and me, 
Nawe = and thou or and thee, <fec. &c. 

It will be seen that in referring to animate beings 
the latter half of the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
is suffixed to the na-, and in referring to inanimate 
things the syllable suffixed is that which denotes the 
relative (see Relative Pronouns, p. 117), a syllable 
which occurs also as the final syllable of those Demon- 
strative Pronouns which refer to a thing mentioned 
before. 

Other Pr^position8, that is to say, kwa and katika, are 



1D4 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

constructed with the full form of the Personal Pronoun 
referring to animate beings, and with the Demonstra- 
tive Pronouns, where necessary, referring to inanimate 
things. This rule distinguishes the preposition hwaj 
for, by, &c., from the form of th^ variable -a required 
by substantives of the eighth class find sometimes by the 
case in -ni. 

Kwa mimif for me. Kwangu^ of me or my, to my [house]. 

The prefixes used in conjugating the verb to mark 
the subject and object may be regarded as shortened 
forms of the Personal Pronouns. The objective and 
subjective cases are denoted by slightly different forms. 

It will be most convenient to take the prefixes de- 
noting animate beings first, as they alone can be used 
in the first and second person. The following are the 
subjective or nominative forms : — 

I, ^4- or N-, We, Tu- or Tw-. 

Thou, U- or W', You, Mu-, *M-, or Mw-. 

He or she. A- (or Ft*-). They, Wa-. * 

The rule for applying these prefixes is that the forms 
ending with a vowel are used when they are to be im- 
mediately followed by a consonant, and those ending 
in a consonant are used before a vowel. In the third 
person, both singular and plural, the vowel remains 
unchanged before o or w, it coalesces with e and t 
into an e, and merges into an a, so as to be no longer 
distinguishable. Thus, where the verb or tense prefix 
begins with a, the third person singular is apparently 
without prefix and the third person plural is marked 
only by a w-. Examples of and further observations on 
these prefixes will be found under Verhs^ as playing an 



PRONOUNS. 



105 



important part in their conjugation. The form yvr is 

but seldom used for the third person singular, and 

very rarely with any but monosyllabic verbs. 

The syllables which stand for the objective or occi*- 

sative case of the Personal. Pronouns denoting animate 

beings, when they are connected with Verbs, are — 

Me, -nt- or -n-. Us, -tu- or -tw-. 

Thee, -ku- or -kw'. You, -wo-. 

Him or her, -m- or -mtr-. Them, -wa-. 

The same rules as above apply to the use of forms 
ending in a consonant before a vowel, and forms ending 
in a vowel before a consonant. 

As the forms proper to the first class of Nouns denote 
animate beings, there remain seven classes denoting 
inanimate things, each of which has its appropriate 
subjective and objective pronominal forms when con- 
joined with a verb. The subjective pronominal prefixes 

are — 
C 

Here also the forms ending in a vowel are used 
before a consonant, and the forms ending in a conso- 
nant are used before a vowel. Examples of their use 
will be found in the sections on the conjugation of the 
Verb. 

There, used as the subject of a verb, is expressed by 
ha- or |)a- employed as personal prefixes. Ku- is the 
more indefinite of the two. One, they, or ^people, used 



Class IL 


wing. 


u- 


orW- 


'plur. 


I- or Y-. 


„ III. 


a 


I- 


,, Y. 


» 


Zi- „ Z-. 


„ IV. 


a 


Ki- 


„ Ch- 


»> 


Vi- „ Vy- 


„ V. 


»> 


Li- 


„L- 


»> 


Ya-. 


„ VI. 


»» 


U- 


„ w. 


»» 


Zi- „ Z-. 


„ VII. 


„ 


Pa- 


,, P- 


»» 


Pa- „ P- 


,, VIIL 


»» 


Ku- 


» Kw- 


>» 


Ku- „ Kw- 



106 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

to denote what is customary, are expressed by the 
prefix Att-. 

The objective forms in reference to inanimate objects 
are very similar to the snbjectives. 

Class II. iing. -u- plur, -i-. 



,, HL 


it 


-i- 


„ -zi-. 


„ IV. 


»> 


-M- 


„ -Ti-. 


., V. 


» 


-li- 


» -ya-. 


,. VI. 


»> 


-U- 


„ -zi-. 


„ VII. 


»> 


-pa- 


„ -pa-. 


,. vin. 


»» 


-ku- 


„ -ku-. 



In these forms also u becomes w, and % y, before vowels. 

The following examples will illustrate the use of the 
objective syllables : they are parted off from the rest of 
the word by hyphens. Instances are given of both 
vowel and consonantal verbs. 

Glass I. A-ni-penda, he loves me. 

A-n-ambia, he tells me. 
A'ku-^^enda^ he loves yqn, 

A-kuHimbia, he tells you. 
Na-m'pendat I love him. 

No'-mw-arnbia, I tell him. "; 

A'tu-penda, he loves us. 

A-lvHtmbia^ he tells us. 
A'toa-penda, he loves you. 

A-fjocMtmbiay he tells you. 
A-toorpenda, he loves them. 

A'tooHimbiat he tells them. 
„ II. A-u-penda, he likes it (mti, a tree). 

A'UHma, he sees it. 
A-i-penda, he likes them (mitij trees). 

A-y-ona^ he sees them. 
„ III. A'i'penda, he hkes it (nyumtxi, a house). 

A-y-ona, he sees it. 
A-zi'pend<u he likes them (nyumiba, houses). 

A'Zi-onaf he sees them. 



FBONOUNS. 107 

Class IY. A-M-penda, he likes it (kitu, a thing). 
A-ki'Ona, he sees it 
A-^-penda, he likes them (vUu, things). ^ 

A-vi-ona, he sees them. 
„ y. AAi'penda, he likes it Quuiha^ a ohest). 
A-li-ona^ he sees it 
A-yorpendOy he likes them (makasha^ chests). 
A-^a-ona, he sees them. 
„ yi. A-u-penda, he likes it (uimhOf a song). 
A-w-onay he sees it (ubau, a plank). 
A-zi-penda, he likes them (n^mto, songs). 
A'Zi-ona, he sees them (nibau, planks). 
„ yn. A-porpenda, he likes it or them (place or places). 

A-pa-ona, he sees it or them. 
„ yUL A'ku-penda, he likes it (Xdm&o, stealing), 
il-^u-ona, he sees it 

In all cases the Pronominal Syllable representing the 

subject is the first prefix, and therefore the first syllable 

of the word ; and the syllable representing the object 

is the last of the prefixes and immediately precedes the 

verb. 

A-tdkapo-ktHmay when he shall see you. 
Wa-Upoki-m-penda, when thej loved him. 
A-hi-kyMia^ if he calls you. 

It is quite allowable for the sake of emphasis to use 
the full forms of the Personal Pronouns as well as the 
subjective and objective syllables. 

Mimi ndkupenda vjetoe, I love you. 
Wewe wanipenda mimi, you love me. 

When so used, however, a very strong emphasis is 
put upon the persons loving and loved, and unless such 
an emphasis is intended the full forms ought not to be 
used. The above phrases might be better translated 
by — ^For myself I love you the best; and, It is you 
who love me. 



108 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

In poetical S wahiji an objective suffix is used as well 
as the objective prefix. The syllables used as a suffix 
ar6 the same as those given before with na (see p. 103). 
The suffixes are not used in the diaiect of Zanzibar. 

U-ni-hifathi-miy do thou preserve me. (Both the -ni- and the 

-mi represent the object of the verb.) 
Akorzi-angusha-zo, and he threw them down. (Both the -zi' and 

the-20 represent the object of the verb.) 
Na-vjarambiorni, I tell you. 

The use of the objective prefix implies a reference to 
some ascertained object : it is therefore properly used 
wherever in English the object would be expressed by 
a Pronoun. Where in English the object would not be 
expressed 'by a Pronoun, the objective prefix has the 
effect of a definite article, and its omission that of an 
indefinite article. 

Nataka Icununua nyumha (no objective prefix being used), I want 

to buy a house. 
Nataka kuinunua nyumha (the objective prefix -i- being used)^ 

I want to buy the house. 
Na/ona mtu, I see somebody. 
Namwona mtu, I see the man. 

Where a Demonstrative Pronoun is used with the 
object, the objective prefi:x must always be used. 

Nataka kuinunua nyumha Mi, I want to buy this house. 
Namwona mtu yule, I see that man yonder. 

The objective prefix is used where anything about 
the person or thing is about to be stated. 

Na-m-jua aliko [I know of him where he is], I know where he is. 
Nali-rrhthania ajneku/a [I thought of him, he haddied], I thought 

he was dead. 
Aka-m-kata kitwa [and he cut of him the head], and he cut off 

his head. 



PRONOUNS. 109 



Possessive Pronoun's. 



The Possessive Pronouns are always placed after the 
Substantive denoting the thing possessed, and vary 
according to its Class and Number. 

The unvarying parts of the Possessive Pronouns are : ^ 

My, -angu. Our, -etu. 

Thy, -dko. Your, -enu. 

His, her, or its, -dke. Their, -do. 

^he same forms are used for its and their, of what- 
ever class the thing possessing may be. 

In many dialects of Swahili the form of the third 
person singular is -dkwe, and in some that of the second 
is -akwo. 

The above forms may be used as enclitics, and fre- 
quently are so with some common words, such as haha, 
father, mama, mother, mwana, child, mwenzi, companion, 
&c. When the final letter of the substantive is -a, -e, 
or -iy ,it merges into the first letter of the possessive 
suf&x. 

MwanangUf my child. 

Mwenzangu, my companion. 
MwanakOt thy child. 

Mwenzako, thy companion. 
Mwanake, his or her child. 

Mwenzalce, his or her companion. 
MwanetUy our child. 

MwenzetUy our companion. 
MwanenUj your child. 

MwenzenUy your companion. 
Mwanao, their child. 
Muoenzao, their companion. 



110 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

The initial letters proper to each class of Substan- 
tives are : 



Class I. nng, w- plur. w-. 

„ II. „ w- „ y-. 

„ m. „ y- „ Z-. 

„ IV. „ oh- „ vy.. 



Class V. sing. 1- plur. y-. 

„ VI. „ w- „ Z-. 

„ VII. „ p- „ P-. 

„ VIII. „ kw- ,, kw-. 



Besides these forms proper to the several classes. 
Substantives in the locative case in -nt require special 
forms of the Possessive Pronouns according to the 
meaning of the case. These forms are the same for 
all Substantives, of whatever class or number they 
may be. 

1. When the case denotes being within, or to, or from 
toithin, the Possessive Pronouns must begin with mvh, 

2. Where the case denotes mere nearness, and can be 
translated at, by, or near, the Possessive Pronouns must 
begin with p-. 

3. For all other meanings the Possessive Pronouns 
must begin with ho-^ 

The following instances will show how all these rules 

are applied : — 

Class I. Mtu wangu^ my man. 

Watu wakOt thy men. 
Mhuzi wake, his or her goat. 

Mbuzi wetUt our goats. 
Waziri wake, his vizir. 
Mawaziri wake, his vizirs. 
„ n. Mti wenu, your tree. 

Mitt yao, their trees. 
„ m. Nytmha yangu, my house. 
Nyumbo zako, thy houses. 
„ rV. Kiti chake, his chair. 

VUi vyetu, our chairs. 
„ V. Kasha lenu, your chest. 

Makasha yax), their chests. 



PRONOUNS. Ill 

Class VI. Uimbo wangu, my song. 

Nyimbo zdko, ^hy songs. 
„ VII. Mahali pakej his, her, or its place or places. 
„ Vm. Kufa kwetu, our dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwenu^ in your house or Iiouses. 

2. Nyumbani pcu), near their house or houses. 
S. Nyumbani hwangu^ to my house. 

All the Possessive Pronouns will be found in the 
Table of Concords (p. 82), arranged under the classes 
to which they are appropriate. The Personal Pronouns 
may be added to give emphasis. 

KiBu changu mimit my own knife. 
Vyangu mimi, they are mine. 

The Possessive Pronoun is used for the preposition 
-a, of, where it is intended to mark particularly the 
person whose the thing is. 

Kiti cha sidtani, the sultan*s chair, or a sultan's chair. 
KUi/chake euUani, the sultan's own chair, or this sultan's chair. 

There is another and short enclitic form for the 
Possessive Pronouns of the second and third persons 
singular, which is much used with some common 
words, such as mume, husband, mke, wife, ndugu, brother 
or sistei", &o. They consist of -o for the second person 
and -e for the third, with the appropriate initial letters 
for each class as given above (p. 110). 

Mumeuje^ her husband. 

MkewOy or mkeo^ thy wife. 
Mwenzifioey his companion. 

Jinaloy thy name. 
Shogaye, her friend. 

It will be seen from the above tables that there is 
absolutely nothing to distinguish the singular and 
plural of Substantives in the form of the third class 



112 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

which denote animate beings, when 'joined with Pos- 
sessive Pronouns. It is probably for this reason, and 
to avoid ambiguity, that they are frequently treated as 
ordinary Substantives of that class» 

Ndugu yangu, my brother. 

Nduguye or Ndugu yoke, his brother. 
Nduguzo or Ndu^u zdkOf thy brothers. 

Mbuzi zetu, our goats. * 

Possessive Pronouns are sometimes used in English 
where Personal Pronouns are used in Swahili. 

Waha-m-funga mikono nyuma [and they tied him hands behind], 

and they tied his hands behind him. ^ 

Ali-m-kata hittoa [he cut him head], he cut oflf his head. 

After verbs of comiQg and going Possessive Pronouns 
beginning with z- (or in other dialects with vy- or th-) 
are used somewhat as — his way, &c., were used in old 
English. 

AmeJcwenda zake, he has gone away, or he has gone oflf. 

Twende zetu, lei us be going. 

Wainekuja zaoy they have come home, or they have come away. 

I 
Keflective Pronouns. 

The Swahili verb is made reflective by prefixing -/i-, 
as if it were a pronoun in the objective form. 

Na-ji-pertda, I love myself. 

Self may be translated by the Arabic word, nefsi, 
nafai, or nafim ; or by the word moyoj a heart, plur. 
mioyo or nyoyo. 

Nafsi yangUf or moyo wangu, myself. 
Nafsi zetu, or nyoyo zetu, ourselves. 



PRONOUNS. 113 

Itself, themselves, &c., may also be expressed by the 
-word -enyewe with the proper prefix. 

Glass I. Mtu mwenyewey the man himself. 

. Watu wenyewe, the people themselves. 
Mbuzi mwenyewe, the goat itself. 

Mbuzi loenyewe, the goats themselves. 
Waziri mwenyewe^ the vizir himself. 
Mawaziri wenyewe^ the vizirs themselves. 
M II. Mti mwenyewe, the tree itself. 

Miti yenyewe, the trees themselves. 
III. Nyumba yenyewe, the house itself. 

Nyumha zenyewe, the houses themselves. t 

rV. Kitu ehenyewe, the thing itself. 

Vitu vyenyewe, the things themselves. 
V, Kasha Unyewe, the chest itself. 

MaliaBha yenyeioe, the chests themselves. 
VI. Uiwho mwenyewe, the song itself. 

Nyirribo zenyewd the songs themselves. 
VII. Mdhdli penyewe, the place itself. 

Mwenyewe may be used for myself and thyself ^ as well 
as for himself or herself 

Wenyewe may be used for ourselves and yourselves^ as 
iwrell as for themselves. 

By myself, by ourselves, &c., are expressed by pelce 
with the ^.ppropriate Possessive Pronoun. 

Teke yangu, by myself, or I only. 
Pe/ce yetw, by ourselves, or we only. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

There are three Demonstrative Pronouns. 1 , denoting 
objects at no great distance. 2, denoting objects pre- 
viously mentioned. 3, denoting objects at a distance. 
They have each forms proper to the several classes of 
Substantives and to the three meanings of the case 
in -w». 



V 



114 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. ' 



1. This or that^ these or those, of objects at no great 

distance. 

Class L Mtu huyu, this man. 

Waiu hatoa, these people. ^ 
Mbuzi huyu, this goat. 

Mbuzi liawa, these goats. 
Waziri huyu, this vizir. 

Mawaziri hawa, these vizirs, 
n. Mti huu, this tree. , 

Miti Mi, these trees. 
in. Nyumba hizi, this house. 

Nyumba hizi, these houses. 
lY. Kitu MM, this thing. 

Yitu Mvi, these things. 
y. Kasha Mli, this chest. 

Makasha haya, these chests. 
VL Uimbo huu, this song. 

Nyimbo hizi, these songs. 
VII. Mahali hapa, this place. 
VIII. Ku/a huku, this dying. 

1. NyumMni humo (hwnu (?) ), here, in the house. 

2. Nyurnbani hapa, here, by the house. 

3. Nyurnbani huku, here, to the house. 

It will be observed that the second syllable of each 
of these Demonstratives is the pronominal syllable 
given at p. 105, and that all begin with h-, followed by 
the vowel of the pronominal syllable. 

2. litis or that, these or those, referring to something 

mentioned before. Both the other forms can also be 

used in this sense. 

Glass I. Mtu huyo, that man. 

Watu hao, those people. 
Mbuzi huyo, that goat. v 

Mbuzi ho/o, those goats. 
„ II. Mti huo, that tree. 

Miti hiyo, those trees. 
„ m. Nyumba hiyo, that house. 

Nyuilhba hizo, those houses. 



PRONOUNS. 



115 



Class IV. Kitu hicho^ that thing. 
, Vitu hivyOf those things. 

„ V. Kasha Mlo, that chest. 

Makasha hayo, those chests. 
„ YL Uinibo huo, that song. 

Nyimbo Mzo^ those songs. 
,» Vn. Mahali hapo, that place or those places. 
„ VIIL Kufa huko, that dying. 

1. Nytimbani hwtno^ in that honse. 

2. Nyumbani hapo, by that house. 
8. Nyumbani huho^ to that house. 

3. That and tliose or yondety referring to things at a 
dist^ce. 

Glass L Mta yule, yonder man. 

Watu waJe, those people. 
Mbuzi ytUe, that goat. 
Mbuzi toaXe, those goats. 
n. Mti uU, that tree. 

Miti He, those trees. 
m. Nyumba ile, that house. 

Nyumha zUe, those houses. 
IV. Kitu kile or chiU, that thing. 
Vitu vile, those things. 
V. Kasha IHe, that chest. 

Makasha ydte, those chests. 
VI. TJimbo ule, that song. 

Nyimbo zHe, those songs. 
VII. MaMli pale, that place or those places. 
Vin. Kufa huU, that dying. 

1. Nyumbani mU, in that house. 
' 2. Nyumbani pale, by that house. 
3. Nyumbani kule, to that house. 

It will be seen that these last Pronouns are made 
by adding -le to the second syllable of the first set of 
Demonstratives. Sometimes the whole of the first form 
is retained, making huyule, hawale, huule^ Mile, hizile, 
hikile, hiviley hilile, hay ale, hapale, hukule» 

I 2 



116 8WAEILI HANDBOOK, 

An increase of distance is denoted by a stress on the 

final syllable. 

Mtu yule, that man yonder. / 
Yt£266, that one farther off. 
YuUeey that one still further. 

The more stress is laid on the final syllable, and the 
more the voice rises into a falsetto, so much the greater 
is the distance denoted. 

When the substantive is mentioned the demonstra- 
tive always follows it. 

The demonstratives are frequently doubled, and then 
have the meaning of just tMs, that very, &c. 

Palepale, just there. 
Mti uleule, that very tree. 
Maneno ycUeyale, just those words. 

With the first set of demonstratives the final or true 

pronominal syllable is doubled and prefixed to the usual 

form. 

Papahapa, just here. 

Vivihivi, just these things. 
Zizihizi, those very, &c. 
Kukuhuku, just to this place. 

These forms are also used to denote that there is 
nothing special about what is mentioned. 
Zizihizit just these and no more. 

Huyo is often used when people are chasing a man 
or an animal. 

Huyo ! Huyo t = There he is I There he is ! 

There are other forms which ought probably to be 
regarded as demonstratives, as they have the force of. 
This is it, and. This is not it. 



Glass 



FB0N0UN8. 


3 I. ndimi, it is I. 


ndisii it is we. 


ndiwe, it is thou. 
ndtye, it is he. 


ndinyiy it is you. 
ndio, it is they. 


U. TMiio, this is it. 
IlL ndiyo. 
IV. ndicho. 

V. ndilo. 
VL ndio. 


ndiyo, these are they. 
, ndizo. 
' ndivyo. 
ndiyo. 
ndizo. 


VIL ndipo. 
H VIIL wdiA». 




ikiiwo, it is here, or it is there. 


ndipo. 
ndiko. 





117 



The negative is made by substituting si- for ndi. 

SiyCf it is not he. Sicho, &c. Ac, this is not it. 

Botb forms may be used interrogatively. 

Ndiyef Is it he? Siyef Is it not he? 

Other demonstratives may be used with these for the 
sake of greater emphasis or clearness. 



Kelative Pronouns. 

The Eelative Pronouns have special forms appropriate 
to the several classes of Substantives and the three 
meanings of the -ni case. 

Class I. Who and Whom, nng. ye or yee, plur.^ o or wo. 



IL 


Which, ung. 


oor wo, 


plur 


yo. 


IIL 


»» 


>» 


yo 


»» 


zo. 


IV. 


*> 




cho 


ti 


vyo. 


V. 


»» 




lo 


»> 


yo. 


VI. 


»» 




or wo 


♦» 


zo. 


VIL 


») 




po 


)) 


po. 


VIIL 


»» 




ko 


It 


ko. 


1. 


Wherein 




mo 






2. 


Whereat 




po 






3. 


Whereto 




ko. 







118 ,SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

These relatives occur most frequently in their 
simple forms in connection with -ote, alL 

yee yote, wo wote, whosoever or whomsoever. 
vjo wote, yo yote, zo zote, oho chote, vyo vyote^ lo lote,po pote, what- 
soever. 
mo mote^ wheremsoever, inside everything. 
- po pote, wheresoever or whensoever. 
ko koie, whithersoever or wheresoever. 

When connected with the substantive verb, to be, 
that verb is represented by the syllable -Z»-. 

Glass 



I. aliye^ [he] who is. 


icalio, [they] who are. 


n. ulio, [it] which is. 


, iliyo, [they] which are. 


in. iliyo. 


zilizo. 


IV. Ulicho. 


vilivyo. 


V. lililo. 


yaiiyo. 


VI. ulio. 


zUizo. 


VII. palipo. 


palipo. 


WUI. kuliko. 


kuliko. 


1. muUmo, wherem there is 




2. palipoj where there is. 




S. kuliko, where there is: 





There is a disposition in Zanzibar to make -o the 
general relative. Thus one very often hears alio for 
aliye, Ulio for lililo, and ilio for iliyo. 

When joined with the verb the syllable denoting the 
relative foUows the sign of the tense if there is one. 

The relative may be joined with the verb to form the 
present, or rather, an indefinite tense, without the use of 
any sign of time whatever. It is made precisely as in 
the examples given above of the use of the relative 
with the verb, to be, only substituting the particular 
verb for the syllable -li-. 

[he] who loves, apendaye, 
[they] who love, wapendao. 



PB0N0UN8, 119 

[the tree] which falls, uangukao. 

[trees] which grow, imeayo. 
[the house] which falls, yangukayo, 

[houses] which foil, ziangukazo. 

Where the relative is the object of the verb the same 
form maybe used, only introducing the objective prefix 
proper to the substantive referred to, and changing the 
personal prefix. 

[fruit] which I lovej nilipenddlo. -lu and -2o- being the syllables 
appropriate to tunda^ a fruit, and other nouns of the Fifth 
Glass. 

When taken to pieces the word is seen to be, m-, I, 
-Zi-, it, -penda-, love, -Zo, which. 

Eelatives are rarely used in Swahili with any tenses 
except the present imperfect (the -nor- tense), the past 
perfect (the -li- tense), and a peculiar form of the future 
(the -taka- tense). The following instances will show 
the way in which the relative is expressed with these 
several tenses both as subject and object. 

Glass I. [the man] who is coming, ana-ye-huja, 

„ who came, aU-ye-kuja, 

„ who will come, atakorye-kuja, 

„ whom he is striking, ana-ye-mpiga. 

\ „ whom we loved, tuli-ye-mpenda, 

[the men] who will beat us, watakoro-tupiga, 

„ whom we will beat, tutakoro-vjapiga. 

[the ox] which is eating, anarye-ktUa, 

„ which we shall eat, tutakorye-^la. 

„ II. [the tree] which fell, uU-o-anguka. 

„ which he cut down, aM-(hukaUi, 

[the trees] which were visible, Ui-yo-onekana, 

„ which we saw, tuU-y(hiona. 

„ m [the house] which fell down, ili-yo-anguka. 

„ which I bought, nili-yo-inunua. 



120 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Class HI. [the houses] which fell down, zili-zchanguka, 
„ which I bought, nili-zo-zinunua, 

„ rV. [the knife] which cut me, kili'Cho-nihata. 
„ which I took, nili-cho-kitwaa, 

„ which I gave you, niU-cho-kupa, 

[the knives] which fell down, vili'Vyo-anguka. 
„ which I gave you, nili-vyo-kupa, 

„ V. [the chest] which is unfastened, lili-lo-funguka, 
,', which I unfastened, niUAoAifungua. 

[the chests] wldch were carried, ycM-yo-chuhuliwa. 
„ which they carried, waZi-yo-ycuihukua. 

„ VI. [the song] which pleased me, uU-(Miipendeza, 
„ which I liked, nili-o-upenda. 

[the letters, nyaraka] which I WTote,niU-zo-ziandika, 
„ which I sent to you, nili-zo-kupelekea, 

„ which reached me, ziU-z(hniwasilia, 

„ VII. [the place] which I live in, nina-pchpakaa. 
[the places] which I saw, nili-pO'pcLorui, 

§ 
The particles of place and time, mo, po, 4co, are treated 
as relative particles. 

alimo, where he is (within). 
alipo^ wherg he is (if near). 
aliko, where he is (far off). 
anapokwenda, when he is going. 
anakokwenda, whither he is going. 
alimokwenday wherein he went. 
alipokwenda, when he went. 
alikokwenda, whither he went. 

There is one ambiguity which cannot be avoided 
where both subject and object are of the same class. 
Aliyemjpiga may mean, who beat him, or, whom he beat ; 
kilichokihata may mean, which cut it, or, which it cut, 
supposing Mm, a knife, to be one substantive, and Mtu, 
a thing, to be the other. 

The negative is combined with the relative by the 



b 



PRONOUNS. 121 

use of -«-. There is but one negative tense, and it 
embraces all times, past, present, and future. 

atiye^ [he] who is not, who will not be, who was not. 
usioanguka, [the tree] which falls not, which is not falling, which 

did not fall, or, which will not fell. 
nisichokupa, [the knife] which I did not give you, do not give 

you, or, shall not give you. 

Where the relative is used in English with a prepo-, 
sition, the relative particle is sometimes joined with the 
verb and also with the preposition ; but more commonly, 
the force of the preposition being contained in that of 
the Swahili verb, no special form is required. See 
Derivative Verbs, p. 167. 

The man whom I went with, mtu nali-o-kwenda naye. 
The man I went to, mtu nali-o-mwendea. 
Where I came from, nili-pO'toka, 
Where I am gping to, nina-ko-kwenda. 

As the Swahili has no proper word for to have, but 
uses for it huwa na, to be with, cases of double relatives 
are very frequent where having is mentioned. 

The knife I have, kUu nilidho nacho. 
The houses you have, nyumha ulizo nazo. 
The knife I had, kieu niliehokuwa nacho. 
Tlie houses you had, nyumba ulizokuwa nazo. 

The relative is used in some cases in which it is not 
employed in English. 

Who went by ? Nani ali-ye-pita (who is he who passed) ? 

He likes this fruit, tunda hili ndilo alipendalo (this firuit is it 

which he likes). 
The boy is going, kijana aendao. 
Whosoever may come, yee yote atakayekuja. 

There is another way of expressing the relative by 



122 8WAEILI HANDBOOK: 

means of amhaye or amhaye kwamha, thougH not used 
in Zaiizibat. When it is employed the final syllable of^ 
amhaye changes according to the rules given above, 
making anibaOf arribazo, amha^cho, amhavyo, &c. 

Sometimes an English relative can be expressed by 
the use of mwenyi, &c., having. 

The man whoae house it is, mtu mwenyi nyurnba. 



Interrogative and other Pronouns. 
There are four Interrogatives which are not variable. 

Nanif Who? I • Ninif What? 

Linif When? | Ganif What sort? 

Oani always follows the substantive it is connected 

with. 

Mtu gani ? What man ? What sort of man ? 
KUu ganif What thing? What sort of thing ? 

What? is sometimes expressed by the syllable -ni 
suffixed to a verb. 

Atapatanif What will he get? 

Amefanyani f What has he done ? 

Kunani ? What is there ? What is the matter ? 

Kina nini ? What has it ? What is the matter with it ? 

Wanani f What have they ? What are they at ? 

What o'clock is it ? is rendered by Saa ngajpi f How 
many hours ? 

The interrogative Which? is expressed by -pi pre- 
ceded by the appropriate syllable, which is the same as 
that used as the subjective personal prefix to verbs. 
It always follows the noun it refers to. 



t 





FBO^OUNS. 




r.Affl I. 


Which [man] Yupif 


Lmen] Wapii 


n. 


„ [tree] Upif 


[trees] Ipif 


„ HI. 


„ [house] Ipif 


[houses] Zipif 


„ IV. 


„ [thing] Kipif 


[things] Vipif 


„ V. 


„ [chests] Lipif 


[chests] Yapif 


» VI. 


„ [song] Upif 


[songs] Zipif 


,, VII. 


„ [place] Papif 


[places] Pai»? 



123 



The Interrogative, if followed by a verb, reqtdres a 
relative with it. 

Mtu yupi apendaye kwenda f Which lor what] man likes to go ? 
Nyumha ipi ikupendezayo ? Which house do jou like ? 

Nani ? who ? is also generally followed by a relative. 

Nani aliopo nUangoni f Who is at the door ? 

It is, however, allowable to say nani yupo mlangoni^ 
which is a literal translation of the English. 
The interrogative Where ? is wapi f or api ? 

Wenda wapi f Where are jou going ? 

When referring to a substantive wapi mnst always 
be preceded by the syllable which is the proper sub- 
jective personal prefix for that substantive. This prefix 
very probably represents the substantive verb, and may 
often be translated by is it f or are they f 
Glass 



L sing. 


Yu wapi ? plur 


Wawapl? 


n. „ 


Uwapi? „ 


I wapi? 


m. „ 


I wapi? „ 


Ziwapi? 


IV. „ 


Kiwapi? „ 


Viwapi? 


V. „ 


Li wapi ? „ 


y a wapi? 


VI. „ 


Uwapi? „ 


Ziwapi? 


VII. „ 


Pa wapi ? „ 


Pa wapi? 



A fuller form to represent where is it f or where are 
thejf f is made by adding -ko to the personal prefix. 
Tukoioapii Where is he? Zikowapif Where are they ? 



124 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The noun referred to follows this interrogative. 
I toapi mertkebu ? Where is the ship ? 

How ? is expressed by the syllable -Je snflfixed to the 
verb. 
Nitakipataje f How shall I get it ? 
Chalifanywaje f How was it made ? 
Ulipendaje, ao kupikay ao bichii How do you like it, cooked or 

raw? 
Asemaje ? [How does he talk ?] What does he say ? 
Urefu wake yapataje f How long is it ? 
Umri wake apataje f How old is he ? 
Kwenda chini kwake chajpataje [kiHma'] f How deep is it [a 

well]? 

The use of hupata, to get, in these phrases must be 
noticed. There is no direct way of attaching the how f 
to the adjective ; they say therefore, ** His age, how 
gets he it?" 

How many ? is expressed by -ngajpi^ which is treated 

as an adjective. 

How many people ? Watu wangapi ? 
How many goats ? 3^buzi ioangapi or ngapi f 
How many trees ? MUi mingapi ? 
'How many houses ? Nyumba ngapi f 
How many chairs ? VUi vingapi ? 
How many 6hests ? Makasha mangapi f 
How many planks ? Mhau ngapi ? 
How many places ? Mahali pangapi ? 

How? is in some cases expressed by the use of other 
phrases. 

How long ago? Tangu lint ? [since when ?] 

How much ? Kadri ganty or Kiassi ganif [what quantity Y] 

How often ? Marra ngapi f [how many times ?] 

The exclamatory What I is rendered by the inter- 
rogative pronoun in -pi. 

Furahaipi! What joy I 



(125 ) 



VEEBS. 

Eegular Swahili verbs always end in -a, as, hupenda, 
to love, hwpiga^ to beat. 

Verbs derived from the Arabic may end in -e, -i, or -«, 
as, husamehe, ix> pardon, husafiri^ to travel, huharibUj to 
destroy. Verbs in this form do not change the final 
vowel, where verbs in -a regularly do so. 

The simplest form of the verb is used in Swahili, 
as in English, for the second person singular of the 
imperative. 

Pendal Lovel Pigal Strike I 

'' Samehel Pardon! Safiril Travel I 

HariMI Destroy I 

The second person plural imperative is made by 
adding -ni. All the other tenses and moods are made 
by prefixing syllables to the simple form, except that 
verbs in -a change -a into -e in the present subjunctive, 
and into -t in the present negative, and a -tr- is inserted 
to mark the passive. 

There is a negative as well as an affirmative con- 
jugation, in which the tenses and persons are also dis- 
tinguishied by prefixes. 

The various prefixes form in pronunciation one word 



126 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

with the verb, and when taken to pieces denote its 
person, number, tense, mood, subject, and object. 

Amehwamibia = A-me-kuHi'mbia = Ho-has-you-tell = He has told 

you. ' 
Wdliponipenda = Wa-li-po^i-penda = They-did-when-me-love 

= When they loved me. 
NUakachokwpa = Ni'taka-dho-ku'pa = iHshall-which-yoii-giye-to 

= Which I shall give to yon. 
NingaUrmuona = Ni-ngali-mw-ona = I-shonld-haye-him-see = I 

should have seen him. 

The syllables used as prefixes have not the same 
meaning standing separately as they have when com- 
bined with the verb in their proper order; for this 
reason, therefore, as well as to show the proper pro- 
nunciation, they with the verb must all be written as 
one word. 

Lists of the several prefixes will be found at the end 
of the preliminary observations to the second part of 
this handbook (p. 237). The personal prefixes will be 
found described under Pronouns (p. 104), and seen 
arranged under their appropriate classes of Substantives 
in the Table of Concords, p. .82. 

Indefinite Tenses. 

1. Customary actions are expressed by prefixing hu- 
to the verb. In this form there is no distinction of 
number, person, or time. 

Hu-enda, one goes, they go, everybody goes, he used to go. 
Hu-penda, one likes, they like, one would like. 

2. The relative may be joined with the verb without 
any sign of time, llie personal prefix only is put 
before the verb, and the relative sign suffixed to it. 



VEBBS. 127 

Bing^ Class I. Ni-penda-ye, [I] who love. 

U'penda-ye, [thou] who lovest. 

A-penda-ySt [he] who loves. 
'„ n. U-anguka-Of which falls. 

„ HI. l-a/ngukoryoy 

„ rV, Ki-angukorchOy 

„ V. Li-anguko'lOi 

„ VI. U-angukorOt 
„ Vn. P-wnguka-po, where foils. 
„ yni. EvHingukc^kOy whither falls. 

Flur, „ I. Tu-penda-c, [we] who love. 

M-penda-Oj [you] who love. 
Wa-penda-Of [tliey] who love. 
„ n. I-anguka-yOf or, Y-anguka^o, which fall. 

„ m. Zi-anguko'^^y 
„ rV. Vy-anguka-vyo, 

„ V. Y-anguka-ffOf 

„ VI. Zi-an9tfXca-2;o, 

The relative may represent the object of the verb, 
but in that ease the objective sign (pp. 105-6) ought to 
be inserted between the personal prefix and the verb. 

Glass ' I. Ni-m-penda-ye, [he or she] whom I love. 
Ni-ku-penda-ye^ [thou] „ „ „ 

Ni-wa-peTida-o, [you or they] „ „ „ 
Sing. „ n. Ni-u-penda-o [it] which I love, 

m. Ni-i'penda-yOy 
TV. Ni-ki-penda-chOj 
V. Ni-U-penda-lo, 
VI. Ni'U-penda-o, 
vn. Ni-pa-pendorpOf 
Vm. Ni-ku-penda-ko, 
Plur. „ n. Ni'i-penda-yo, [those] which I love, 

ni. Ni-zi-penda-zOy 
rV. Ni-vi-penda-vyOy 
V. Ni-yorpendoryo, 
VI. Ni'zi-penda-zo, 

3. The negative form, expressing Who, or which does 



128 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

not, is matde by the personal prefix, the syllable -«- 
[not] and the relative sign, followed by the verb. 

Qing, Class I. Ni-si-ye-penday [I] who love not. 

U-si-ye-penda, [thou] who lovest not 
A-ei-ye-penda, [he or she] who loves not. 

„ IJ. TJ-H-o-angukOy which falls not. 

„ in. I-si-yo-anguhaj 

„ rV. Ki'Si-cho-ariguJcaj > 

„ V. lA'iirlo-anguka^ 

„ VI. U-si-o-angukcLy 

„ VIL Pasi-po-anguJca, where falls not, 
Ku-si'ko-angukOt whither falls not, 
Mu-si-m<hangukaf wherein falls not. 
Plur, „ I. Tu-ti-o-pendat [we] who love not, 

M'Si-a-penda, [you]. 
Wa-ti-o-penda, [they]. 

„ n. I'9i-y(Mingukay which fall not. 

„ in. Zi-8t-zo-anguka, 

„ rV. Vi-si'VycMingukaf 

„ V. Ya-si-yo-anguka, 

„ VI. Zi'Si-zo-anguka, 

Where the relative is the object of the verb, it is 

expressed as in the aflSrmative tenses, by the form of 

the relative particle and the insertion of the objective 

prefix. 

Ni-st-zo-zi-penda, which I do not like. 

This negative tense may be applied with eqnal pro- 
priety to past, present, or future time, amounting in 
effect to a negative of the relation at the time and under 
the circumstances implied in the context. 

The application of the relative to the definite aflSr- 
mative tenses is explained under Pronouns (p 119). 

The difference between — which I like — and — I who 
like it — is to be found in the form of the relative 
particle. 



VERBS. 129 

[Nyuwha] nili-yo^penda, [the house] which I liked. 
nili-ye-ipenda, I who liked it 

[Kitu] nili-cho-kipendaj [the thing] which I liked. 
nUi-ye-hipendaf I who liked it. 

/ Definite Tenses. 

The important part of each tense is the tense prefix. 
It is preceded by the personal sign of the subject, and 
may be followed directly by the verb. If any signs of 
relation are used they are suffixed to the tense prefix, 
and the objective prefix (if any) must always imme- 
diately precede the verb. The tense prefix is the same 
for all persons and "Both numbers. The personal prefix 
is the same for all tenses, except the slight changes 
dependent upon the question whether the first letter of 
the tense prefix is a vowel or not. 

In order therefore to construct the proper form of 
verb, it is necessary first to ascertain the proper personal 
prefix, next the proper tense prefix, then the particles 
of relation and objective prefix, if they are required, 
and then to finish with the verb. Thus, to say, A house 
has fallen down. A house is nyumba, a word of the third 
class ; the proper personal prefix for a singular noun of 
the third class is -», the tense prefix for the present 
perfect is -we-, the verb to fall is ku- anguka (the ku- 
being the sign of the infinitive : we have therefore — 

Nyumba imeanguka = a house has fallen down. 

If we wished to say. Six houses have fallen down ; we 
find that nyumba being of the third class keeps the same 
form in the plural ; sita is six, and must follow its noun ; 
the subjective prefix proper to plural nouns in the third 



130 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

class is zi' ; the tense prefix and the verb remain the 
same. 

Nyuwlba sUa zimeangukay six houses have fallen down* 

To take one more complicated example, I saw the 
knife, which you gave him. The personal prefix for 
ihe first person is ni- or w-, the tense prefix of the past 
perfect is -aZt-, to see is hurona^ knife is Jdsu, a substantive 
of the fourth class. As some particular knife is intended 
we must use the objective prefix, and that for a singulrft 
substantive of the fourth class is -hi-. As the tense 
prefix begins with a vowel we must use the personal 
prefix which ends in a consonant. We have therefore — 

Nalikiona hmt = I saw the knife. 

* Which you. gave him.' The relative referring to a 

singular noun of the fourth class is -cho-. It must 

follow the tense prefix, which is -ali-j as before, for the 

past perfect. The sign of the second person singular 

is tt- or w- ; the verb, to give to, is Jcu-fd, The object 

of the verb is himj the objective prefix for nouns of the 

first class is -mw- or -m-. Putting these together we 

. have, 

Which you gave him, walichompa. 

And the whole sentence, 

I saw the knife which jou gave him, nalikiona hiau walichompa. 

It must not be forgotten that hu- and pa- may be 
used for there in an impersonal sense. 

Kultkuwa or PaLikuwa^ there was or there were. 
Kuhapiga, dc.y and there struck, &e. 



VEBB8. 



131 



Indicativtc Tenses. — ^Present. 

There are in the language of Zanzibar two Presents, 
one Indefinite and one Imperfect, 

1. The Indefinite Present answers to our common 
English present, I come, I love, &c. It is made by- 
prefixing -a- to the verb. 



N' \ 




Hove, 


^',. 




Thou lovest. 


— 




He or she 


TT-, r-, Ch-y L-, W'y P-, Kuh 
Tw- 


. chpenda 


loves. 
It loves. 


Mw' 




We love. 


TT- 




You love. 


r.,^,Fy^r.,^ J 




They love. 



2, The Present Imperfect answers- to our tense with 
am, i am coming, I am loving, &o. It is made by pre* 
fixing -no- to the verb. 



2Vt. 1 




flam ^ 




77- 




Thou art 




A', U', !-, Ki', Li; Z7. 




He, she, 




Par,Ku' 


'n(hpenda< 


or it is I loving. 


Tu- 




We are 




*M' 




You are 




Wa-, I-, Zi; Ft-, To-, Zu 




They are 





In the first person the ni- is often contracted into 'n-, 
and sometimes altogether omitted. This tense used 
after another verb may be translated by an English 
present participle. 

Namwona, or Nalimwona anakuja, I see him, or, 1 saw him 
coming. 

. In the dialect of Mombas this -no- tense is used of 
past time. In Zanzibar it is the more usual form of 
the present. 

K 2 



132 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Present Perfect. 

The Present Perfect is made by the prefix -me- : it 
cLenotes an action complete at the time of speaking, and 
therefyre answers to the English tense with have. 



• Z7. 

A- 
U', I-, Ki- 
Li', Pa-, Ku" 

Tu- 

*M' 

Wa- 
I-, Zf -, Ft- 
Ya- 



I have ] 

Thou hast 
He or she has 
I me-penda \ it has J^ loved. 

We have 
You have 
I They have J 



In verbs denoting a state or the possession of a 
quality the present has the meaning of to enter upon, 
to acquire, or to become, what the verb denotes. The 
'me- tense must then be translated by to have, or to be, 
&o. (p. 86). 

Inajaa, it is getting full. 

Ime^, it is full. 
Inapasuka, it is being torn. 

Imepa8uha, it is torn. 
Inapotea, it is becoming lost 

Imepotea, it is lost. 
Anavaa, he is putting on. 

Amevaa, he has put on, therefore, he wears. 

When the -we- tense occurs in a narrative, it denotes 
an action complete at the time referred to, and must 
generally be translated by had. 

Nikamvoona ameufungua mlango, and I saw that he had 
unfastened the door. 



Th6 -me- tense may sometimes be translated as a past 



VERBS. 



133 



participle, signifying a state arrived at at the time of 
speaking or at the time referred to. 

Yu hayi ao amekufa f Is he alive or dead ? 
Zalikuwa zimepotea, ihej were lost 

In this sense it may be used to form compound tenses, 
somewhat as the past participle is in English. 

In some dialects of Swahili the. prefix is pronounced 
-mor- rather than -me-. See the end of Appendix II, 



Past Perfect. 

The Past Perfect tense is made by the prefix -it- or 
'ali'i it denotes an action complete in' past time. It 
must sometimes be translated in English by the tense 
with had^ but more commonly it represents the indefinite 
past, which usually ends in -ed. 



N' ) 








W- 






W-, r-, Ch', L- 






P-, Xw- 


• alt- ' 




Tw' 






Mw- 






I 


W- 






Thou 


y-, Z-, vy, r- J 


• 




He or she 






penda \ I* 


Ni- 




We 


U- 




You 


A- 




^They 


U-.I-^Ki- 






Li', Pa-, Ku- 


► li' > 




Tu- 




M' 






Wo- 






I-, Zi-, Vi-, Ya-. 









' loved. 



When it is intended to denote the action as a 



134 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



continuous one, the syllable -M- may be inserted after 
the tense prefix. 

N-oLi-ki-mpendaj I loved him [not once but oontiniioiisly]. 
TT-oZt-jpapendana, when they loved one another. 
TT-oZt-jxi-H^pendana, while they loved one another. 



Narrative Past. 

In telling a story it is usual to begin with one verb 
in the -Zi- tense, and then to put all that follow in a 
tense made by thd prefix -^o-. This tense includes in 
itself the power of the conjunction atid. It can never 
properly stand at the beginning of a narrative, but no 
other past tense can properly be used for any verb 
except the first. It may occasionally b^ used after 
another verb, where the time being indefinite would 
in English be represented by a present. 

Ni- 

V- 

A' 
U', I-, Ki- 
Xt-, Pa-, Ku' ) ica.^rymdn. I And it \ loved. 

af. 

Wa- 

Niha- is frequently contracted into Ha-. 

HamiDona = Nihaimxxka = And I saw him. 

The 'Icor of this tense is often pronounced -M- in rapid 
or careless talking. 





fAndl 


And thou 


And he or she 


^"ka-penda 


And it 




And we 




And .you 




And they 



VEBBS. 



135 



Future. 
The Future Tense is made by the prefix -ta-. 



Ni- 






U- 




'ishall 


A- 




Thou wilt 


U^,I-,Ki. 




He or she will 


lA'y Pa-, Ku- ) td^penda > 


It will 


Tu- 




We shall 


M- 




You will 


Wa- 




They will 


J-, Zi; F»-, Fa-J 







Ibve. 



In the first person the prefix Ni- is often omitted. 
Tapenda = Nitapenda =. I shall love. 

When particles of relation are introduced the prefix 
'ta- is very rarely used ; the tense prefix stands almost 
always as -taha-. 

Atakayekujay [he] who will come. 

With particles of relation the diflferenoe between the 
present, indefinite, and future times is much more care- 
fully observed in Swahili than in English. 

Nilalapo, when I sleep, t.e., in the case of my sleeping. 

Ninapolala, when I sleep, i.e., at the time when I iftn sleeping. 

Nitakapolala, when I sleep, t.6., when I shall be sleeping. 

Mtu aendaye, the man who goes (at any time). 

Mtu anayekwenda, the man who is going (now). 

Mtu aiakayekwenda, the man who goes (at some future time). 

Thus, if it is intended to send a man somewhere and 
pay him afterwards for his trouble, where it might l^e 
said in English — Tell the ' man who goes that I will 
pay him when he comes back — the Swahili verbs must 
all be in the future, Mwamhie yule atahayekwenda Jcwamha 



136 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



atahapomdi nitamlvpia. Where it is the fact and not 
the time, person, or thing, that is the important element 
of the idea, it is better not to use the particles of rela- 
tion, but to employ the -ki- tense, which see. 

Conditional Tenses. 

There are four tenses which may be called Con- 
ditional. The first, made with -H-, expresses a state of 
things as supposed to be existing. The second, made 
with 'japo-, expresses a state of things supposed as 
possible. The other two refer to contingencies ; one of 
them, made with -nge- or -nga-, expresses what would 
now be happening, and the contingency on which it 
would depend regarded as existing; the other, made 
with -ngali-, expresses what would have happened, and 
the contingency on which it would have depended 
regarded as no longer existing. • 

Actual Conditional or Participle Tense. 

This tense is made with the prefix -H-, and may b^ 
translated by the English present participle, or by as, 
if, when,«ince, though, or any other words by which 
the idea of a state of things can be introduced and con^ 
nected with the rest of the sentence. 
Ni- 



> loving. 



u- 




I 


A' 




Thou 


U-, I-, Ki- 




He or she 


Li-,Pa',Ku' ]^i^penda / it 


r«. 




We 


M- 




You 


Wa- 




I They 


J-, Zi'y T't-, Fa-, 







VERBS, 137 

The prefix NUei- may be contracted into fit-. 

Htfukuza - NiMfukuza = As I was driving. 

Viewed as a present participle, the -M- tense can be 
used to form compound tenses, especially a past im- 
perfect. 

Altkuwa dkiogolea, he was swimming about. 

The following are a few examples of the use of this 
tense ; — 

Nitafurdhi mktkuonay [seeing you I shall rejoice] I shall be 

glad to see you. 
Akija Ahdalldh mwamiday [Abdallah coming, tell him] Tell 

Abdallah when he comes. 
Nikiwa nacho, [I having it] If I have it — when I have it — ^if 1 

should have it — in case of my having it — since I have it. 
Alipotea akizunguka kwa siku mbili, [He was lost wandering 

for two days] He lost his way and wandered about for two 

days. 
Majimno yaMwa mengi, [Pufllngs up being many] Much self- 
exaltation. 
Upepo ukiwa moto hutanua, [Air being hot] Air expands when 

it becomes heated. 
Akisema kweli, hasadihivih [Telling the truth, he is not believed] 

If he should tell the truth, he would not be believed. 

In this instance the use of the -ki- tense and of the 
negative present are both remarkable. It will be seen, 
however, upon examination, that there is no real con- 
tingency in such a sentence as this. It affirms a fact 
in a state of things, not a contingency upOn a supposed 
state of things; it is not his telling the truth which 
prevents his being believed. 

A corresponding past tense may be made by the 4% 
tense with the relative particle -po-. 

Wdlipopenda, when they loved, being that they then loved. 



138 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



japo-pendtty even if ' 




love. 



Possible Conditional. 
This tense is made by the prefix -japo-^ and puts a 
case ; it generally implies that the case is an extreme 
or unlikely one. It may be translated by even if. 
Ni- 
U' 
A- 
U', I', Ki" 
Id', Pa-y Ku' 
Tu- 
M- 
Wa- 
I'yZi'yVi'yYa'} 

The prefix seems to be formed from Jhe/a, to come, 

and -poy the particle denoting when or where ; so that 

ujapo may be translated, When you come, and so with 

the other persons ; this will give the force of the tense. 

Wajapokuptgaj when they come to beating you, t.e., even if 
they beat yon. 

Japo with the personal signs may be lused alone in 

the sense of— even if. 

Ujapo hukionif even if yon do not see it. 

Present Contingent. 
This tense is formed by the prefix -nge- or -ti^a-, and 
puts a condition and its results as present. It necessarily 
implies that neither are in existence. 



17- 

A- 
Z7-, J-, JTt- 

Tu- 

Wa- 
J-, Zi-, Ft-, Ya- 



nge-penda 



I should, or if I did 
Thou wouldest, or if thou 

didst 
He, she, or it would, or if 

he, she, or it did 
We should, or if we did 
You would, or if you did 
They would, or if they did . 



l^ve. 



k 



VERBS. 



139 



The -nga- form is used with monosyllabic verbs — 
angawa — though he be, or he would be. 

The two branches of the contingency cannot in 
English be represented by the same tense, as they are 
in Swahili. The pair would stand in English, (1) If I 
did— (2) I should, &c. (1) If it were— (2) it would 
be, &c. Or they might stand, (1) Though I did — 
(2) yet I should, &c. 

The second branch is sometimes represented in 
English by a past tense ; sometimes both are. 

Kama ungehuwa na akilij mali yako ungedumu nayo, [If you 
were with wits, your property you would continue with itj 
K you were a man of understanding, your property would 
be (or would have been) yours stUl. 

Past Contingent. 
This tense is made with the prefix -ngali-» It sup- 
poses something at a past time, and concludes that 
something else would then have happened, also at a 
past time. It represents the English — If this had 
happened, that would have happened. It supposes that 
neither condition nor contingency did ever in fact 
occur. In English a past tense is often used to express 
a present contingency, but the Swahili seem to. dis- 
tinguish them more carefully. 

Had I, or I should have^ 
Hadst thou, (yr thou 

wouldest have 
Had he, she, or it, or he, 
she, or it would have 
Had we, or we should \ loved. 

have 
Had you, or you would 

have 
Had they, or they would 
have 



Ni' ^ 




U- 




A- 




U; I', Ki- 




Li',Ta',Ku' 


ngali-penda 


Tu- 




rn- 




Wa- 




I-,Zi-,Vi-,Ya-} 





140 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

There is always an accent on the personal prefix and 

none on the tense prefix, thus ungalihuja, dngaliSna^ &c. 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa^ ndugu yangu angalipomL^ If you 
had been here, my brother would have got well 

The Imperative. 

It has been mentioned above that the simplest form 

of the verb may be used for the Imperative as in 

English. The final letter of verbs in -a is frequently 

changed into c-. The plural is made by adding -ni, 

Fenday or Pende, love thou. Pendant, or Pendent, love ye. 

Twaa, or Twas^ take thou. Tioaani, or Twasni, take ye. 

8ifu, praise thou. Sifuni, praise ye. 

Fikiri, consider thou. Ftkiriniy consider ye. 

The form ending in -e .is the more commonly used in 
Zanzibar. The other persons are supplied by the use 
of the Subjunctive. 

Ka- may be prefixed to the Imperative to connect it 
with a preceding verb. 

Kajiflcheni, and hide yourselves. 

The Subjunctive. 
The Subjunctive is made by prefixing the personal 
sign, and when the verb ends in -a 'changing that- 
letter into -e. It may be translated into a variety of 
English forms. It may be used as an imperative or 
jussive, and is the only form that can be so used in the 
first and third persons. 

Nipende, let me love. 
When used with an interrogative it may be translated 
— am I to — is he to, &c. 

Nifanyeje f What am I to do ? 



VERBS. 



141 



It is the proper form to express purpose or object — ^that 
I may, <fec. — and must be used in many cases where in 
English the infinitive is employed. 

Mtioambie dkttsayidiet tell him to help you, or speak to him 
that he may help you. 

Where no purpose is implied the infinitive is used slb 
in English. 

I want to sleep, natdka kulala. 

The force of the conjunction ctnd may be expressed 
by inserting -hor- after the personal prefix. And is used 
in English in many cases where the second action is 
more or less the object with which the first is to be 
done, as in — ^try and find, <fec. In such cases -Jfco- must 
not be used, but only 'the subjunctive in its simple 
form. 



may love. 



Verbs which end in -«, -e, or -w, keep the same final 
letter in the subjunctive. 



■u- 

Ki-, Li; Par 


j>6n(2e. That 


fl 

thou 
he or she 
it 


Tu- 




we 


Wa-, I-, Zi- 




you 
.they 


Vi', Ya- 







The Infinitive. 
The Infinitive is made in all cases by prefixing -ku. 

Ku^nda, to love. 
Ku-ana, to see. 



142 SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 

4 

iThe -M- becomes -vh before a, e, and i, and often 

disappears before o. 

Kw-awbia, to tell. 
Kw-encUif to go. 
Kw-isJia, to finish. 
K-oga, to bathe. 

The Infinitive may always be used to express the 
action denoted by the verb. 

Kwenda, going. 
JBTtt/a, during. 

Kupendam, mutual loving. 

I 

[There are two idiomatic uses of the Infinitive Mood, 
which are common, and may be mentioned here, the 
one a logical, the other a grammatical, contrivance. 

Any finite form of a verb may be preceded by the 
infinitive of the same verb, the effect being rather to 
particularize and give prominence to the idea conveyed 
by the verb, than to emphasize the mode of an action. 

Thus hufd utahufay as to dying, you will die. Dying, 
that is what will happen to you. Not, you will 
certainly die. 

Again, when any finite form of the verb, and espe- 
cially a long form, would be closely followed by another, 
verb in the same form, connected with the former ver^ 
by (at most) the simple copula * wa,* the second verb 
may be put in the infinitive mood. By this device the 
cumbrous repetition of a series of personal and other 
prefixes in a number of successive verbs is neatly 
avoided. 

Thus, " anayeahudiwa na Icutuhuzwa" for anayetuhizwa^ 
" who is worshipped and glorified,"— A. C. M.] 



VERBS. 143 

Participles. 

There are properly no Participles in Swahili. The 
present' participle in -ing may be represented by the 
-anor- tense of an incomplete action, by the -lei' tense 
of a state of continued action, oi* by the use of the 
relative; 

The man sitting yonder, mtu akaaye kule. 

The past participle may be represented by the -me- 
tense of a completed action, or by the relative when 
used adjectivally. 

Nimekiona kUu kilichopotea, I Iiaye found the lost knife. 

The Negative Conjugation. 

All Swahili verbs may be employed with negative 
prefixes to denote the reverse of their affirmative 
meaning. It must be observed that the negative forms 
do not simply deny the affirmative forms but rather 
reverse them. 

Napenda kwenda, I like going. 

NcUaka kwenda^ I want to go. 
Sipendi kwenda, I dislike going, 
Sitaki kipendd, I want not to go. 

In English I do not want is not so strong as I do not 
like, but in Swahili aitahi is stronger than sijpendi. 

The negative tenses are formed by negative personal 
prefixes, which, except in the first person singular, are 
made from the affirmative forms by prefixing ha-. 

For the negative combined with the relative, see 
p. 120. 



144 



BWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



I 




Thou 




He or she 


love not 


It 


or 


We 


do uot love. 


You 




They J 





Negative Present. 
In this tense verbs ending in -a change that letter 
into -1 ; other final letters remain unchanged. 
8i- 

Ha-f Hau-y Hat- 
Hdki-y HaXt'y Hapa- 
Haku- 

Hatu- 

J3(QWW- 

Hawa-f Hai'f Hazi- 
Havi'y Haya- 

This tense is a more general negative than the 
English do not tense. It is used for both past and 
future wherever the negative depends upon some cause 
which is not affected by the time referred to. 

The 4 of «*- in this and other tenses often disappears 

before a vowel. 

Sogopij I do not fear. 

Negative Past. 
There is one negative form referring to past time 
generally ; it is made by the negative prefixes followed 

by -Jfctt-. 

Si- 

ffor^ Hau-f Hat- 

Haki', HcUi- 

Hapa-, Haku- ku-penda \ 

Hatvr 

Sa/rrir 
Hawa-^ Hai-, Hazi- 
Havi'f Haya^ 

In a few rare instances negative prefixes may be 
followed by -me- or -K-. 

Simekuwa rnwongo f Have I not become a liar ? 



I 




Thou 




He or she 


did not love 


It 


or 


We 


have not lovfd. 


You 




.They 





VERBS. 



145 



The not yet Tense. 
There is a negative tense made by the use of the 
negative prefixes followed by -^'o-, which is a sort of 
n^ative present perfect, denying the action up U> the 
time of speaking, 

8%' >| 

Hu- rl 

Ha-, Hath^ Hat- Thou 

Hdki'y Halt- He or she 

Hapa^f Hdku- jja-penda I* ^^^ i^ot yet loved. 

JScUu- We 

Ha/a^ You 

Hawa-, Hai-y Hazi- They 

H<\vi-, 'Haya- J 

The word hcuh is often used with this tense where 

it is intended rather to imply that what has not yet 

happened will some day oome to pass. 

Hajaja, he is not yet oome, he is not come even now. 
Hajaja bado, he is not gome, at least not yet 

The -a- of -jch coalesces with i and e into a long -6- 
sound. 

Hajesha = JSajaisha = He haa not yet finished. 

Negative Futuke. 
The negative future is made from the affirmative 
future by merely using negative instead of affirmative 
personal prefixes. 



Si- 

Hor, Hau-, Hat" 
Hdki; Halt-' 
Hapa-y Hdku- 

Hatu- 

Sam' 
Hawa-, Hai-y JScusi- 
Havi'y Eaya- 



rta-penda < 



I shall not 
Thou wilt not 
He, she, or it 

will not 
We shall not 
You will not 
They will not 



\ love. 



146 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Conditional Tenses. 
The case of not being or not doing is put by a tense 
formed by the affirmative prefixes followed by -«po- ; 
it may be translated by the present participle with a 
negative, or by as, if, when, though, since, pr any other 
word by which the case of not heing,^ having, or doing, 
may be introduced. 
Ni- 

A-y CT-, I-, Ki- 
Li-, Fa-, Kvr 

Tu- 
rn- 

War, I-, Zi-, Vi- 
Ya 

This tense may be also used to translate an English 

affirmative preceded by except or unless» 

AaipqjuOf unless he knows. 
Asipdkuwa AbdaUah, except Abdallah. 



npa-penda < 



I 

Thou 

He or she 

It 

We 

You 

They 



) not loving. 



Contingent Tenses. 
The negative contingent tenses, present and past, 
are made from the affirmative fonns by merely using 
negative instead of affirmative personal prefixes. 

Did I or I should 



Si- 

Hu- 
Ha-. Hau-, Hai- 
Haki-, Hali- 
Hapa-i Haku" 

Hatur 

Ham- 
Hawa-j Hat-, Hazi- 
Havi-f Haya- 



nge-penda 



Didst thou or Thou 

wouldest^ 
Did he, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

would 
Did we or We 

should 
Did you or you 

would 
Did they or They 

would 



not love. 



VERBS, 



147 



Eu- 
Ha-, flat*-, Hat- 
Hdki'y Halt' 
Hapcu-, Hakvr 

Hatu- 

Ham- 

Mazi'y Havi- 
Hayor 



ngaXi-penda} 



Had I or I should 

have 
Hadst thou or Thoij 

wouldeat have 
Had he, she, or it, 

or He, she, or it 

would have 
Had we or We should 

have 
Had you or You 

would have 
Had they or They 

would have 



) not loved. 



Negative Imperative. 

The negative imperative is made by the use of si 
(not), with the affirmative forms. 



Si penda, love not. 
Si sifu, praise not. 



Si pendenij love ye not. 
Si si/uni, praise ye not 



The negative subjunctive is more often used in this 
sense than the imperative form. 



N;egative Subjunctive. 

The negative subjunctive is made from the affirma- 
tive form by inserting -si- between the affirmative 
personal prefix and the verb. 



not love. 



L 2 



Ni- ^ 






U- 




I may 


A-,U-,I- 




thou mayest 


Ki', Li-, 




he, she, or 


Par, Ku- 


si-pende, That 


it may 


Tu- 


we may 


M- 




you may 


War, J-, Zi- 




they may 


Vi-, Yar 







148 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

Tlie -t of -w- often disappears before a vowel. 
asende, that he may not go. 

The negative subjunctive may be Englished in 
set'eral different ways. It may be used as above of a 
purpose not to do, or it may be used of a purpose to do 
which fails. 

AkanUafuta a»imwone, he looked for him, but did not see him, 
or, without seeing him. ^ 

This form- is commonly used for the negative 
imperative. 



Nisende, let me not go. 



Uaende, don't go. 



A form of subjunctive connected with the not yet 
tense is made by the use of 'sije- with the affirmative 
prefixes. 



not have a||peady 
loyed. 



This tense may often be translated by before. 
Utampata^asijeldla, you will catch him before he goes to sleep. 

'Sije with the personal prefixes may be used as a 
complete word followed by the -jfco- tense. 

Nisije nikafa, that I may not be already dead, or, that I may not 
die before, &c. 



Ni- 






Ki', Li- 
Par, Kvr, 
Tu- 


sije-penda. That 


I may 

thou mayest 
he, she, or it 

may 
we may 


Wa-, I-, Zi- 
Vi-, Va- 




you may 
they may 



VERBS, 149 

Negative Infinitive. 

The negative infinitive is made by tlie use of hatoa 
(to pnt out), often contracted into Jcuto- and used as a 
prefix. 

KtUoa kupenda, or Kutopenday not to love, or not loving, to 
dislike, or disliking. 

The Passive Voice. 

The Passive is made from the Active by merely 
inserting -w- before the final vowel. 

Napenda, I love. Napendwa^ I »m loved. 

Sipendi, I do not love. Sipendwi, I am not loved. 

Nimependay I have loved. Nimependwa, I have been loved. 

KupeThdOy to love. Kupendwa^ to be loved. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often use the passive of 
their applied form. See pp. 151, 161. 

The Passive is used in a sort of impersonal way to 
denote what is intended to be done. 

Maji yamehwenda htdetuja, some one has gone to get water. 
Fesa zimekwenda huvunjvoay some one has gone to get pice in 
exchange for silver. 

Auxiliary and Irregular Verbs. 

As the Auxiliary verbs are mostly also irregular, it 
will be best to speak of their irregularities first, and 
afterwards of their use in making compound tenses. 

Monosyllabic verbs and most dissyllabic words be- 
ginning with a vowel, retain the hi- of the infinitive 
in those tenses in which the tense prefix ends in a 



150 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 

syllable incapable of bearing the accent. These tense 
prefixes are -na-, -awe-, -aK-, -<a-, 'japo-^ -w^^e-, -ngalt-, 
and 'Sije-, The other prefixes, -a-, -Jko-, -H-, -ngro-, -/btt-^, 
-ya-, -««-, are capable of bearing the accent, and the ku- 
is not retained when they are used. The personal 
signs, both subjective, and objective, can bear the 
accent, the relative signs cannot. 

Thus, from huja, to come, we have : — 

Naja, I oome. NinaJcuja, I am coming. 

Nikaja, and I came. Nimekuja^ I have oome. 

Nikija, I coming. NcUikuja, I came. 

Sijif I come not. Nttakuja, I ahall oome. 

Sikuja, I did not oome. Nijapokuja, even if I come. 

Sijaja, I am not yet oome. Ningekujoy I should come. 

NUijCy let me not come. NingaZikuja, I fihonld have come. 

Nuijekujoy before I come. 

Nijey let me not come. Nisipokuja, v?hen I oome not. 

Ajaye, he who comes. Aliyekuja, he v^ho came. 
Nijaye, I who come. 

It is shown that this irregularity depends upon the 

power of certtdn syllables to support the accent by 

the changes which occur when an objective prefix is 

inserted. 

Amekula, he has eaten. 
Amendoy he has eaten him. 

The verb hupa, to give to, is peculiar in always re- 
quiring an objective prefix, and therefore never having 
occasion to be irregular. . 

With dissyllables beginning with a vowel it is gene- 
rally indifferent whether the ht- is retained or not. 

Amekvnsha or Ameishay he has finished. 
AmeJcwanza or AmeanzOy he has begun. 



VE^BS. 151 

Many verbs ooour with or without a «?-, which seems 

to be a relic of the -hu-. 

Kuiva or Kwoivck^ to ripen. 
Kuaza or Kuwaza, to consider. 

The word kuja, to come, stands alone in having an 
irregular imperative. 

NjoOf come. NJooni, come ye. 

Monosyllabic verbs and some dissyllables make their 
passives in a more or less irregular way. The follow- 
ing is a list of the monosyllabic verbs with their 



Kucha, to fear. Kuchwa, to be feared. 

Kula, to eat. KuUwOjto be eaten. 

Kunyioa^ to drink. Kunytoeioa, to be drank. 

Kupay to give to. Kupawa or Kupewa, to receive. 

Kucha is used in the dialect of Lamoo for to fear, the 
word used at Zanzibar being hwgopa, Kucha means 
at Zanzibar to rise (of the sun), and kuchwa (or, in the 
dialect of Mombas, hutwa') means to set. The other 
monosyllabic verbs, kufa, to die, huja^ to come, hunya^ 
to fall like rain, huwa, to be, being neuters, do not 
make a passive. 

Two dissyllabic verbs make their passive by merely 

adding -wa to the active form. 

Kuua^to kill. Knuavja, to be killed. 

Kufua, to beat. Kufuawa, to be beaten. 

Verbs ending in two vowels often insert an -U in 
making their passive. See under Applied Forms, pp. 
158-159. 

KuzcLOy to bear. Kuzawa or Kuzaliwaj to be bom. 

Kukomboa, to ransom. KuJcomboleway to be ransomed. 

Kufungim, to open. KufungulitoOj to be opened. 



152 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The origin of this use lies probably in the diffictilty 
of pronouncing distinctly the regular passive forms. 
Verbs ending in -e make their passive in -ewa, 

Kttsamehey to pairdon. Kusamehmoay to be pardoned. 

Verbs ending in -i make their passives in -iwa. 

Kukiri, to confess. Kuhiriwa^ to be confessed. 

Verbs in -u. generally make their passive in -iwa, 

Kuharihu, to destroy. KuhaTibivja, to be destroyed. 

Where the -u is preceded by a vowel the passive is 
made in -^liwa. 

Kuaahau, to forget KueahatMioii, to be forgotten. 

The verb huwa^ to be, has several peculiarities^ The 

Present tense is very seldom used in its regular form. 

For the t^resent tense ni (or, in the negative, si) may 

be used for all persons and both numbers, or the per- * 

sonal prefix appropriate to the subject of the verb may 

stand alone. Ni is apparently preferred where being 

is the important part of the idea ; the perscmal prefix 

is used where the being of that particular thing is 

intended specially to be noticed. Tu (not A) is used 

for he or she is. 

Si kwelit ni husifa tu, it is not true, it is onlj^ flattery. 
7\i tayarif we are ready. 

When joined with a relative the regular form has 
the meaning of w7m may he, 

Awaye yote, whoever it be. 

Where no stress is intended to be laid on the being, 
the verb to be, when joined with a relative pronoun, is 



VERBS. 153 

represented by the syUable** -Zt-. See Eelatives, p. 118. 
lA is used, thougli but rarely, with the personal signs 
to form a tense with the meaning — continuing to be. 
A narative past is also formed with it in the sense of — 
I have continued to be. 

NUi halt ya kuwajuu yake, 1 being on his back. 
Nihali nikipotea, and I go on wandering. 

In many cases where the verb to he is used in Jlnglish 
merely to connect the parts of the sentence it is in 
Swahili omitted altogether. 

Kwa nini weye kutoa kuonekana Mzi siku nyingii why [have] 
you Q)een] invisible, i.e.. Why have you kept out-of sight so 
long ? 

Yupi mkuu woof who [is] their chief? 

Nyama ya kifaro ngumu mno, rhinoceros meat [is] very tough. 

The Present Perfect has the meaning of has become, 

Manenoye yamekuwa uwongOf his words are become false. 
The Past Perfect must be used to translate was and 

were, 

Nilipokutoa SuUani, when I was Sultan. 

The English has or have been must be translated by 
a present. ' 

Nipo hapa siku nyingi, I have been here many days. 
The Imperative is used with an i prefixed. 
Iwe, be thou. Iweni, be ye.* 

In the negative present and with relatives si is used 
as ni and 4i- are in the affirmative tense. The regular 
forms are also used, though but rarely. 

♦ The subjunctive forms uwe, mwe are commonly preferred in 
Zanzibar.-A. 0. M. 



154 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

The verb to he is used in English sometimes to 
denote existence viewed as an ultimate fact, sometimes 
to denote existence in place and time, sometimes to 
denote existence as the possessor of certain qualities, 
or the doer or sujfferer of certain acts. In SwahiH these 
three uses are distinguished by the employment of 
different forms. 

The simple form of the verb is used only, to denote 
existence as the possessor of qualities, or the doer or 
sufferer of acts. 

Existence merely in place and time, whether the 
place and time are in English expressed or no, is 
denoted in Swahili by the addition to the verb of -jw), 
-wo, or -ho, as the case may be. See Kelatives, p. 120. 

He is at my house, Yuko kwangu. 
He is here, Yupo hapa. 
He is in the hoase, Yumo nyurnhani. 
When he was liere, AUpohuwapo hapa. 
Where are they ? Ziko wapi9 
/ 
Existence viewed as a fact in itself is denoted by the 

addition of na to the verb, being the same form as is 

used for the verb to have. Na is joined to the personal 

prefixes to make the present tense, in all other tenses 

it is treated as a separate word, and has generally the 

appropriate relative sign suffixed to it. 

Kuna mtuj there is a man. 
KuUkuwa na mtUy there was a man. 
Zinazo, they are. 
Zilikuwa nazOf they were. 

In Swahili there is properly no verb to have. They 
employ for it kuwa na, to be with. 



VERBS. 155 

NinOy I have: 
Nalikuwa na, I had. 
Nitdkuwa noy I shall have. 
Niwe rMf that I may have. 

Where the objective prefix would be used with an 

ordinary verb, the appropriate relative particle must 

be suffixed to the na as well as to the tense prefix. 

Ninazo, I have them. 
Aliyehuwa nazo, who had them. 
Alizokuwa nazo, whioh he had. 

Auxiliary Verbs. 

The Verbs used as Auxiliaries are, huwa, to be, hutoay 
to take out, kujaj to come, kwiaha, to come to an end. 

Can is represented by the appropriate tenses of 

hmoeza, to be able. Must is expressed by sharti, of 

necessity, or by the negative tenses of Jctma na huddi, 

to have an escape from. 

8ina huddi, I must. 

Aeiioe na huddi, that he may be obliged. 

After huwa na Imddi either the infinitive or subjunc- 
tive may be employed. 

Ought may be represented by the tenses of kupasa, to 

concern, or, to come to concern. Should is expressed 

in the same way when it implies obligation, and by the 

contingent tenses when it expresses a contingency. 

Imenipasa kwenda, it concerns me to go, t.e., I ought to go. 
Imempasa rmende^ it concerns me that I go not, «.e., I ought not 
to go. 

Kupasa is also used as follows : — 

Hatkunipasa mimif it is no business of mine. 
Imekupasani ? "What have you to do with it ? 
Amew'pasa mimh he is a connection of mine. 



156 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

May and might may be represented by haweza where 
they imply power, by halali, lawful, where they imply 
lawfulness, and by the subjunctive where they imply a 
purpose. 

The use of huja as an auxiliary has been mentioned 
under the -jajpo-, -ja-, and -sije- tenses, pp. 138, 146, 148. 

Kutoa is used to convey a negation in cases where 
the regular negative tenses cannot conveniently be 
used. 

With the infinitive it is frequently contracted into 
'Uhj and used as a mere formative. 

Kutoa huja, or Kutokuja, not to come. 
Kutoa hupenda, or Kutopenda, not to love. 

The meaning of these negative infinitives may be 
given as, putting out coming, barring coming, coming 
not happening. A transitive form may be made by the 
. use of hutosha, to make to go out. 

Kutosha kumvmliza, to exclnde asking bim. 

In many cases hutoa may be translated by, to forbear, 
or, to neglect. 

Ametoa huja, he has neglected coming, he has not come. 
NikUoa h/^Oy if I forbear from coming, or, so long as I do not 
come. 

The negative tenses do not furnish a true present/ 
perfect. The past, hakuja^ is, he did not come; the 
present, hafi, implies rather that he never will, that 
coming is not to be predicated of him at all. The 
difference between nisipohaja and niMtoa huja is repre- 
sented in English by that between, if I come not, and, 
while I come not. In all cases the use of toa connects 



VEBBS. 157 

the negation with the tense only ; the negative tenses 
imply that the opposite of the verb might be affirmed. 
Ktoisha may often be translated by already. 

ATnehvneha huja, he has already come. 
NimehwUha huUi^ I have done eaUng. 

It is used to strengthen the present perfect, convey- 
ing the meaning that something is not merely done, 
bnt folly done and over. 

A somewhat similar effect is produced on the present 
by using Jcatika hwiaha. ' 

Ni katika hwieha huia^ I am finishing eating, I am just leaving 
off, I hare very nearly done. 

Kvkwa^ to be, is used in Swahili very much as it i3 in 
English, the -ifei- and -we- tenses of the principal verb 
being used as present and past participles. 

N%U ntkienda, I continuing to be going. 

Nikcdi nikiendaj and I am still going. , 

Nihiwa nihienda, I being going, while going. 
Nikiwa nimekwenda, I being gone, having gone. 
Nikiwa nimekunsha ktoenda, having already gone. 
NcUikuwa nikienda, I was going. 
NaUkuwa nimekwendoy I was gone, I had gona 
Nalikuwa nimekunafut kwendd, I had already gone. 
Nitakuwa nikienda, I shall be in the act of going. 
NUakuwa nimekwenda, I shall be gone. 
Nitakuwa nimekwisha kwenda, I shall have already gone. 
Nitakuwa nUiokwenda, I shall be who has gone, I shall have 
gone, I shall have gone to or been at. 

Emoa na, to have, is not used as an auxiliary. 

Derivative Verbs. 

There are four derivative forms which may be con- 
structed out of any Swahili verb, where in English 



158 8WAHILI HANDBOOK, 

we muet use either another verb or some oompoTind 
expression. 

1. What may be called the applied form is used in 
cases where in English a preposition would be em- 
ployed to connect the verb with its object. By the use 
of this form verbs which have things for their objects 
may be made to apply to persons. 

This form is made by inserting i or e before the final 
-a of the simple verb. I is used when the vowel of the 
preceding syllable is a, t, or it. E \a used when the 
vowel of the preceding syllabfe is e or o. 

Kufamyat to make. Kufanyia, to make for. 

KibUta^ to bring. Kuletea, to bring for. 

Kusikitiha, to be sorry. Kusikitikia, to be sorry for, to pity. 

Kuokcby to bake. Kuokea, to bake for. 

KtJtanguka, to fall down. Kuangukia, to fall down to. 

Where the simple verb ends in two vowels the sup- 
• pressed I appears in the applied form. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzalia, to bear to. 

KukweOy to climb. Kuktoelea, to climb for. 

Ktisikia, to hear. Kusikilia, to listen to. 

Kukaniboa, to redeem. KukomhoUa, to redeem for. 

Kununua, to buy. Kununulia, to buy for. 

The following is a list of the monosyllabic verbs 
with their applied forms : — 

Kuchay to fear. KucTielea, to fear for. 

Kufa, to die. Kufia, to die to. 

Kuja, to come. Kujia, to come to. 

Kula, to eat. KuUa^ to eat with. 

Kunya, to fall (like rain). Kunyea, to fall upon. 

Kunywa, to drink. Kunywea, to drink with. 

Kuwa^ to be. Kupsia, to be to. 

KuzOy to sell, makes Kuliza, to sell to. 



VERBS. 159 

^ujpa, to give to, having already an applied meaning, 
has no applied form. There is a difficulty in expressing 
what would have been the meaning of the simple form. 
Kutoa is used for to give, in the sense of parting with. 
Such expressions as, which was given you, must be 
rendered by a change of person — uliopewa, which you 
had given to you, or, which you received. Which he 
gave me, is very commonly rendered niliopewa naye* 

Verbs ending in -* and -u make their applied forms 

in -ia. 

Ku/asiri, to explain. Kufcuirta, to explain to. 

KuharibUy to destroy. Kuharibia, to destroy for. 

The great paucity of prepositions in Swahili brings 
the applied forms of verbs into constant use. The 
only difficulty in their application lies in the exact 
discrimination of the meaning of the simple word. 
Many Swahili verbs imply in their simple form what 
can only be expressed in English by the use of a pre- 
position. Whenever a really good dictionary shall have 
been compiled it will supply all the necessary informa- 
tion. The applied form may be rendered by inserting 
any preposition which will suit the context. Thus, 
kmhuhudia is, to bear witness about, for, or against, as 
the case may be, and kunenea, which means to speak 
about, may have to be translated by, to recommend, or 
to decry, to scold, or to describe. The simple word 
nena has in itself the force of to mention, so that it is 
not necessary to use the applied form as a translation 
of to speak of, where it means no more than to 
mention. 

Sometimes the shape of the word will be a useful 



160 8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 

reminder to foreigners of its exact meaning ; thus, 
Imjpotea^ winch may be roughly translated to lose, is in 
the shape of an applied form, and really is one, its 
exact meaning being, to become lost to. If, therefore, 
we want to say, I have lost my knife, the constructioi;i 
must be altered into, my knife has become lost to me 
(Tdsu changu himenipotea), the subject and object having 
to change places. 

Where in English a preposition connected with the 
verb can stand by itself at the end of the sentence, the 
applied form must be used in Swahili. 

A knife to cat with, hisu cha kukatia. 

Stones to grind wheat with, matoe ye kusagia ngano, 

A place to come out at, mtihcLli pa kutokea. 

A bag to put money in, mfuko wa kutiliafetha. 

In these sentences the use of the possessive particle 
-a for the English to, denoting a purpose or employ- 
ment, must be observed and remembered. This particle 
turns what follows into a sort of adjective in this, as 
in all other cases in which it is followed by a word 
which is capable of denoting a quality. It is somewhat 
like the English expressions, a man of sense, a building 
of great soliditf^, do. 

When an applied form is followed by Tnhali it conveys 
the idea that as a consequence of the action denoted by 
the simple verb something is put out of the way, or 
got rid of. 

AJUe, or Afle mbali, that he may die out of our way. 
TumiouUe mbaU, let us kill him and done with it. 
Potelea mbcUif perish out of my way = go and be hanged. 

The passive of the applied form has a meaning which 



1 



VERBS. 161 

it requires some attention to remember and apply- 
rightly, though it is strictly according to the rule that 
the object of the active becomes the subject of the 
passive voice. 

Kuletea, to bring to. Kuleteioa, to have brought to one. 

Kufanyia, to make for. Kufanyi%oa^ to have made for one. 

It is often difficult in English to express this passive 
without using an altogether different word. What 
suggests itself at first to an English ear, that the 
passive of to bring to would be to he brought to, is wrong, 
and must be carefully avoided. Sometimes a change 
of prepositions will suffice to render the passive cor- 
rectly ; hipa may be translated to jpresent to, and then 
hupewa is not to be presented to, but to be presented mth. 

Passives made in -liwa and -lewa are used as. the 
passives of both the simple and the applied form. 
Kufunguliwa may be used as the passive of kufungua, 
meaning, to be unfastened, or as the passive of kufun- 
gulia, meaning then, to have unfastened for one. It 
can never mean, to be unfastened for. If it is necessary 
to express a passive in that form it must be done by 
changing the construction. 

A cry was made at hun, cUipigiwa ukdeU [he had made at him 

aery]. 
The door was opened for \&m, aliJunguLiwa mlango [he had 

opened for him the door]. 

2. The Causative form is made by changing the final 
-a into -sha or -za. 

Kupungua, to grow less. Kupwnguza, to make to grow less. 
Kuzidi, to grow greater. Kuziduha, to make greater. 

M 



162 8WAEIL1 HANDBOOK 

When the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
general rule is to use the applied form as the basis of 
the causative. 

Kupenda, to like. Kupendeza, to please. 

Kufanya, to make. Kufanyiza^ to cause to make. 

Kupandat to go up. Kupandisha,, to make to go up. 

Verbs which end in the simple form in -ta end in 
the causative form in -«a. 

Kutdkata, to be clean. Kuiakaea, to make clean. 

Verbs which end in -ha may be turned into causa- 
tives by changing -Jca into -sha. 

Kuwaka^ to be on fire. Kuwasha, to set on fire. 

Kutainiha, to be soft. Ktdainitha^ to make soft. 

KutohOy to go out. ^utotha, to make to go out 

Kushukay to go down. Kuthusha^ to let down. 

The causatives of verbs ending in -e, -i, or -w are 
constructed on the applied form. 

Kuhartbu, to come near. Kukaribitha^ to make to come near. 

3. The Neuter, or quasi passive form is made by 
changing the final -a into -ha. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguka, to be unfastened. 

Kuokoa, to save. I^uokoka, to be saved. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a consonant the 
neuter is constructed from the applied form. 

Kuvunja, to break. Kuvunjika, to be broken. 

Kukata, to cut. Kukatika^ to be cut 



VERBS. 163 

Causatives in -sha may be turned into neuters by- 
changing -aha into -ka, 

Kugttuha, to startle. Kustuka, to be startled. 

Verbs in -e, -4, and -m, construct their neuters on the 
applied forms. 

Kusamehej to forgive. Kuaameheka^ to be forgiven. 

Kufasirit to explain. Kufcmrika, to be explained. 

KuharibrA, to destroy. • Kuharibika, to be destroyed. 

The 'ha form is used (like the English passive) to 
denote what is generally done or doable. 

Kulihaj to be eaten, or, to be eatable. 

4. Eeciprocal forms are made by changing -a into 
-ana. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendana^ to love on» another. 
Kupiga, to beat. Kupiganay to beat one another, to fight. 

Verbs in -e, -i, and -u construct their reciprocals 
upon the applied forms. 

Kuharibu, to come near. Kuharibianay to come near to one 
another. 

The reciprocal form of the -ha form may be translated 
by to be to be, &c. * 

Kupatikana, to be to be got. 

^ujidikcma, to be to be known, to be knowable. 

Kuoekanttf to be to be seen, to be visible. 

The derived forms are conjugated and treated in 
every way as though they were original words, and 
other derived forms may be made from them to any 
extent that may be required. 

M 2 



164 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



The applied form of an applied form generally sig- 
nifies to do a thing to or foif a person for a purpose. 
Doubling the verb gives an idea of thoroughness. 



KukcUa, to cut. , 

Kutafuta, to seek. 
Kuchafukay to o^ u* a mess. 

Kupamha, to </c torn. 

Kukattkay to be cut 



Kukatakatay to cut up. 
Kutafutatafuta, to seek aU about 
Ktichafukachafuk<i, to be all in a 



Kupasukapasuka, to be torn to 

shreds. 
Kukatikakatikaf to be all cut 

about 



( 165 ) 



LIST OF YERBS. 



As it is necessary to put to before the English Verb to make the Infinitive» 
so it is necessary' to prefix hu- to make the Infinitive in Swahili. Before 
Monosyllabic Verbs the kur bears the accent, and is retained in several of 
the tenses. See p. 149. 



AJbcLse, thill. 

AhhoT^ chukia. 

he Able, weza. 

Abolish, batili, tangua, ondoBha. 

AbouTid with,, jaa. 

Absorb, nwa, poAS. nwewa. 

Abstain from, epuka, epushwa (to 

be kept from). 
Abuse (by words), tukana. 
Accept, kubali, takabali, pokea (re- 
ceive). 

be acceptable or accepted, kuba- 
lika. 
Accompany, fuatana Da, andamana. 

(part of the way), sindikiza, adi. 
Accuse, tuhiimu, shtaki. 
Accusitom, zoeza. 

become a^icustomed, zoea. 
Ache, mna. 

My head aches, kitwa chauma or 
kinanimna. 
Acknowledge, ungama, kubali, kiri. 
Acquiesce, nyamaa, rithia. 
Acquit, acha. 

be a>oquitted, toka. 



Act, tenda. 

Adapt, fanya. 

Add to, ongeza, zldisha. 

Add up, jumlisha. 
Adjoin, tangamana. 
Adjourn, akirisba. 

star^ over, akiri. 
be Adjudged, fetiwar 
Adjwrey, apisba. 
Admire, penda. ^ 

I admire him, amenipendeza. 
Admit, ingiza, acha kuingia. 
Adorn, pamba. 

Adorn on^sdf, fanya uznri. 
AdvUerate^ ghoshi. 
commit AduUery, zini, zinga. 
Advance, endelea mbele. 

Advance money to a trader, ko- 
pesba. 
be Adverscy gomba, teta. 
Advise, pa shauri. 
Adze, ohonga. 
Affect to be, jifanya, jiona. 
Afflict, tesa. 

be Afraid, ogopa, cha (A.). ^-^ 
Agitate, snkasaka. . 



166 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Agree (come to an agreement), patana, 
afikana, tuliliana, lekezanya, 
tuzanya (A.). 
(be mutually satisfied), rathiaoa. 
(be alike), elekea, lingana. 
Aim, twaa shababa. 
Alarm, ogofisha, ogofya, tisha. 
be alarmed [ktC-]wa na khofd, 
iugiwa na khofu. 
Alienaie, farakisha. 

he alienated, farakaDa. 
Allege a defect in, umbua. 
Allot amongst many, awaza. 
Allow, acha, pa ruksa, ruhuso. 
Alter, (neuL) badili, badilika, geaka. 

{act.) geuza, badili. 
Amaze, ajaabisha. 

be amazed, toshea. 
Amend, fanyiza, tengeneza. 

(o/ a person reforming), tulia. 
Amuse, zumgumza. 
Anchor, tia nanga. 
Anger, tia hasira, ghathabishiEL 
be Angry, [kii-]wa na hasira, gba- 

tbabika. 
be Angular, [kii-]wa na pembe- 

pembe. 
Announce, hubiri. 
Annoy, sumbua, sumbosba, taa- 

bisba, hatiki (A.). 
Annul, tangua, batili, ghairi. 

be Annulled, tanguka. 
Answer, jibu. 

Answer when caUed, itika, itikia. 
Anticipate for, onea. 
he Anxious, tabamki, taabika. 
make Anxious, tabarakisha, taa- 
bisba.. 
Apostatize (become an infidel), ku- 

furu. 
Appear, onekana (become visible), 
tukea (oome out to). 



Apply oneself to, tenda. 

Appoint, nasibu, aini, cbagua or 

teua (select). 
Approa^, karibia, jongea. 

Approach one anoliher, karibiana. 

Bring near, jongeza, karibisba. 
Approve, kubali, penda, ratbi. 
Argue, jadiliana, sbindana (dispute 

together). 
Arise, ondoka. ,„_____^ 
Arm, pa selaba. ^^ 

Arm oneself, twaa selah^^-"''^ 
Arrange, panga, andikaTpangiaha, 

ratibu, fanya. 
be Arrogant, gburika. 
Arrive, fika, wasilL 

arrive at one*s destination, koma. 

make to arrive, fikisha, wasilisha. 

rea^h a person, fikia, wasilia. 
Ascend, paa, kwea, panda. 
Ascertain, hakiki, uyuzi 

he ascertained, kinika. 
be Ashamed, ona baya, tabayari. 

make ashariMfl, tia baya, tahaya- 
riflba. >^^^ 
Ask, uliza, nza, sail! 

Ask far, taka. 

Make inquiries on behalf of any^ 
one, ulizia, unzia, sailia. 

Ask how one does, uliza ball. 

Ask in marrio/ge, posa. 
Assemble, (act.) kusanya, kntaniaba. 

(neut.) kutana, kusanyika, knsa* 
nyana. 
Assent, kubali, itikiza, afikana, ra-' 

tbiana. ^^^ 

Assert, sema. 
He asserts thai he saw a skip, 

kamma aliona jabasi. 
He asserts that he walked on the 

water, kamma alikwenda mtoni 

kwa mguu. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



167 



Attonish^ ajabisha, taajabisha^ 
he ctstonuhed, toshea, sbangaa, 
taajabika, tosbewa, staajabn. 
Astound, sbangaza. 
Atone for y setiri. 

AttoAihy gandamia, gandamiza, am- 
bisa. 
he attacked, ambatana (o/ ffiings), 
ambisana (of people). 
Attack, shambulia. 

Attack people wantonly, [ktC-]wa 
na jeuri. 
Attend (wait upon), ngojea, faata. 
Attend to, sikia, pulika (A.)» si- 

kilia, 
not to attend, gbafalika. 
« refuse to attend, jipunikusba. 
he Audible, sikiliana, sikizana. 
Avail, faa. 
Avoid, epuka. 

get out of the way of, epa. 
he avoidable, epekm epukika. 
Avow, kubali. 
Awake (neut), amka. 
waken (act.), amsha. 

B. 

Backbite, cbongeleza. , 

Betray, khini. 
Bake, oka. 

(pottery), tomea, chomea. 
Bale out toater, yuta maji, teka 

maji. 
Banish, fakuza (drive away), ondo- 

sha (make to go away), hamisha 

er tamisha (M.) or gurisha (A.). 

(to make to remove). 
Bar (a door), pingia. 
Bargain, fanya nbazazi. 
Bark (like a dog), lia. 
garter, badili, awithi 



Batter (bruise), cbubuachubua. 
he battered {like an old copper 
pot), chubukachubuka. 

Baihe, oga. ' 

Be, wa. See Irregular Verbs, p. 152. 
(to ^ay), kaa. 
be on one's guard, [kii-]wa na 

bathari. 
he off one* 8 guard, tagbafali. 
Bear (fruit, children, &c.), zaa, 
vyaa. ^^ 

(carry), chukul^himili. 
(tolerate), vumilia, stahimili. 
bear with another person, chuku- 

JiaDa. 
Bear with me, niwie rathi. 
hear witness, shubudu. 
ahout, for or against, sbuhudia. 
Beat, plga, puta, menya (Kiyao). ^ 
Beai up together, funda. 
Beat to pieces, ponda. 
Beat a roof or floor, pigilia. 
be well beaten, putika. 
be beaten upon (as a wreck by the 

waves), fuawa. 

See Conquer, Thresh, 

Beckon to, pungia nguo. 

The usual sign to beckon a person 
to come is to wave a cloth up 
and down. 
Become (befitting), sulibi. 
Nimekuwa, I am become, 
Simekuwa, am I not become. 
The act of becoming is generally 
expressed by the present tense of 
the verb expressing the being in 
the state or possessing the quality. 
Become a fool, pumbazika. 
Beg, omba, bembeleza. 
(entreat), sihi, nasibi. 
I beg of youy tafithal. 
Beget, zaa. 



168 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Begi% anza. 
Begin upon, anziliza. 
Btgin a work, maliki. 
Behave, tenda. 

Behave well, tenda vema. 
' Behave ill. tenda vibaya. 
Behave like an invalid, jigo- 
njweza. 
Bdch, ongulia. 

Belch out, kokomoka. 
Relieve, sadiki. 

Believe in, amini. 
Bend, (act.) pinda, (neut.) pindana. 
Bend round, (act,) peta, (neut.) 

petana, petemana. 
Bend d<yum,(act,) inamisha, (neut.) 
inama. 
Benumb, fagan^a. 
Bequeath, wasia, achia. 
Besiege, husuru (Ar.). 
Bet, shindania. 
Beware, angalia, [kii-]wa na ha- 

thari. 
Bewilder, tekea. 

Bewitch, fanyia uchawi, loga (Mer.). 
Bicker, papnriana. 
Bid. See CJommand. 

Make a first bid, risimu. 
Bind, fuiiga. 
Bind hooks, jelidi. 
Bind oneself, fanya sharti. 
Bind round (as when a stick is 
sprung), ganga. 
Bite, lima. 
Blab, payaka. 

Blame, laumu, tia hatiyani, nenea 
(scold), patiliza (visit upon), 
karipia (call out at). 
Blaze, waka. 
^Bleed, fcoka damn. — 

(copiously), ohuruzika damn, tuza 
damu (M.). 



Bless, bariki (see Copulate), barikia, 

jalia. 
BHnd, povua. 
\ become blind, povuka. 
Block, kingamisha, pinga. 
Blos8om,to& maua (pvt/orihflowfersX 

fuDuka (to open). 
Blow (as the wind), vuma, vuvia. 
(with the mouth), puzia, puliza. 
(a horn. &c.), piga zomari, &c. 
(the nose), futa kamasi 
(bellows), Yukuta 
Blow away, pepenisha. 
Blundef, kosa. 
Blunt. 
The knife is blunt, kisu hakipati, 
kisu ni kivivu (A.). 
Blurt otU, kokomoka. 
Blush, geuka (change colour). 

put to the blwh, hizika. 
Boast, jisifu, jigamba, tamba^^ 
Boil (bubble up), che'mka,'^futama. 
cook by boiling, tokosa. 
be cooked by boiling, tokota. 
be well bmled, tokoseka. 
boil over, furiksL 
Bore through, zua, pekeclia (used 
aho of boring with talk), 
with an awl, didimikisL 
Border, pakansL 
be Born, zawa, vyawa, zaliwa, yya- 

liwa, pathiwa. 
Borrow, azimwa, kirithi. 
Bother, eumbna, hatika (A.). 
Bow, (oof.) inamisha, (neut.) inama. 
Box the ears, piga kofi. 
Braise, kaanga. 
Bray (like an om), lia. 
pound in a mortar, ponda. 
clean com by pounding, twanga. 
Break, yunja, vunda (M.), (neut,) 
▼unjika, katlka. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



169 



\JBredk'\ through^ tobo8L 
into fragtnentSj setaseta. 
by hendingy ekua. 

to he sprung, ekuksL 
q/f the cobs of Indian com, goboet, 



dovm the branches of a tree, kwa- 

nua, pass, kwanyuka. 
toimd, Jamba, ODgulia. 
Breathe, pumua, puzia, tanafusi. 
inapire, paaza, pumzi. 
, eaypire, shusba pumzi. 
hard, kokota roho, tweta {pan£). 
breathe oneself (rest), pumzika. 
Breed, zaa, lia (M.). 
^6 BriUiant, Dg'ara. 
' iBring, leta. 
to or for, letea. 
Bring up, lea. 
Bring together, pambana. 
Bring near, jongeza. 
Bring to ar^ agreement, pataniFha. 
Bring to life again, fuf^ia, huislia. 
Bring another t Na ije ngine I 
Brighten (acL), katua 

he bright, katuka {p6lished),ng*QXfi 
(glistening). 
Bruise, ohubua. 
he bruised, chubuka. 
(fxitter), chubuaohubua. 
- Brush (dean), sugua. 
Brush off, epua. 
Biibble up, che'mka, tutuma. 
Bud, chupuza (spring), ohanua (put 

forth leaves), mea (grow). 
BuUd, jenga. 
in stone, aka. 
to point by putting in wmall 
stones, tomea. 
(ships), unda. 
Buily, onea. 
he a Burden to, lemea. 



Bum, waka (to he on fire), teketea 
(to be consumed), washa (to set 
on fire), teketeza (to consume), 
choma or chomea (to apply fire 
to), ongiiza (to produce a feeling 
of burning, to scorch). 

Burrow, fukuafukua. 

Burst, pasuka, tumbuka. 

Burst oui, bubujika. 
Burst into tears, bubujika ma- 
chozi 

Bury, ziksL 

Buy, uunua, zabuni 
Purchase for, nunulia. 
Buy back, komboa. 

Buzz, like a bee, vuma. 



Cackle, like a hen, tetea. 
Call, ita, nena, taja (name), amk^a 
(invite), lingana (A.). 
CaU out to, pigia ukelele, pigia 

ukemi (Mer.). 
Call for help, piga yowe. 
CaU to prayers, athini 
become Callous, faganza. 
Calm, tuliz8L 

be very calm, zizima. 
Can (kuweza, to be able), 
Siwezi, I cannot. 

Naweza, I can. •— " 

Canter (of a horse), kwenka kwa 
mghad ; (of a donkey) kwenda 
kwa thoith. 
Capitulate, selimu, sellim. 
Care (take care), angalia [klC-]wa 
na hathari. ^* " - ' 
takp care of, tunza. 
consider, waza, tafakari. 
be careless, [kti]wa mzembe. 
I donH care, haithuru, mamoja 
pia. "^"^«....^ 



170 



Carry y ohukua. 

foTy chukulia. 

tm a pole ovet the ehotdder, chu- 
kua mpikonL 

on the head or shouldera, pagaa. 

a child on the ha>ok, beba. 
astride on the hip or ba^cky eleka. 
in front or on the lap, pakata. 

in a bundle or faggot, titika. 

of as spoUy teka. 

as cargo, pakisL 

on freight, takabathi. 
Carve wood, &c,, kata Dakshi* 

chora {adorn with carving). 

be carved, nakishiwa. 
Cast, tnpa. 

upon or at, tupisL 

a glance, tupa nathiri. 

one's eye?, tupa macho. 

(in ajnould), ita. 

off aU shame, jipujua. 

east lots, piga or fanya knra. 
Castrate, hasL 
Catch, daka, nyaka. 

in a trap, nasa, tega. 

fish, Yua samaki. 

put something to catch rain-water, 
klnga mvua. 

{see one who thinks himself unseen), 
fathehi, gundua. 

be in time to meet with, diriM, 
Caulk, kalafati. 
Cave in, pomoksL 
Cease, koma. 

ma/fe to cease, komesha. 

talking, nyamaza. 

{of pain), nyamaza. 
Cense, fukiza (uudi, &c.). 
be Certain about, kinika, tasawari. 
Change, {act) geuBha^ geuza, badili, 
badilisha, {neut) geuka, badi- 
lika. 



SWkEILI EANDBOOK. 



be changeable, badilibadili, ba- 

dilika. 
change on^s mind ahotk, gbairL 
change {a piece of money), vtinja- 
Charge {direct), agiza, sisitiza (M.). 
Cliase, winda, winga. 

atoay, fukuza. 
Chastise, athibu. 
Chatter, puza. 

{of the teeth), tetemeka. 
Cheapen, rsikhisisha. 
Cheat, danganya, hadaa, ghusnbtL 
be cheated, danganyika, hadaika. 
Cheer, ondolea, huznni. 
Chew, tafuna. 

Chirrup {as to a bird), fionya. Both 
word and thing are need in 
Zanzibar to express contempt. 
Choke {throttle), kaba, sama. 
choke oneself with drink or spittle, 

palianamate, &c., &c. 
irritate the throat, kereketa. 
Choose, chagna, teua, khitari, penda, 
ioA{send). 
as you choose, ikhtiari yako, upe^ 
ndavyo. 
Chop, chanja {cut up), chinja or 
(M.) tinda {cut), tema {slash), 
chonga or tonga {cut to a point\ 
katakata {chop up sm^itt). 
Circulate {intelligence), tangaza. 
Ciroummse, teihiri. 
Claim, dai. 

Clap the hands, piga makofi. 
Clasp in the hand, sbikana, kamata. 
in the arms, kumbatia, kumba- 
tiana. 
Claw, papura. 

Clean, takasa, fanya safirsafisha. ^^ 
. be clean, takata, safik% takasika. 
clean com by pounding, twanga. 
clean a second time, pwaya. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



171 



[CZean] he quite clear of husks and 
dirty pwayika. 

cotton, cloves, &c., chambua. 

cocoa-nuts from the husk, fua. 

hy scraping, paa. 

cleanse hy ceremonial ahlutionsy 

, tohara.^ 

clean out from within a sheU, 
kombsL 

dean out a man (get all his 
money), komba. 

be cleaned out (lose all one's 
rnoney), kombeka. 
Cleanse. See Clean. 
Clear. See Clean. 

thesky is c2ear,uwiugu tunetakata. 

(make dear or plain), eleza, yuza, 
fafanua, fafanulia. 

(he clear), elea, fafanuka, fafanu- 
kia. 

ground in a forest, fieka mwitu. 
Cleave, (split), pasua, chenga. 

cleave to, gandama, ambatana. 
Click, alika, (act.) alisha. 
Cliinb, panda, kwea. 

a tree, paraga. 
Cling, ambata. 

together, guiana, ambatana, fti- 
ngamana, ahikamana. 
Clip, kata. 
Close the eyes, Ac, fnmba. 

the fist, fnmbata. 

a door, shindika. 

a hook, funika. 
Clothe, vika. 
Coagulate, gandamana. 
Coojx into, shawishi. * 
Codi (a gun), panza mtambo. 
Coddle, engaenga. 
Coliahit with, ingiliza. 
CM. See Cool. 

he very cold, zizima. 



I have a cold in the head, siwezi 

kamasi. 
CoUed, knsanya, jamaa» (neuX,.) ku- 

sanyika, kutana. 
Comb, ohanajjchaaia-*-_ 
Come, jS^trnp. njoo, pi. njooni. 
hy,for, to, (fee, jia. 
to a person on a business, jilia. 
(arrive), fika, wasili. 
out, toka. 
in, ingia. 

upon (meet with), kuta. 
near, karibu, karibia, jongea, fl- 

kilia. 
Come near ! or Come in ! Earib I 
Come no further ! Eoma usije ! 
close to, wasili, wasilia. 
togdher. See Assemble, 
to life again, fafuka, hui, huika. 
to an end, isha, koma, tekeza. 
be fully come (of time), wadia. 
come to light, fUnuka, fombnka. 
come to nothing (of plants, fruit, 

&c.), fifia, pooza. 
come apart, katika. 
come out in a rash, tutuka, tutU'* 

mka, tntnsika. 
Comfort, fariji, tulizia roho (calm 

the soul), ondolea hnzunl (taJce 

away grief). 
Phrases used hy way of comfort' 

ing :— 

Sbtkuru Mnnngu, fhank God, 

Hemdi Munngu, praise God. 

Itoe huzuni, put away sorrow. 
' Usiwe na huzuni, don*t grieve, 
be comforted, farajika, shukura 

Munngii) pendezewa, tajv^akaii 

(trust in God and take courage), 
he Comfortable, tengenea. 
I cannot he comfortable in the 

house, nyumba halniweki. 



172 



SWABILI HANDBOOK. 



Command^ a'xnra, ambia (tell\ 
Commissionf agiza. [amrisha. 

Commit, See Adultery. 
Compare, angalia kwamba ni sawa, 
pambanisha (bring together), 
pambanaa (diatinguiah), linga- 
nisha (match), fafanisha (make 
like). 
Compel, juburu, lazimisha. 
Complete, timiza, timiliza, khati- 
misha, xnaliza (finish), 
complete one*8 edtication, hitimu. 
he complete, timia, timilia, isha 
(end). 
Comprehend. See Understand. 
jua (know). 
kutana (take in), 
he comprehended in, ingia. 
Conceal, setiri, ficha. 

he concealed, 8tirika.% 
Concern, pasa. 
Conciliate, patanisha. 
Condemn, laani (damn). 
Amefetiwa kuuawa, Jik was ad- 

judged to he killed. 
Imenlpasa kuuawa, he might to he 
killed. 
Condescend, nenyekea. 
Condole, hana (join in a formal 

mourning). 
Conduct, peleka, leta, chukusL 
ConfesSy kiri, ungama, lalama. 
he Confident, tumaini. 

have confidence, staamani. 
Confide in, amini, tuiuania. 
Confound, changanya (mix), batili 
(annul), 
he in Confusion, fathalka (of 
persons), ohafuka (of things). 
Confuse, changanisha. 
put into confusion, fathehi. 
hecome confused, fathalka. 



Congeal, gandamana. 
Congratulate, furahisha, shangilia. 
Connect, fungamana (tie together)^ 

ungana, ungamana. 
Conquer, shinda. 
Consecrate, fanya wakf. 
Consent, kubali, rithia, penda, ra- 

thiana. 
Consider, fikiri, tafakari, waza. 
Console (see Comfort), tulizc^ tnlizia 

roho. 
Conspire, wafikana. 
Construct, jenga, jenzi. 
Consult, taka shauri (ask advice), 

fanya shauri (consult together). 
Consume^ la, teketeza (by fire), 
he consumed, isha, lika, teketea 

(by fire). 
Contain, chukua (contain as a ha>g 

does rice), 
he contained in, ingia» [kii-]wamo, 

'nma (it is contained in it). 
Contend with, 8hindauana,hu8umu. 
Content, rithika. 

be content, [ku-]wa rathi, kinayi. 
Continue, dumu, kaa, shiuda (stay 

at work, &c.). 
make to continue, dumisha. 
Contract, punguza (lessen), fupiza 

(shorten), fanya ndogo (make 

small), kaza (press together). 
Contract, fanya sharti (make a con- 
tract), fan} a ubazazi (make a 

bargain). 
Contradict, kanya wasa. 
Control, af Aabitisha, zuia. 
Converse, zumgumza. 
Convert, geuza, fanya. 
Mwenyiezi Muungu amemwo- 

ngoa, God has turned him from 

his evil way. 
to he converted, ongoka. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



173 



Convince, ^^ubutisha, iumainisha. 

become convinced, tumaini. 
Cook, pika, andaa. 
cooJc with fat, kaanga. 
cook mthoutfat, oka. 
cook mvhogo cut into tmaU pieces, 

pwaza. 
to "become cooked enough, iva. 
Cod, (neut.) poa, poro£^ (act.) poza 
(to cool, by pouring backward 
and forward), zimua (cool hot 
water by pouring in cold). 
Copulate, jami, tomba (vulgar). 

for the first time, bariki. 
Copy, nakili, fknya nakl. 

copy from^ tweok ya. 
Correct, sahihi, sahihisha, nidi 
Correspond (write to one another), ■ 

andikiana. 
Corrupt, haribu. 

go had, oza, haribika. 
Cost, wakifa, BimamsL 

cost to, wakifia, simamisL 
Cough, kohoa. 

Count, hesabu, wanga (Mer.), ba- 
Cover, funika, setui. [zibu. 

as with a flood, fanizika. 
cover, vjith leaves, put into enibers, 

Ac), Tiimbika. 
be covered, stiriksL 
Covet, tamani. 
Crack, tia ufsL 
as the earth does in dry weaiher, 

atuka. 
become cracked, ufa. 
Crash, fanya kishindo. 
Cra/wl, tambaa. 
be Crojzy, zulu. 
CreasCf kunjia. 

he creased, kunjika. 
Create, umba. 
be created, hulukiwa. 



Creep, tambaa. 

Crinkle up, finyana. 

he Crooked, potoka, komboka. 

Cross (lie across), pandansL 

(cross a river), vuka, kwenda 
ng*ambo ya pili. 

(cross a room), kwenda upande 
wa pili. 

get cross, vana. ^ 

he cross at having anyihing to do, 
kimwa. 
Crow, wika. 

Crtunfy, sulibi, sulibisha. 
Cruize, vinjari. 

Crumble, (act.) fikicba, (neut.) fu- 
Crush, seta, ponda. [jika. 

crush and bruise one another, 
pondekana. 

crush up, setaseta. 

crush in, (act.) bonyeeha, (neut.) 
bonyeka. 
Cry, lia. 

cry ahotU, lilia. 

cry out at, pigia, ukelele, karipia. 

cry for help, piga yowe. 

cry for mercy, lalamsL 
Cultivate, lima. 
Cup, umika. 
Curdle, gandamana. 

curdled milk, maziwa mabivu. 
Owre, "ponya, poza, ponyesha. 

make better, fanya ashekali. 

be cured, poa, pona. 

cure fish, &c., ng'onda. 
Curse, laani, tukana. 
(Jut, kAJ&r^ 

cut ohliqyC€Uy, ^a fianamu. 

cut for, cut out for, katia. 

cut up, chanja, chenga. 

cvi to shreds, pasukapasuka. 

he cut off from one another, ti- 
ndikiana. 



174 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



D. 
Dab, chachaga. 
Damage, haribu. 
Damn, laani, laanisha. 
Dance, cheza. 

dance for joy, randa. 
Doure, f^ubutu, weza, jasiriaha. 
Darken, tia giza. 
Darn, tililia. 
Dash, cbupia. 
Daiih, paka. 
Daum. 

knna kwoupe, to he grey daton, 

pambazuka or pambauka, become 
ligU, 
Dazzle, choma. 

the eyes are dazzled, madio yame- 
fanya kiwi. 
Deal in {trade in), fanya biashara 
ya, &o. 

Deal cards, gawa karata. 
Decay, haribika, oz8l 
Decease, fariki. 
Jfeceive, danganya, padaa. 

deceive by promises, ongofya. 

he deceived, hadaika. 
Decide, kata maiieno. 
Deck out, bamba. 
Declare^ thihirisba, yuza. 
Decoy, patia or twalia kwa ohe- 

revu. 
Decrease, pungua, pungaza, pu- 

Dguka. 
Dedicate, faoya or wekea wakf. 
Defeat, vunja, kimbiza (j^t to 
flight), 

to he defeated, ynnjika, kimbia. 
Defend, linda. 

guard oneself, kinga. 
Deflower, bikiri, vunja ungo. 
Defraud, thalimu. 
Deign, knbali, nenyekea. 



Delay, (netU.) kawia, kawa, fawitL, 

(act.) weJ^, kawisha. 
he Delirious, papayuka. 
Deliver, okoa, yaa, toa. 

he delivered, vu^;»rT>koka. 
Demand, taka.^^ ^ 

demand in marriage, posa. 
Demolish, vunja, baribu. 
Deny, kana, kanisha. 

deny to a person, nyima, bint. 

(refuse), kataeu 

deny aU credence to, katalia. 
Depart, ondok a^ toka, en da zanga, 
zako, &o. *^*^-.^^_ 

Depart from me! Ondoka mbele 
yanga 1 

depart from (he alienated from), 
farakana. 
Depend upon, p£ii-]wa na. 

Kunaye, depertding upon him. 

fungamana na, he connected toith. 

fuata, he a dependant. 

tungikwa, hang from. 
Depose, uzulu, uzulia. 
Depreciate (act.), khasbifti, urnbua. 
Deprive of, twalia. 
Deride, oheka, chekea, knfaro, 

fanyizia mzaha. 
Descend, sbuka. 

Describe, andika, fafanulia (by liken- 
ing), pambanulia (by distin- 
De9ert, acba, bujuru. [gvishing. 
Deserve, stabili. 

deserve well of, fathili 
Desire, taka, ipa, tamani (long for), 

penda (like). , 
Desolate, vunja, baribu. 
Despair, kata tamaa. 
Despise, tweza, tbarau (pa$s. tha- 

rauliwa), bakirisba. 
Destroy, baribu, vunja. 

be destroyed, baribika, yunjika. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



175 



Detain^ kawisha, weka. 
Detety kataza, zuia. 
I>€terminey yakinia, dzimu, kaza. 

determine a matter, kata maneno. 
Devise, fanya Bhaiiri. 
"-Die, fa, fakiri, ondoka katika uli- 
mwengc, toweka (A.)f tekeza. 
make to die, fisha. 
lose hy death, fiwa na. 
Dig, chimba. 

dig out or away, chimbua. 
fdkua, cut a smaU hole fit to 
redeive a post. 
Dignify, tukuza. 
become dignified, or he raised to 
dignity, tukuka. 
Dilute, tia maji . 
Dim, tia giza. 

Diminish, (neut.) pangua, pungoka, 

tiliflka, (act.), punguza, tilifi- 

Dip, cbovya. [sha. 

dip and leave in, choveka. 
Direct,, agiza (commission), ambia 
(teU), amiiru (order), fiindisha 
(instruct), vusha (put into the 
, right way). 
Disagree, gombana^ tetana. 
Disappear, toweka. 

(as a scar, d;c,). Ma. 
Disarrange, chafaa. 
Discharge from an obligation, feleti. 
Discover, vumbua. 
Discriminate, pambanua. 
Disemboioelf tumbua, tumbuza. 
Disgra43e, albisha, hizika. 

be disgraced, aibika. 
Disgust, chuMza. 

be disgusted, cbukiwa. 
Disji up, pakua. 

When you wish a meal to be served 
you should say, not pakua, but 
lete chakula. 



Dislocate, tonka. 
Disquiet, fathaish^. 

be disquieted, fathaika. 
Dismiss, liMza, ondoa. 
be dismissed, tolewa. 
Disobey, asL 

Disorder (pui things in disorder), 
chafua. 
put an army in disorder, fathaisha. 
be in disorder or dishabille, cha- 

/oka. 
beaUin disorder, chaftikaohafiika. 
Dissipate, tampanyatap^nya. 
Distinguish, pambanua. 
Distort, popotoa. 

Distress (put in low spirits), kefya- 
kefya. 
be in distress, thii 
Distribute, gawanya. 
Disturb. 

DonH disturb yourself I Starehe! 
Disunite, farakisba. 
be disunited, epukana, £uakiana, 
achana. 
Dive, zama. 
Divide, tenga, gawa, gawanya, kata, 

bussu. 
Divorce, acba, tokana, tangua ndoa. 

Do, fanya, tenda. —...^^ _^ 

I have done nothing, sikufanya 

neno. 
He has done nothing at aU, baku- 

fanya lo lote. 
be done or doable, tendeka. 
do (be of use), faa. 

It won*t do, baifaL 
do anything slowly and carefully, 

kototeza. 
do wanton violence, busudu, fanya 

jenrL 
be done (finished), isba. — "^ 
be done (cooked), iva.' " 



176 



8WAEIL1 SANDBOOK. 



Dote, piswa. 
Double^ radufya. 

Doubt, fanya tashwishi, [kil-Twa na 
shaka. 
There is no doubt, hapana shaka. 
Doze, sinzia. 
wake up suddenly from a doze, 
ziuduka, zindukana. 
Drag, kokota, burora (haul along), 
drag out of one^s hand, ohopoa, 
kopoa. 
Drain out, chiirukiza, churuzika. 
Draw, vuta. 

Draw water, teka maji. 

Draw together, kunyata. 

Draw near, karibu, karibia, kari- 

biana. 
Draw a line, piga mstari. 
Draw out naiU, &c., kongoa. 
Draw breath, tauafusi. 
Draw in the breath, paaza pumzi. 
Draw up the earth round growing 

crops, i>alilia. 
Draw the end of the loin cloth 
between the legs and tuck it in, 
piga uwinda'. 
* Dread, ogopa, ogopa muo. 
Dream, ota. 
Dress, viksL 
Dress in, vaa, jitia. 
Dress up, pamba, jipotosL 
Dress ship, pamba merikebn. 
Dress vegetables for the market, 
chambua. 
Drift, chukuliwa. 

Drink, nwa, or nywa ; pass, nwewa. 
Drip, tona. 
- Drive, ongoza Qead, condtust), chu- 
nga (as a shepherd), fakuza 
{drive away), fukuzia (drive away 
from), kimbizia (make to run 
away from). 



Drop (doum), (n^ut.) anguka, (aetO 
angusha. 
into, (neut) tumbukia, (ocf.) tnm- 

bukiza. 
(like leaves in autumn), pnkntika. 
(foM in drops), tona. 
drop from, little by little, doiidoka. 
Drown (act.) tosa, (neut.) tota» fa 

majL 
be Drunken, lewa. 

Dry, (neui.) kauka, nyauka, (act.) 
kausha. 
become dry by water leaving it, 

pwa, pwea, pwewa^ 
be left high and dry, pweleka. 
put out to dry, anika. 
dry or cure fish, ng'onda. 
Dupe, danganya.. ^ 
Dust, futa vumbi.^^^^ 
Dwell, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 
Dwindle, kunjana, punguka, anga- 

mia (go down in the uoorld). 
Dye, tia rangi. 
kutona hina, to lay on henna so 
as to dye the part red. 

E. 
Earn, pata. 

Ease, fariji, sterehisha. 
become easy, farajika. 
Ease oneself, kunya. 
Eat, la. ■*■ ■ *i— ^— ^ 
in, with, for, &c., lia. 
be eaten or eatable, lika. 
have eaten enough, shiba. 
eat at the expense of each one in 

turn, la kikoa. 
eat where each contributes some- 
thing to the feast, la kwa ku- 
ohanga. 
eat all the food away from oChers, 
ima. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



177 



Ametuima, he "has eaten U aXl wp 

before toe came» 
overeat oneself^ vimbiwa. 
make a person eat too much, 

vimbisha. 
eat without hounds, papia. 
eat over voraeumsly, la kwa pupa. 
.&&&, pwa. 
be ^Eclipsed, patwa. 
Educate, fuiida, fundisha, aUmisha, 

adibu, or tia adaba (tea/ih good 

manners), lea (bring up), 
EUmgaie, ongeza urefu. 
Embalm, tia madawa asioze. 
Embark, panda (go on board), ta- 

hassa (go on board with the 

intention of sailing). 
Emibra^se, pambaja, kumbatia, ku- 

' mbatiana. 
Embroil, tia matata. 
Emerge, zuka. 
Employ, tuma (send about), tumia 

(make use of), tumika (be 

employed). 
Empty out, mwaga, mwaya. 
Enable, wezesba, jalia. 
Encamp, tiia (jput down loads). 
Encourage^ tia moyo, f^ubutlsha. 
End, (neut.) isha, koma, (act.) mali- 

za, komesha, khatimisha. 
Endow toith, wekea wakf! 
Endwe, ishi (last), vumilia (bear 

with), stahimili. 
Enervaie, thoofisha. 
Engage, afikana, twaa, fanya sharti. 
Engender, zaa, yyaa. 
Enjoy, furahi, ona raha, fiirahiwa na. 
Enlarge, ongeza, zidisha. 
Enlist (a>ct.), tia asikari. 
be Enough, tosha, toshelea. 
It is enough, bassi. 
have had enough food, sbiba. 



Enquire, uliza (ask), hnji (enqut 

into), hakiki (make sure about), 

iilizia (enquire on account of) 
Enrage, ghatbabishsL 

be enraged, ghathabika. 
Enrich, pa utajiri. 
Enslave, tia utumwani. 
Ensnare, tega. 
Entangle, tia matata. 
Enter, ingia. 
Entice, vuta kwa cherevu, twaa kwa 

werevu. 
Entreat, omba, sihi, nasihi. 
Entrust, wekea amana, amini mtu 

nakitu. 
be equal to (an undertaking, <tc.), 

weza. 
Equalize, sawanisha, sawazisha, 

fanya sawasawa, linganidha (by 

measurement). 
Erect, simikisha 
Err, kosa^^'^enda hapa na hapa 

(wander). 
Escape, okoka (be delt^ed), pona 

(to get well), vuka (to get across), 

kimbia (run away), fiatuka (to 

escape cw a spring, to get free). 
Establish^ tengezeka (?). 
Estimate, kadiri, kisi. 
Evaporate', nwewa. 
Exalt, inua (lift), tukuza, atbimisha. 
be exalted (great), tukuka, athi- 

mika. 
Examine, onja (taste), tafiti, fAtiishi, 

sayili (by questions). 
Exceed, pita. 
Excel, pita. 
Except, toa, tosha. 
Exchange, badili. 
Excite, taharrakisha, fitini. 

be excited, hangaika. 
Excuse, uthnru, samehe (pardon). 
N 



178 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 



Exercise^ zoea. 

exercise atUhority over, hukmnu. 
Exert oneself, fanya jiihudi, jitahidi. 
Exhort, onya, nabihisha. 
Exorcise by music, &c., pimga. 
Expand, tanua, kunjua (unfold), 

zidi (increase), fiinuka or 

kunduka (become open). 
Expect, ngoja, ngojea, tumaini. 
Expel, toa, fukuza. 
expel an evil spirit by music, &c., 

punga pepo. 
Expend upon, be at the expense of, 

gharimia. 
Explain, eleza, pambanua, fasiri, 

tafsiri, fumbulia, pambanulia 

(explain to), tambulisha (make 

to recognise). 
Explode, pasuka (burst), waka 

(blaze). 
Explore, fatiishi, jasisi, angalia. 
Export, toa. 
Express, thahiri, baini. 

(press out), kamua. 
Extend, (act.) nyosha, (neut.) iika 

(reach to), kunjuka, enea (be 

spread over). 
Exterminate, ng'oa pia yot© (root up 

utterly). 
Extinguish, zima, zimia. 

'to go out, zimika. 
Extort, pokonya. 
Extol, sifu. 
Extricate from, toa na, namua 

(Mcr.). 
Exult, furahi. 



Fade, fa. kauka, fifia (pine away), 
pukutika (wither and drop), 
thoofika (grow weak and thin). 

Fail, punguka. 



Faint, zimia roho. 
Fall, anguka." 
fall like rain, nya. 

cause rain to fall, nyesha. 
fall into, tumbukia. 
let fall into, tumbukiza. 
fall flat on the ground, lala incbi. 
fall in (cave in), pomoka, 
fall short, pungnka, tiiidika (A.)- 
foill sick, ugua, 
Falter, shanghaa, sita. 
Fan, pepea. 
Farley, kumbnka, fikiri. 

fancy oneself, jiona. 
Fa^, funga. 
break a fa^,or eat after a fast., 
futuru. 
Fasten, funga. 
Faiten (get fat), nona (of animdU), 

nenepa (of men). 
Fatigue, chosha, taabisha. 

be fatigued, ohoka, taabika. 
Favour, pendelea. 

Fear, ogopa, cha (A.), [kd-Jwa na 
khofu. 
be fearless, peketeka. 
Feast, kerimu. 
Feed, lisha. 
cause to be fed, lishisha. 
put morsels into a friend's mouth, 
rai. 
Fed, ona (perceive), papasa (touch). 
Feign, jifanya. 
Fell^ kata. 
Fence, fanya ua. 
Fend off a boat, tanua mashu8L 
Ferment, cbacha. 

Ferry over, vusha, vukisba, abirisha. 
Fetch, leta. 
Fight, pigana. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 
sbana. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



179 



JVW,jaza. 
fiU in [a hote], fukia. 
become /u22, jaa. Tlie passive i$ 
used for being filled toith some 
extraneous substance, Mtungi 
uxnejaa maji, the jar is fuU of 
water, but, maji yamejawa na 
dudu, the water is /uU of 
insects, 
be half fuU (by remaining), shi- 
nda, maji yasbinda ya mtungi, 
the jar is half full of water , 
fill up, jaliza. 
fiU with food, shibisha. 
to be full, to have had enough, 
shiba. 
Find, ona, zumbua, vumbua, pata, 
kuta. 
be to be found, zmnbukana, pati- 

kana. 
find out in a trick, fathebi, 

gundua. 
be found out, fetbeheka. 
findfauU vnth, tia batiyanL 
Finish, (act.) maliza, (neut) isba, 
koma. 
finish off, tengeneza, teogelezck 
finish a journey, koma. 
finish a scholar, bitimishsL 
Fire (set on fire), tia moto, wasba 
moto. 
(apply fire to in any way), ohoma. 
a gun, &c., piga bunduki, &c. 
Fitih, vua samaki. 

fish a spar, &c., ganga, tia gango. 
Fit, faa (do well). 
Ni kiassi changu kama nalika- 
tiwa mimi, it fits as though it 
had been made for me. 
J'ia;, kaza. 

fix the eyes upon, kodolea. 
Flame, waka, toa ndimi za moto. 



Flap, piga. 
make a sail flap by going too near 
the wind, pigiza tanga. 
FUxsh (lighten), piga mneme. 
Flatten, tandaza. 
Flatter, sifu, sifu mno, jipendekeza 

(ingratiate oneself with). 
Flavour, to get the right flavour 
Flay, cbuna, tuna (M.). [kolea» 
lose the skin, cbunika, tunika (M.). 
Flee, kimbia. 

be Flexible, pindana, [ktC-]wa lainL 
Flicker, sinzia. 
Flinch, jikunja, ruka. 
Fling, tupa. 
Float, elea, ogolea. 
JJTog.piga. 

Flood, gbarikisha,furika,tawanyika, 
funikiza. 
be flooded, gbariki. 
Flourish, sitawi, fana, fanikiwa. 

make to flourish, sitawisba. 
Flow, pita (flow by), toka (flow 
out), bubujika (to burst and 
bubble out). 
Flower, toa maua. 
Flurry, zulieba. 
Flutter, papatika. 
Fly, ruka. 

fly off, puruka. 
Fold, kunja. 
fold together, kunjana. 
fold in the arms, kumbatia. 
Follow, fuata, andama (M.). 

follow a pattern, olejsa. 
become Foolish, pumbazika. 
Forbid, gombeza, kataza. 
Force (see Compel), tia nguvu. la- 
zimisba. 
He was forced to ao, alikweuda 

kwa nguvu. 
Force open, pepetua. 

. N 2 



180 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



FareteU, agua, labiri, bashiri. 

H(nio has this year been predicted 
off Mwaka bun umeaguli- 
waje? I 

Forfeity lazimisbwa. 

he forfeited 6y, potea. 
^ Forge iron, &c., fua cbuma, &c. 

weld on a new point or edge, tam- 
buza. 
Forgety sabau. 

he forgotten, sabauliwa. 
Forgive, samebe, acbilia, mwafa. 

Forgive me, niwie ratbi. 
Forsake, acba. 

Fortify, tia boma {put a rampart). 
Foster, lea, lisba. 

Free (from slavery), weka or acba 
buru. 

{from prison), acba, fungua. 

he set free (from prison), tokana. 
Freeze, ganda, gandamana. 
Freight. 

pay freight for, takabatbisba. 

carry on freight, takabatbi. 
Frighten, ogofya, tia kbofu, ogo- 
fieba, kbofisba, tisba. 

hecome frightened, ingiwa na 
kbofu. 

startie, stusha, kutusba. 
Front, kabili, lekea. 

put in front of, lekeza. 
Frown, kimja uso, kunja vipajL 

He has a frowning face, uso una- 
kuDJamana. 
Frustrate, ba^, vunja. 
Fry, kaanga, 
Fvifil, timiza, timiliza. 

fulfil a promise, fikiliza abadi. 
Furl sails, kunja matanga. 
Furnish a house, pamba nyumbsL 



Oain, pata, pata fayida, 

OaUop, piga mbio. 

Gape, piga nyayo, funua kinwa. 

Garble copal, &c., cbagua sand»- 

rusi, &c. 
Gather (fruit), cbuma. 
into a heap, zoa. 
together (act.), kusanya, kutani- 

Bba, jamaa, jamiiBba. 
together (neut), kusanyika, kuta- 

nika. 
up into a smaU spaee, fiuyana. 
(me^elfupfor an e^ort, jitutumua. 
litHe by litde, lumbika. 
up one*s courage^ piga moyo 
konde. 
Geld, basi. 
be Gonial (good-humoured and 

merry), cbanga'mka. 
Cht, pata. - , _ , ^- ^ 
get better, pona. 
get a litUe better, (Tni-]wa ashe- 

kali. 
get drunk, lewa, jilevysL 
get dry, kauka. • 

get fire by working one stick 

against another, pekecba. 
get for, patia. 

get foul of one another, pambana. 
get goods on credit in order to 

trade with them, kopa. 
get into, ingia. 
get into a well, a scrape, &e., (act) 

tumbukiza, (nevl.) tumbukia. 
get into a passion (neut.), ingiwa 

na gbathabu or basira. 
get into a quarrel (act.), vumbilia 

vita. 
get [seeds'] into the ground, vu- 

mbikia. 
gei mouldy, fapya ukungu. 



LIST OF r^B8. 



181 



get out, toksL 

get out of the watfy jitcnga. 

Out of Ike way ! Similla 1 
get out of one*8 eighty tokomea. 
get palm wine, gema. 
get ripe^ iva. 

get thin and watery ^ poroa. 
get through, (neut.) penya, (act) 

penyesha. 
^et up, ondoka. 

rise to (a person), ondokea. 
get up or upon, panda. 
get well, pona, poa. 
be Giddy, levyalevya. 
CHM, chovya. 
(rive (a thing), toa. 

(to a person), pa, pass, pewa, to 

receive, 
give a complaint to, ambukiza. 
give a taste, an inkling, or a little 

specimen, dokeza. 
give ba^, rudisha. 
give into the hand, kabithi 
give leave to, pa rukto or rohusa, 

nikhnsu. 
give light to, tia mwangaza. 
give mutual gifts, pana. 
give presents to, tirnza, tunukia. 
give rations to, podha. 
give room or sparse, nafisisba. 
give to drink to, nywesha. 
give to eat to, lisha. 
give trouble, taabisba, fanya inda, 

smnbua. 
give way under one, bonyea. 
Give way (row) 1 Vuta ! 
Glance, nathiri, tupa macho or na- 

thari (cast the eyes or a glance). 
Glare at, ng'ariza. 
Gleam, mulika, Dg'ara. 
Glide, tiririka, teleza. 
OZis^, zagaa. 



Glitter, metameta, mekameka, me- 

rimeta, mulika. 
Glorify, tukuza, sifu. 
Glow, ng'ara. 
Gnaw, guguna. 
Go, enda, enenda. 
you can go, ruksa. 
go after crfor, endea. 

{follow), fuata. 
go alongside, pambana. 
go ashore (of a ship), panda. 
he left high and dry, pweleka» 
pwewa na maji. 
go ashore (of a person), shuka. 
go away, enda zangu, zako, zake, 
zetu, zenu, zao, according to 
the person. 
toka ondoka. 
go away from, acba, toka. ' 
go hack, rudi, regea. 
go hackward, endelea nyuma. 
go had, oza. 
go hefore, tangulia. 
go hefore a judge, enda kwa 

kathi. 
go hehind, fuata. 
go hy, pita. 

go crooked, patoa, potoka. 
go forward, endelea mbele. 
go free, toka. 
go into, ingia. 
go marketing, enda sokoni. 
go off (like a spring), fiatuka. 
go on (not to stop), fiiliza, foza, 

fulnliza. 
go on (with a vjork), sbinda. 
go on hoard, panda. 
go on hoard in order to sail, ta- 

hasa. 
go on with hy turns, pokezana. 
go out, toka. 
(like a candle), zimika. 



182 



SWAHIII HANDBOOK. 



He has gone out for the day, 
amekwenda shinda. 
go over, vuka. • 
go past, pita. 
go quickly doum a steep plaoe, 

tele'mksL 
go running, enda mbio. 
go to expense ahout or upon, gha- 

rimia. 
go to meet, laki. 
go to meet with shouting and joy, 

shangilia. 
go to law with, teta. 
go up (neut,), paa. 
(act.) kwea, panda. 
he Good of its kind, fana. 
Gore, piga pembe. 
Govern, tawala, miliki. 
Grant to, pa, jalia, ruzuku. 
Grapple, kamatana. shikana. 
Grasp, shika, fmnbata. 
Grate, paniga, paruza. 
Graze, paruga, kwaruza. 

graze one another, pamzana. 

become Great {of a person), tukuka. 

become great to or hard. for, kujia. 

be Greedy, [k\i-]wa na roho or 

choyo, fanya tamaa (be greedy 

for). . 
Greet, salimn, salimia, amkxia, ba- 

rikia. 
Grieve, (act.) sikitisha, tia huzimi. 

(neut.) fiikitika, ingiwa na huzuni. 
Grin, toa meno. 
Grind, saga. 

grind coarsely, petaza. 
Groan, ngua. 

groan at, zomea. 
Grope, papasa. 

Grow, ota (of plants), kua (to become 
large), mea (of plants, to grow 
or be growable)^ 



What istoh^ grown here f Kili- 
mo cha nini ? 

grow to its fuU size, pea. 

become fulUgrovm, pevuka, komaa. 

grow up quickly, Tnytimka. 

TMt to grow (of seeds), fifia. 

grow large enough to bear fruit, 
auka. 

grow fat, nenepa (of persons), 
nona (of animals). 

grow thin and lean, konda. 

grow larger, kua, kithiri. 

grow less, pungoa, tilifika. 

make to grow large, knza. 
Growl, ngumma. 
Chrudge, hini. 

grudge at, husudu. 
Grumble, nnng'unika. 
Grunt, guna. 
Ghmrantee payment of a debt, ha- 

a result, tadariki. [wili. 

Gxmrd, linda, tunza, hami, ngojea. 

guard oneself against a blow, 
kinga. 
Guess, bahatisha, kifii, thani 
Gruide, onye^a njia (show the way), 

peleka (take). 
Gulp, gugumiza. 

gulp down, ak'ia. 

H. 
Hdlt, tua (put down burdens), ai- 

mama (stand), sita (go lame, or 

to stop), chechemea {to put one 

foot only flat on the ground). 
Hammer, gongomea (hammer in), 

fua pass, fuawa (beat as with a 

sledge-hammer). 
Hang, angika (as against a waU), 

tungika (be suspended), tu- 

ndika, alikL 
(strangle), nyonga, songa. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



183 



Happen, tukia. 

Which happened to him^ kilicho- 
mpata. 
Harass, sumbua, uthi, uthia, cho- 
koza, sumbuBha. 
he harassed, smubuka, uthika. 
Harm, thuru, hasara. . 

No harm I Haithurul . 
Harpoon, paga. 
Hasten, (act.) harakisha, himiza. 

(neut) fanya hima, haraka. 
Hatch, ongua, zaliwa, onguliwa (6e 
hatched), angua (break the 
shell). 
bate, chukia, buothu, zira (M.). 
Have, [kii-]wa na (see p. 154). 
(possess), miliki. 
on hoard, pakia. 
pcywer over, weza. 
in one^s debt, wia. 
To have things done for one, is 
expressed hf the passive of the 
applied form (see p. 161).. 
Hawk about, tembeza. 
Heal, poza. 

be healed, poa, pona, ongoka. 
Heap up, kusanya, fanya fungu. 
Hear, sikia, pulika (A.). 
hear one another, sikilizana, pu- 

likana. 
he to be heard, sikilikana. 
Hearken, sikiliza, pulika. 
Heat (get hot), pata moto. See 

Warm. 
Heave the log, tia batli. 
he Heavy. See Weigh down. 
Help, sayidia, aunt. 
Hem, kunga. 

Hesitate, shangaa, sita, ingiwa na 
shaka (get into doubt), 
in speaking, babaika. 
Hide, flcha, settiri, sita (A.). 



You have hid .the cap from me, 
umenificha kofia. 

You have hid my cap, umenifi- 
chia kofia. 
Hinder, zuia, pinga, fawiti. 
Hint, dokeza. 

Hire, ajiri, panga (to rent). 
Hit, piga, pata. / 

with a spear or arrow, furaa. 
Hoards weka, weka akiba. . 
be Hoarse, pwelewa sauti. 

I am hoarse, sauti imenlpwea. 
H6e, lima. 

hoe up, palia. 

cause to be hoed, palililiza. 
Hoist, tweka. 

Hold, sbika, kamata, fumbata 
(grasp), zuia (hold in), zuilia 
(JiM off from). 

hold in the mouth, yuata. 

Iwld one*s clothes or hands be- 

• tvoeen one^s knees, fiata. 

hold a public audience, or council, 
barizi. 

hold up (not to rain), anuka. 

hold in contempt. See Scorn. 
HoUow out, fukua. 
Honour, heshimu, pa heshima, 

jali. 
Hop, Tukaruka. 

Hope, taraja, tumaini (feel con- 
fident). 

I hope, roho yatumai. 
Humble, thili, hakiri. 
, be humble, nenyekea. 
Hunger, p£ii-]wa na njaa. 

he ravenously hungry, rapa, lapa. 

I am very hungry, njaa inaniu- 
ma. 
Hunt, winda, winga, saka. 
Hurry, haraka, himiza. 
Hurt, uma, umia, umiza. 



184 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Eiuk (India» com), menya, ambna 
(M.). 
(cocoa-nttfe), fua. 
(or 8hdl)y papatua. 



helUor unweU, lUness is expressed 
by the use of the negative present 
of the verb kuweza, to he dble. 
Siwezi, I am iU, Hawezi, he is 
illy &c. Nalikuwa siwezi, I 
was HI, Alikuwa hawezi, he 
was illy &c, 
I have been ill for two vfumthst 
siwezi yapata miezi miwili. 

Imitate, oleza, iga, fuata. 

Immerse^ zamisha, chofya. 

Implore, pembeleza. 

he Impossible, toa kufanyika. 
It is impossible, haiyamkini. 

Imprecate against, apiza. • 

Imprison, tia gerezani, funga. 

Improve, tengeleza, silihi, sitawisha. 

Incline, (neut) inama, (act) ina- 
mishsk. 
incline to (like), penda. 

Increase, (act.) ongeza, zidisha. 
(neut.) ongezeka, zidi, kitbiri. 

be Indebted to, wiwa na. 

Indulge in, zoeza, jizoeza. 

Infect, ambukiza. 

Inform, arifu, hubiri, pa haban. 
In letter-writing arifu is always 
employed, on other occasions 
kupata or kuwa na habari is 
generally used for to be in- 
formed, and ainbia*(<cZO for to 
inform. 

Ingratiate oneself, jipendekeza. 

Inhabit, kaa, keti 

Inherit, rithi. 



Injure, hasiia, hasiri, hasirisba. ^ 
be injured, hasirika. 

Innovate, zua. 

be Inquisitive, taflti. 

Inspect, kagua. 

Instrtkct, fundisba, fonza, elemisha. 

InsuU, shitumo, tukana, obokoza. 

Intend, kusodia (purpose), azimu or 
azimia, or yakinia (res6lve\ 
nia, or ania, or nuia (have in 
one*s mind). 

Inter, zika. 

Intercede for, ombea. 

Interpret, fasiri, tafsiri. 

Interrupt, zuia, katiza, hanikiza» 
uthia (bother). 

Intoxicate, levya. 
become intoxicated, lewflL 

Intrude, fumania. 

Going into another persorCs house 
for an unlawfut purpose (ku- 
fisidi), or without lawful pur^ 
pose (ku-fumaniana), bars by 
the law of Zanzibar any daim 
on the part of the intruder in 
respect of any assault or injury 
while there. 

Inundate, gbarikifiha, furika (swelX)^ 
tawanyika (spread). 

Invade, shambulia. 

Invent, biini, zumbua. 

Invite, ita, alika. 
invite to come in, karibisha. 

Irrigate, tia maji, nywesba. 

Irritate, tia haedra, ghathabisha, 
kasirisha, ebokoza. 

Itch, — cause to itch, nyea. 
I itch, imeninyea. 



Jam, kwamisha. 
become jammed, kwama, sakama. 



LIST OF VERB8. 



185 



Jar the teeth, like grit in foody 

kwaza meno. 
Jerky kutua. 
Jesty faaya ubishi or mzaha, thi- 

haki. 
Join, (jousl,) unga, {neut.) ungana Qa. 
Judge, hukumu, hukumia, amua. 

The original meaning of amua 

is to separate, and it ia used of 

separating two persons who have 

heen fighting. 
Jumble together different languages 

or dialects, goteza. 
Jimp, rnka. 

K. 
Keep, weka or cheleza (put away), 
tnnza (take care of), linda 
* (guard), hifatlii (preserve), shi- 
ka (hold), fuga (keep animals), 
weka or kawisba (delay), 
he kept gossiping; pnzika. 
be kep^ tame or in a cage, fugika. 
It cannot be kept, i.e., it will 
either run away or die, hafu- 
giki. 
keep awake, (neut.) kesha, (act,) 

kesheza. ' 

keep from, epusha, zuilia. 
keep in order (a person), nidi. 
be kept, or capable of being kept, 

in order, rudika. 
keep on at, shinda. 
Keep your distance ! Koma usije ! 
Kick, piga teke. 

KiU, ua, pass, uawa, waga (Mer.), 
fisha (to cause to die). 
kiU with, &c., ulia. 
kid for food, cbinja, tinda (M.). 
be Kind, tenda mema. 

do a kindness to, fatbili. 
Kindle, wasba, tia moto. * 



Kiss, t>usu. 

lift to the lips and kiss, sbgeza. 
Knead, kanda. 
Kneel, piga magote. 
Knit the brows, kunja vipaji. 
Knock, gonga, gota, piga. 
at a door, orio cry Sodi! if the 
door be open, bisba. 
Know, jua. Kujua is often used in 
the sense of to know of, about, 
how, &c. 
I know where he is, namjua ali^o 

(I know of him, where he is). 
I know how to speak the language 
of Zanzibar, najua kusema kiu- 
nguja. 
I can do blacksmiths work, najna 

kufua cbnma. 
(to recognize), tambua. 
be knowable, julikana. 
make to know, julisba, juvisha. 
become known, tangaa. 
know what to do, ianababi. 



L. 

Lace in the rope or matting a^cross a 
native bedstead, tanda, wamba. 
Lacerate, papura. 

be lacerated, papurika. 
be Lame, tegea, cbecbemea, tetea, 
kwenda cbopi, tagaa (walk with 
the legs far apart). 
Land, (neut.) sbuka, (act.) sbusba. 

Last, isbi. 

Laugh, cbeka. 

laugh at, cbekelea. 
Launch, sbna, pa^s. sbnliwa. 
Lay, tia, weka. 

lay a wager, pinga, sbindania. 

lay by, weka akiba. 

lay down, laza. 



186 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK 



li^y eggs, atamia, or zaa, or nya 
majayL 

lay hold of, shika. 

lay open, funim, weka wazi. 

lay outy andika, tandika, toa. 

lay out money, gharimu, gbarimia. 

lay the beams of a roof, ikiza. 

lay the table, andika meza. 

lay ttp(m the table, weka mezani 

lay to anyone's charge, tuhiomu. 

lay upon some one else, kmubisha. 
be Lazy, [kti-]wfi mvivu. 

to be cross at having anything to 
do, kimwa. 
Lead, ongoa, ongoza, peleka, fikisha 
(make to arrive). 

lead astray, kosesha. 

lead devotions, somesha. 
Leak, vuja, fu'mka (to open at the 

seams). 
Lean upon, tegemea, egemea. 

lean upon a staff, jigongojea. 

become lean, konda. 

make lean or thin, kondesha. 
Leap, ruka. 
Learn, jifunza, pata kujiia. 

learn manners, taadabu. 
Leave, acha, ata (M.), toka. 

leave by death, fia. 

leave to (bequeath), achia. 

leave go of, aeha. 

Leave off! Wachal Bass I 
Eomal 

leave off fasting, fungua. 

leave till fit or ready, limbika. 

leave (cause to remain), saza. 
be left (remain), saa, salia, baki. 

oaft Zeova, taka, fuksa. 

give leave, ruhusu, pa ruksa. 

give leave about, amria. 

take leave of, aga. 
take leave of one another, agana. 



Leaven, chacha. 
Lead, azima, kirithi 
Lengthen, ongeza urefu. 

make long, fanya mrefn. 
Lessen, (act) punguza, (neut.) pu- 

nguka. 
Let (permit), acha, pa niksa, knbali, 
kubalisha. 
let alone, acha. 

let a house, pangisha nyuiuba. 
let dovm, shusha, tua. 
let d(ywn a bucket, puliza ndoo. 
let free a spring, fiatua, fiatusba. 
let go an anchor, puliza. 
let loose, fungua. 
let on hire, ajirlHha. 
let waJLer, vuja. 
Level, fanya sawasawa, tandaza, 
tengeneza. 
be level with, lingana na. 
make level with, linga, Hnga- 
nishsu ^ 

level a gun at, lekeza bti^dnki. 
be Liberal to, kerimu. 
Liberate, fungua, pass, funguliwa. 

from slavery, weka, or acha hum. 
Lick, ramba. 

Lie (tell lies), sema uwongo. 
(to be), kaa, [ku-Jwako. 
lie across, kingama. 
a tree lies a>cross the road, mti 
umekingama njiani. 
lie across one another, pandana. 
lie down, jinyosha, jilaza, lala, 

tandawaa. 
lie heavy on, lemea. 
lie on the face, wama, fuama (M.). 
lie on the side, jiinika. 
lie on the back, lala kwa tani 
lie in wait for, otea. 
Lift, inua, tweka. 
, lift up the voice, paliza sauti 



LIST OF VERBS. 



187 



Light, wasba, tia moto. 
he light, angaza. 
show a light, nmlika. 
Lighten (lightening), piga umeme. 
Like, penda. 

be an object of liking, tamanika. 
lAhen, fafanisha. 
Limit. 

reach its limit, pea. 
Linger, kawia, kawilia. 
Lisp, (lni-]wa na kitembe. 
Listen, eikiliza, pulikiza. 
listen secretly, dukiza. 
Live, kaa (stay or be), isbi (continue), 
[ku-]wa hayi (be alive), [kti-] 
wako ulimwenguni (be in this 
Load, chukuza. [world), 

a person, twika. 
a ship, pakia. 
a gun, «imiri, shiDdilia. 
be laden with, pakia (of a ship), 
chnkua (carry). 
Lock, fiii^ga. 

with a native lock, gomea. 
Loiter, kawilia. 
LoU, tandawaa. 
Long for, tamani. 
I Look, tazama. 

look out, or look carefuUy, angalia. 
Look out I Angalia ! Jiponje ! 
look out for, tazamia. 
■ — look for, tafuta. 
look after, tunza. 
look over a property, ana. 
look up to see what is going on, 
tahamaka. 
- Loose, fungua. 

be loose, legea. 
Loosen, regeza. 
Lose (money), pata hasara. 
potea (to be lost to). [nipotea. 
J have lost my knife, loan kime 



lose by having taken from one, 
twaliwa. 

lose by death, fiwa na. 

lose one^s senses, mkwa na akili 
Love, penda, ashiiki -< — 

be loved by, kora. 
Lower, shusba, tua. 
LuU, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
Lurk for, otea. 
Lust after, tamani 

M. 

Magnify, knza, tnkuza. 

magnify oneself, jitapa. 
Make, fanya, fanyiza."^ 
make to do or be. See p. 162. 
make a floor or roof, sakifu. 
make a pen, cbonga kalamu. 
make a sign to, asbiria. 
make a wiU, wasia. 
make another love one, pendeleza. 
make briUiant, ug'aza. 
make cheap, rakbisisba. 
make dear, tbibirisba, eleza, weka 

wazi 
make confident and hopeful, tu- 

mainisba. 
make crazy, zulisba. 
make dear, gbalisba. 
make delirious, papayuza. 
make equal, like, &c., sawanisba, 

sawazisba. 
make for, fanyia. 
make [clothes'] for, katia [nguo]. 
make game of, tbibaki, &inyizia 

mzaba. 
make haste, fanya bima, enda 

bima. 
make iU, gonjweza. 
make into a ring, peta. 
make lawful, balilisba. 



188 



SWAHILT HANDBOOK, 



make light [of a mattery jipuru- 
kusha. 

make like, oleza. 

mahe metal things, fiia, folia. 

make over talkative, payuza. 

make pastry, andaa, andalia. 

make peace between, suluhisha. 

make plain, thahiri, eleza, thihi- 
risha, Weka wazi. 

make pottery, finyanga. 

make raw, ohubna. 

make room for, nafisisha. 

make sorry, sikitisha. 

make sure, hakiki. 

mdke to agree, patanisha. 

make to he at peace, suluhisha. 

make to enter, ingiza. 

make to go up, pandisha, kweza. 

make to grow lean, kondesha. 

make to hear or understand, sikiza. 

m^ke to weep, liza, lizana. , 

make untawfvl, harimu, hara- 
misha. 

make up afire, choohea moto. 

make up one's mind, tanabahi. 

m^ke verses, tunga mashairi. 

m^ike water, kojoa. 

make weak, thoofisha. 

make well, ponya, ponyesha. 

Don't make a noise / Tulia I 
Manage, amili, fanya. 
Mark, tia alama. 

Marry, oa (of the hmhand), olewa 
{of the wife), oana {of the 
couple), oza {of the parents)* 

ask in marriage, posa. 
Master, ghelibu, shinda. 

he master of, weza, tam^laki. 
Match, lingana 

vnake to match, linga, linganisha. 

he a match for, weza. 
Mean, taka, nia, kusudia. 



Measure, pima, twaa clieo. 

measure together, enenza. 
Mediate between, selebisha. 
Meditate, tafakari, waza. 
Meet, onana, kutana, kutanika, ku- 
sanyika. 

meet with, kuta. 

go to meet, laM. 
Melt, {neut.) yeyuka, ayika, (act.^ 

yeyusha. 
Mend, fanya, fanyiza. 

{sew up), shonea.. 

{darn), tililia. 

(bind up), ganga. 
Menstruate, [ku]wa na heth. 
Mention, nena, taja. 
Mess, 

he all in a mess, chafbkachafuka. 

make a mess of one^s work, boro- 
ngaboronga. 
Mercy {have or show), rehemu. 
Mildew, fanya kawa. 
Milk, kama. 

Mind, tunza {take care of), angalia 
{take care), kumbuka {hear in 
mind). 

Never mind, haithuru, usltie 
shuguli. 

I donH mind, mamoja pia. 
Mingle, changanya. 

he mingled, changanyika. 
Miscarry, hai ibu mimba. 
Miss, kosa. 

{to go near to without touching), 
ambaa. 

{not to go direct to), epea. 

to be missed {not found), koeekaniu 
Mislead, poteza, kosesha. 
Mistake, kosa. 
Mix, changanya. 

mix up by knocking and beating^ 
bnrnga, funda. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



189 



Moc\ iga, thihaki, komaza, kufuru. 
he Moderate, [ku-]wa kadiri. 
Molest, sitmbua, chokoza, baBiri&ha. 
Mould {coii in a mould), ita, fanya 
k-wa kalibu. 
grow mouldy, fanya ukungu. 
Moulder, fajika, furijika^ haribika. 
{go into lumps like spoilt flour), 
fanya madonge. 
Mount, panda, kwea. 
Mourn (in a formal manner), kaa 
matanga. 
join in a formed mourning, 
hana. 
Move, (neut) jongea, (act.) jongeza. 
Move into the shade, jongea 

mvnlini. 
(cm a carpet does when a mouse is 

under it), furukuta. 
(shake), tukusai, tikisa, sukasnka. 
(change pkuse of dwelling), hama, 

tama (M.), gura (A.). 
cause to remove, hamisha, tamisha, 
gurisha. 
Multiply, (act.) zLdisha, ongeza, 

(neut.) zidi, ongezeka. 
Murder, ua, poM. uawa. 
Murmur, nung'unika. 
MusU lazimu, sharti, hana buddi. 

/See J). 155. 
Mutilate, kata. 

N. 
Name, taja, nena, ita, pa jina (give 

a name to). 
Need, taka, ihtaji, ihtajia. 
Neglect, ghafilika (not to attend to), 

achilia (leave undone). 
Nibble, tafuna. 
Nod, einzia (dozeXasbiria kwa twaka 

(as a signal). 
Notice, ona, angalia, nathiri. 



notice a defect, toa kombo. 

take no notice, taghafali, 
Nourish, lisba. 
Nurse (a child), lea, lisha. 

(a sick person), uguza. 

O. 

Obey, Hi, fuata, sikia, tumikia. 
Object to, kindana, shindan4, rudi- 

ana. 
Oblige (comjpeZ), lazimisha, juburn, 
juzia. 
be obligatory upon, lazimu. 
hold under an oibligation to do, 

&c., juzu. 
(by ki7idness),fQ.ihili, tendea zema. 
Observe, angalia. 
Obstruct, kataza, pinga. 
Obtaiii, pata. 

Occupy (keep engaged), fawiti. 
Offend, cbukiza, tia ghairi, tia 
basira. 
be easily offended, [kti-]wa na 

chukl. 
not to be offended, ku-wa ratbi. 
don't be offended with me, niwie 

ratbi, kunratbi. 
I am not at all offended, ratbi 
Sana, 
Offer to, tolea, jongeleza (bring near 
to), 
offer for sale by auction, tembeza. 
make a first bid, rissimu. 
Omit, acba. 
Ooze, tiririka. 

ooze out, vujia, tokeza, tokea. 
Open (act.) funua (uncover), fungua 
(unfasten), panua (make wide), 
fumbua (unclose the eyes, &c.), 
sindua (set open a door), pcpe- 
tua (force open). 
(;iieut.) [kii-]wa wazi (to lie clear), 



190 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK 



funuka or kunduka (pt open 
like a flower), parnika (become 
wide), fanguka (to get un- 
fastened). 
Oppose, gomba, khalifu,kataza, teta, 
shindaDia, ingia kati. 
he opposite, lekea, kabili, elekea, 

elekeana, kabilia. 
pvii opposite, lekeza, kabilisha, 
elekeza. 
Oppress, onea, lemea, thelimu. . 
0%der, amuru, amrisha, ambia, 
agiza (commission), 
arrange in order, panga, tunga. 
pui into good order, fanyiza, 
tengeneza, ganga. 
Ought See p. 155. 

ihtajia, taka, pasa. 
Overbear, by loud talking, <fefe., pa- 

mbanya, pambanyiza. 
Overburden, lemea. 
he Overcast, tanda [wingu]. 
Overeat oneself, vimbika, vimbiwa. 
Overfeed, vimbisha. 
Overflow, miminika, tawanyika, 

^hariki, furika. 
Oversee, simamia, angalia. 
Overturn, pindua. 

he overturned, pinduka. 
Overtake, pata. 
Overwhelm, gharikisba. 
Owe, wiwa. 
I owe him, ianiwia. 
to have in one*s debt, wia. 
Own, miliki (possess), kiri (confess), 
nngama (a>cknowledge). 



P. 

^ Pa>ck up, funga. 

Paddle, vuta kwa kafi or kapi. 
Pain, mna, umia. 

// 



Paint, tia rangi. 
Pant, tweta. 
Paralyse, poozesba. 

be paralysed or paralytic, pooza. 
Pare, ambua. 

Pardon, samehe, afu, ghofira, gho- 
firia. . 

Forgive me, nipe Lisa yanga. 

Ask mutual pardon and so take a 
last farewell, takana biiriani. 
Parry, bekua. 
Part out, gawa, gawanya. 
Pass, pita, pisha. 

make to pass, pitisba. 

pass going in opposite directtOHs, 
pishana. 

pass through, penya. 

pass over (a river), vuka. ,^^ 
(a fault), aohilia. 

pass close to without touching, 
ambaa, 

be passable, endeka. 
Pasture, chunga, lisha. 
Patch (thatch, &c.), chomelea. 
be Patient, vumilia, subiri. 
Paw [the ground^ parapara. 
Pay^ lipa. 

pay to, lipia. 

cause to be paid, lipiza. 

pay freight f(yr, takabathisha. 
Peck, dona, dondoa. 
Peel, ambua, puna. 
Peep, chungulia, tungulia (M.). 
Pelt, tupia. 
Penetrate, penya. 
Perceive, ona, sikia, fiahamu. 
Perfect, kamilisba. 

be perfect, kamilika. 8ec Com- 
plete. 
Perforate, zua, zna tundn. 
Perform a promise, fikiliza ahadi. 

ahltUions, tohara. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



191 



devotions, sali. 
a vow, ondoa natbiri. 
Perish, fa, potea, potelea, haribika. 
Perjure oneself, apa uwongo, shu- 

hudia znii or aziir. 
Permit, ruhusu, pa ruksa, acba. 
Perpettiate, dumisba. 
Perplex, tia^matata, cbanganyisba. 
become perplexed, ingia matata, 
tanganyika. . 

Persecute, fukuza, tbulumu. 
Persevere, diimu, dumia, dawamn. 
Perspire, taka ban. 
Persuade, shawisbi, kinaibba, pa 

shaari. 
Pick (flw with, M knife point), 
cbokora. "" 
(gather), cbuma. 
stalks, &c., from cloves, &c., cba- 

mbua. 
pick out (select), ohagaa, tena. 
pick up, okota. 
pick up bit by bit, dondoa, Imn- 

bika. 
pick holes in one another s cha- 
racter, papuriana. 
Pickle, fanya acbari. 
Pierce, zua, penyesha, penya. 
Pile up [plates, Ac.'], andikanya. 
Pinch, finya. 

be pinched up, finyana. 
Pine away, flfia. 

Pity, hiimmia, sikitikia, rebetnu. 
Place, weka. 
an arrow on the string, a knife in 

the belt, Ac,, pacbika. 
There is no place for me in the 
house, nyumba bainiweki. 
Plait, snka, sokota. 
Plane, piga randa. 
Plant, panda. 
Plaster, kandika. 



prepare a waUfor the white plaster 
by smoothing it and tapping in 
smaU stones, tomea. 

put on a plaster, bandika. 
Play, cbeza, laabu. 

play the fool, peketeka. 

play upon an instrument, piga 
zomari, &o. 
Please, pendeza, fuiabisba. 

(like), penda. 
as you please, upt^ndavyo. 

Please! Tafatbalil 

be pleased, pendezewa. 

make pleasing, pendekeza. 
Pledge, weka rabani. 
Pluck, cbuma (gather), nyakua 
(snatch), nyonyoa (pick off 
feathers), 

pluck up a courage, piga moyo 
Plug up, ziba. [konde. 

Plunder, teka, twaa nyara. 
Point, chonga ; fanya 'ncba. 

point out, onyesba, ainisba. 
Poison, pa suma. 
Poke, cboma. 
Polish, katua. 

Ponder, fikiri, waza, tafakari. 
Possess, miliki, [ktC-]wa na. 

(of an evil spirit), pagaa. 

be possessed by an evil spirit, 
pagawa na pepo. 
be Possible, [kii-]wa yamkini, weze- 

kana, fanyika, tendeka. 
Postpone, akirisba. 
make Pottery, finyanga. 
Pound, ponda, funda. 

clean corri by pounding, twanga. 
Pour, mimiDa. 

pour away, mwaga, mwaya. 
have Power over, weza. 
Practise, jizoeza, taala. 

pra/stise witchcraft, fanya nohawi. 



192 



SWAMILI HANDBOOK 



Praise, dfd, bemidi 

praise oneself, jidfu, jigamba. 
Prate, pnza. 

Pray, omba, sali (jperform the fixed 
devotions), abudn (worship). 

pray for, taka (ash for), ombea 
(intercede for). 
Preach, khutubu, ayitbi. 
Precede, tangulia. 
he Precipitous, cbongoka. 
Predict; agua, basbiri, tabiri 
Prefer, penda, khitari, stahiba. 
be Pregnant, obukua mimba, bamili. 
Prepare, weka tayari. 

food, andaa, andalia. 
Present to, timikia, pa. 

make presents to, pukusa, pa 
bashisbi, tunza. 
Preserve, bifathi, afu. 

he preserved, bifatbika, 
Press, kaza, sbindilia, sinikiza. 

press out, kamua. 

press upon, kandamiza. 

press heavily upon, lemea. 

press with the teeth, vnata. 

make an impression (as vnth the 
fingers), bonyesha. 

press and crush food for invalids 
or children, yinyavinya. 

press against one another, like 
sheep in a flock, songanaso- 
ngana. 
Pretend to he, jifanya. 
Prevent, zuia, kataza. 
Prick, cboma. 
Pride- oneself, jisifu. 
Print, piga chapa. 
Prize up, tekusu 
Proceed, enenda, fuliza. 
Proclaim, tangaza, bubiri, nadi, 
Procure for, patia. [eleza. 

he procurable, patikana. 



Profess, ungama. 

Profit, pata fayida, fayidi, cboma. 

tuma (M.). 
Prognosticate, basbiri. 

hy the stars, piga falaki. 
Prohibit, kataza, gombeza. 
Project, tokeza, tukiza. 
Prolong, ongeza urefu, tuiliza, en- 

deleza. 
Promise, abidi, toa aliadi. 

give a promise to, pa abadi. 
Pronounce, ta'mka. 
Prop up, tegemeza, "sbikiza. 
he propped, tegemea. 
prop up a vessel to prevent its 
falling over when left by (he 
tide, gada. 
Propose, nena, toa sbauri. 
Prosecute, sbtaki. 
Prosper, fanikiwa, sitawi» kibali, 

jaliwa. 
Prostrate oneself ^ sujudu. 
before, to, &c., sujudia. 
Protect, bami, linda, bifatbi, kibga 

(ward off). 
Prove, ^Aubutisba. 

be proved, thuhutu. 
Provide, weka akiba. 
Provoke, kiribi, kiribiaha, tia liaadia, 

gbatbabi&ba. 
Prune, obenga, feka. 
Pry, dadisi, fatiisbi. 
Puff, puliza. 
be puffed up, tuna, fura, jetea, 
jivuna. 
Putt, vuta. 
puU out, ng'oa. 
be pulled out, ng'oka. 
Moyo unaning'oka, my heart h€ts 
jumped into my throat, used of 
a person much startled. 
pvU out feathers, nyonyoa. 



LIST OF VEBB8. 



193 



putt out of one*8 hcwd, chopoa. 
ptM up [roots], ng'oa. 
Ptunpy piga bomba. 
Punishf athibu, athibi^a, tesa 
(o^te^), sumbuBha(^tve annoys 
anee to\ patiliza (vmt upon), 
Pur^y, takasa, safisha. 

by ceremonial aJtHutions, tohara. 
he purified, safika, takasika. 
Purpose, kusndia, ania. 
Pursue, fuata (foUmo), winda 
(chase), fukiiza (drive awtiy}, 
tafuta (seek for). 
Push, sukuma. 

push against, kumba, 
push aside, piga kikumbo. 
push off upon, kumbisha. 
Put, tia, weka. 

put across [a river"], viisha. 
put a pot on the fire, teleka. 
put an end to, komesha, ghairi. 
put away, weka. 
putdoum, tna. 
put forth leaves, channa. 
put in a line, panga. 
put in order, tnnga. 
put in under anything, ymubika. 
^ put into, tia. 

Tia motoni, put it in the fire, 
Tia moto, set it on fire, 
put into the right way, vusha. 
put off, akirisha. 
put off upon another, Bokumiza. 
put on [clothes], vaa. 
put on his guard, tahathirisha. 
put on a turban by winding the 
cHo^ round the head, piga 
kilemba. 
put out, toa. 

put out [fire], zima, zimia. 
put out of joint, shtusha, shtna. 
put ready for use, sogezear 



put ropes to a native bedstead 
tanda wamba. 

put to (shut), shindika. 

put to flight, kimbiza. 

p>ut to rights, te^geneza, tengeleza. 

put to straits, thiiki. 

put through, penjesha. 
Putrify, oza. 
Puzzle, tatanitha. 

be puzzled, tatana, tatazana. 

Q. 

Quake, tetemeka, tetema. 
Quarrel, gombana, nenana, nazi- 
yana. 

iibiih, teta,gomba. 
Quarry [stone], chimba, vunja. 
Quell, tuliza. 
Quench, zima. 
Quicken, himiza (make quicker). 

be guick enough (be in time), 
diiiki. 
Quiet, tuliza. 

become quiet, tulia, nyamaza, 
taHka. 
Quit, acha, toka. 
Quiver, tetema. 

R. 

Maoe, shindania. 
Bain, nysu 
It rains, mvua iDakunya, mvua 

yanya (M.). 
cause it to rain, nyesha. 
leave off raining, anuka. 
Raise, inua (lift), paaza (nwke to 
rise), tweka, kweza, pandisha, 
imisha. 
raise the eyebrows by way of sign, 
konyeza. 

» 



194 



SWAEILI HANDBOOK, 



raue the eyebrows by way of eon- 
tempt, kunia. 
Bange together, pangana. 
Banaom, komboa, fidi (of <fce price), 

£dia (of the person). 
Bap with the knuckles, piga konzL 
be made Baw, chubuka. 
Beach. See Stretch. 

(arrive at), fika, waeili, pata. 

reach a person, fikia, wftsilia. 

cause to reach, fikisha, wasilisha. 

put within his rea>ch, [mw-]eneza. 

reoAih its limit, pea. 
Bead^ 8oma,fyoma (M.). 

teach to read, Bomesha. 
Beap, vnna. 

(break off the heads of Indian 
com), goboa. 
Bear [a child], lea, 
Beason, tefua. 
Bebel, asi, khalifa, tagbi. 
Bebuke, nenea, laumq, lawana. 
Bebut, dakuliza. 
Beceive, pokea, pewa, twaa. 

(accept), kubali, takabali. 

receive for some one else, pokelea. 

receive a stranger, kaiiibiaba. 
Beckon, hesabu, wanga. 
Becite, karirisha. 
Becline, jinyosba, tandawaa, pu- 

mzika. 
Becognize, tambua, tambulia, h,fe^ 
nua. 

be recognizable, tambulikana. 
BecoUecty kumbuka, fahama. 
Becommend, neuea, agisa, arifu, 

peleka. 
Bf^coneUe, patanisha, aelehifiha. 
Bedeem, koml)oa, fidia. 
Beduce, pungoza. 
Beef a sail, pungoza tanga. 
Befer to, regea. 



Beflect (ihink), kiimbuka, wa»i, 

fikiri. _ ^ 
Beform, eilihi, BilibiBha, sahihi, 

sahihiBha. 
Befresh, burudiaha, Btere)>a6ha, ta- 

burada. y^ 

Befuse, kataza, joAm, iza. ' 

refuse tOf nyima, hini 

refuse to bdieoe, katalia. 
Befute, batili. 
Begret, juta, aikitika. 
B^kearse, karirisha. 
Beign, miliki, tawala. 
Beject, kataa, kaoia. . 
Bejoice, (neuL) fiirahi, fundiiwa. 

rejoice in, fiizahia. 

make to r^oioe, fi^rahiBha. 

shout and triumph, shangilia. 
BeUxte, hadithia, neBa, toa, pa. 
Belax,jtii^aiA. 

be relaxed, regea. 
BeUase, acha, likiza. 

from an dbligaiion, feletL 
Belish, ona tama, onaluththa. 
Beiy upon, fuQgamana, jetea. 
Bemain (stay), kaa, kaa kitako, 
keti (M.). 

be left, saa, salia, bsJd. 

remain awake, kasha. 

remain quiet, starehe. 

to remain as he wishes, komkalia 
tamu. 
Bemedy, poza. 
Bemember, kumbuka, fi^hamu. 

remember against, patiliza. 
Bemind, kumbusha, fiohamisha. 
Bemit [fiins'}, ghofiri. 

remit to, ghofiria, ondplea. 
Bemove, ondoa, tenga, ondoLea. 

from an office, uzulo. 
Bend, raraa, pasua. 

be rent to pieces, pa^okapasuka 



LIST OF VERBS. 



195 



Renounce, acha,' kana. 

Rent^ panga (hire), pangisha (let). 

Repair, fanyiza, fanya. 

Repay, lipiza. 

Repent, tubu. 

repent of, tnbia. v 
Reply, jibu (give an ansioer), itika 

(answer when caUed). 
Repay, regeza, lipa. 
Reproach, shutumu, kamia, taya. 
Request, taka. 
Rescue, toa kunako hatari, toa 

mnamo hatari, okoa. 
Resembie, fanana na. 

make to resemble, faoaniaha. 
Resent, fapya ghatbabu, ingiwa na 

ghathabu. ^ 

Resign, jinzolu, jitoa katika. 
Resist, khalifu. 
Resofve, yakinia, dzimu. 
Rest (neuL) pumzika, tulia, Btarehe. 

(acU) pumzisha. 

He never rests, hana zltuo. 

I cannot rest in the house, nyuinba 
h^niweki. 
Restorp, rudisha, rejeza. 
Restrain, zuia. 
Resuscitate, fufua, huisha. 
Retcdiate, twaa kasasi, lipia sawa, 

jilipiza. 
Retire (go bade), endelea nyuma. 
Return, (neut.) rudi, legea. 

(act.) rudisha, regeaha. 
Reveal, fonua. 

Revenge, nahma, lipia maoYU, toa 
kasasi 

revenge oneself, jilipiza (or lipia) 



Reverence, nenyekea. 

Reverse, pindua. 

Revile, shutumu. 

Revive, (neut) fufuka, hui, buika. 



Revive, as a plant in water, chupuza. 

(act.) fufua, huisha. 
Revolt (disgust), kinaisha. 

revolt at, kinai. 
Reward, jazi, jazilia, lipia, fathili 
Ride upon, panda. 
Ridicule, fanyizia mzaha, thikaki. 
Ring a hell, piga kengele. 
Rip, pasua. 
Ripen, iva. 
Rise (ascend), paa. 

(get up), ondoka. 

(stand up), simama, inuka. 

irise to, or out of respect for), 
ondokea. 

(come to the top of the water), 
zuka. 

(of the sun), [kd-]cha. 
Roar, lia, nguruma, fanya kishindo 

(make a crash). 
Roast, oka. 
Rob, ihia. (steal from), nyang*anya. 

(take by force), poka. 
Rock, pembeza. 
Roll, (a>ct.) fingirisha. 

(neut.) fingirika. 

(of a river, time, &o.), pita. 
Root out, ng'oa. 
Rot, oza. 

be Rough, paniga, paruza. 
be Round, yiringa. 

(spherical), yiringana. 
Rouse from sleep, amsha. 
Row, yuta maka^ia. 

be in rows, pangana. 

put in a row, panga. 
Rub, sugua. 

the skin off, ohubua, tuna. 

rub to pieces, fikicha. 

ruib in ointment, &e,, paka. 
Ruin, angamisha, poteza, yuna 
korofisha. 

2 



196 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 



he ruined, angamia, tilifu, fiiisika 
(he sold up). 
Rule, tawala. 

rule a line, paga mstari 
Ruminate, teuka. 
Run, piga mbio, rakhuthu. 
run a risk, hatirisha. 
run against, fulia. 
run away, kimbia. 
make to run away, kimbiza. 
run away from a master, horns, 

&c., toroka. 
run ashore, panda, tekeza. 
run down, like water, or like a 
person down a steep plase, te- 
lem'ka. 
run down with blood, oburuzika 

damu. 
run hard^ kaza mbio. 
run Qver, furika. 

run with a shuffling noice like a 
' . Va<, gugiupusha. 
run (in sewing), piga bandi. 
Rush along, enda kassi. 
Rust (neut), ingia kntu. 
Rustle, piga mtakaso. 

a 

Salute, Balimu, sulinm, amkua, 
amkia, salimia. 
fire a salute^ piga mizinga ya 
salamu. 
5aZve,baDdika. 
Sanction, toa ithini. 
Satisfy^ rithika. 
he satisfied or content, PiU-jwa 

rathi. 
satisfy with food, ahibisha. 
he satisfied, shiba. 
he never saUsfied, nyeta. 
be self-satisfied, kipai. 
he enotigh, tosha. 



he. of use to, faa. 

satisfy lust, timia ngoa. 
Save, okoa, ponya, vusha. 

he saved, okoka, pona, yaks. 

(put atoay), weka. 
Saw, kata kwa msumeno, kereza. . 
Say, sema. •>— *- 

say to, Mubia. 
Scald, onguza, unguza. 

he scalded, nngua. 
Scare, fukiiza, tia khofu. 

scare birds from com, <frc^ linda 
ndege. 
Scatter, tawanya» tapanya (M.), 
farakiaha. 

he scattered, tawanyika. 

scatter about, tawanyatawanya, 
tapanyatapanya (M.). 
Scent (put scent to), singa. 

smell out, xmkiza. 
SccUd, fanyizia ukali, nenea, laumn, 

karipia. 
Scoop up, wangna. 
Scorch, unguza, onguza. 

he scorched, ung^a, ungulia. 
Scorn, tharau, tweza, peketeka. 
Scour, sugua. 
Scrape, kana. 

scrape along, kwaruza. 

scrape for, with, &c., kunia. 

scrape into a coarse meal, paaza. 

scrape off, puna. 

scrape off hark, dirt, scales, <fec., 
to clean by scraping, paa. 

scrape on the ground, para, 

scrape out, komba. 

scrape up, kwangua. 
Scratch, kuna, kunyua. 

(make a scratch), piga mtai. 

scratch deeply, papura. 

scratch like a hen, pekua. 
Scream, piga kiowe, piga yowe. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



197 



Scrubs sugua. 

Sdfirch for, tafata, tefua. 

search aU about, tufutatuftita. 
Seal, tia muhuri. 
Seduce women, tongoza. 
See, ona. 

he seen, or vinbUe, onekana. 
see any one off, safirisha. 
Seek, taka. 

seek advice, taka shauri. 
seek out, huji. 
seek for, tafata, zengea. 
seek out for, look out for, tafutia. 
Seem. 

It seems to me, naiona. 
seem sweet to, kora. 
Seize, kamata, guia, shika. 
seize for debt, filisi. 
go quietly and secretly up to any- 
thing in order to seize it sud- 
denly, nyemelea. 
Select, chagua, teua. 
SeU, uza. The u- of this word is 
very unimportant, it is generally 
merged in the -u of ku-, the 
sign of the infinitive, which is 
retained in most of the tenses, 
sell to, liza. 

he ordinarily sold, nzanya. 
Send, peleka, leta. 

to a person, pelekea, letea. 
cause to reach a person, wasi- 

Hsha. 
send away, oudosha, toa. 
send back, rudisha^ rejeza. 
send upon some business, tuma. 
Separate, tenga, weka mbali. 
Qeave one another), achana, atana 

(M.), tokana. 
{alienate), farakisha. 
become alienated, farakana, ta- 
ngukana. 



separate people who are fighting, 

amua. 
(distill guii^h), pambanua. 
be cut off from one another, like 

friends separated by great dis- 
tances, tindikiaQa. 
be Serene, [kii-]wa saff, tolika, 

kunddka. 
Moyo wake umekunduka, his 

heart is at peace. 
Serve, tumikia, hi^dumia. 
be a servant, tumika. 
serve for, faa i;wa. 
Set, weka. 
{plant), panda. 
(of the sun), chwa, twa (M.)- 
The sun is not yet se^, jua hali- 

jachwa. 
set a dog on one, tomesha mbwa. 
set a trap, tegcu " 
set aside^ tangua, ondoa. 
set fire to, tia moto, washa, fcoka 

choma. 
set in order, paoga, tuDga. 
set on to fight, piganisha, pigani- 

Bbana. 
set open [a door'], sindua. 
set out on a Journey, safiri, sbika 

njia. 
set the teeth on edge, tia ganzl la 



set up (put upwards), panza. 

(vnake to stand), simikisha. 

set wide apart, panulia. 
Settle^ (neut.) tuana. 

settle an affair, kata maneno. 

settle down, tulia. 

settle in one*s mind, yakinia. 
Sew, shona. 

sew through a mattress to confine 
the stuffing, tona godoro. 
Shade, tia uvuli. 



198 



SWABJLJ HANDBOOK. 



Shake, (aetJ) tikisa. 

(netU.) tlMtika. 

shake of, epna, kupua. 

shake out, kung'uta, kumunta 
(Mei.). 
become Shallow, pung^a. 
Shame, tia haya, tabayarisba. 

he put to shame, fetheheka, aibika. 
Shampoo, kanda. 
Shape, umba. 
Share, gawanya. 

part out in shares, gawa, hussu. 

he partners in, shariki, sharikiana. 
Sharpen on a stone, noa. 
Shave, nyoa. 

shave round the head, leaving hair 
on the crown only, kata denge. 

shave aU save one long tuft, kata 
Shed, pukutika. [kinjimjuri. 

Shell, papatua. 

shell beans, Ac., pua baazi, &o. 

shell nuts, &c,, by beating, banja, 
menya. 
Shelter, tia kivuli. 
Shift a burden from one to another, 
pokezanya. 

shift over a sail to the other side, 
kisi tanga. 
Shine, ng'ara, zagaa, mekameka. 
Shiver (neut), tapatapa, tetema, 

tetemeka, tapa. 
Shoot [with a gun"], piga [kwa 
bunduki]. 

(as a plant), chupuka, chupnza. 
Shorten, fupiza. 

be short and small, kundaa. 

fall short, pungaka, tindika (A.). 
Shmit, piga kelele. 
Shove out of the way, piga kikumbo. 
Show, ony^a, onya. 

show a light, mulika. 

show one*s teeth, toa mono. 



become Shrewd and knowing, ere* 
make Shrewd, erevusha. [viika. 

Shriek, piga kiyowe. 
Shrink (become smaller), puDgna. 
(from something), jikunja. 
shrink up, jikunyata, fingana. 
Shrivel (neut), nyauka, finyana, 

kunjana. 
Shrug the shoulders, inna mabega. 
Shudder, tetemeka. 
Shun, epuka. 
Shuffle along, gngurusha. 

shuffle cards, tanganya karata. • 
Shut (put to), shindika. 

(fasten), funga. " ^^ 

(close), fumba. 
shut against, fimgifiha. 
be Sick or ill, ugna, [ku-]wa mweli, 
[kil-]wa hawezi, &c See 111 
and Vomit, 
He feels sick or seorsiek, moyo 
wamchafuka, moyo muemwelea 
(M.), ana ng'onga (A.). 
Sift, chunga (by shelving), peta or 
pepeta (by tossing), pepua 
(separate large and gmaU, whole 
and broken grains). Sifting is 
always done by Uming cmd 
shaking in a round fiat basket 
Sigh, ugua, kokota roho (draw 

breath with an effort). 
Silence, nyamazisba. 
become silent, nyamaza. 
continue silent, nyamaa. 
be Silly, piswa. 
Sin, fanya thambi, kosa. 
Sing, imba, tmubuiza (itiH). 
Sink (act), zamisha, tosa (droum), 
didimisha (into a soUd sub' 
stance), 
(neut,), zama, tota (droum), didi- 
mia (sink into a solid substance). 



LIST OF VERBS. 



199 



Sipy nywa funda (? to take in by 

Sit, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M,). 
Tdke a secU, kaa kitako. 
git like a hetit atamia. 
Skin, olraiia, tana (M.). 
Slander, singizia, fitini, amba, thn- 

mii. 
Slop, piga kofi. 
Slash, tema. 
" Slaughter, chinja (to kiU by eutHng 
ihe throat), tinda (M.). It is 
not lawffd to eat any meat that 
has not been so kiUed. 
^fiffog>,lala. 

Sleep weU ! Lala unono ! 
doze, sinzia. 

I am deepy, ninab uzingiai. 
he slept upon, lalika. 
Slide, teleza. 
SUng, tnpa kwa kombeo. 
" Slip, teleza. 

It is slippery, rpana utelezi. 

slip down a steep place, poromoka, 

telem'ka. 
sUp auxiy grain by grain like 

sand or corn, dondoka. 
slip off, or out of one's hand, &c., 
chopoka, ponyoka. 
Slit, pBSna. 
Slope, inama. 
be Sluggish, pnmbaa, 
Smart, waka. 

nuike to smart, nyonyota. 
/Smear on, paka. 
^ Smell (emit a smell), nnka, nnsa. 
I smeU amibergris, ioaninuka 
ambari (ambergris makes a 
tmeU tome). 
Do you not smeU itf Huisikii 
ikimika ? (Do you not perceive 
it making a STneUf) 



SmeU at, nttkizi^. 

SmUe, tabdssam, cheka, knnja 

midomo. 
Smoke, toka moshi. 

smoke tobacco, vnta tnmbako. 

smoke (meat, d:c.), piga mviike. 
Smoothe, lainisha. 
Smoulder, vivia. 
Smuggle, iba tmhuru. 
Snap, alika (neut), alisha (act). 
Snare, tega. 
Snarl, toa meno. 
Snatch, Dyakua, pokonya* 
Sneeze, obafya, sbamua, enda or 

piga cbafya. 
Snore, koroma, piga misono (make 

a whistling sound). 
Snort, piga pua. 
Snub, kemea. 
Soak, woweka. 
Sob, ingia na shake la kulia. 
Sober, leynriia. ^ 

become sober, levrika. 
Soften, lainisha. 
Solve, wathaisha, weka wazi, 

eleza. 
Soothe, tuliza, pembeza, tumbuiza. 
be Sorry, sikitika, kasirika (be 
vexed), juta (regret), 

I am sorry for it, sicaii vema. 
Sound, pima inaji. 

It sounds hoUouf, panalia wazi. 
Sow seeds, panda, yaa (A.). 

sow discord, fltini. 
SparMe, merimeta, mekameka, me- 

metuka (A.). 
Speak, nena, sema (say), tamka 
(pronounce), ambia (say to), 

speak about, at, for, or against, 
nenea. 

speak against, amba. 

speak distinctly, pambazua. 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Speak out t Seqia sana I 

make a ipeech, tagusa, lumba. 

fpeaJc Arabic, sema Eiarabo. 

tpeak a jwnble of different lan- 
guages or dialeetSf goteza. 

nci to speak, nyamaa. 
Spell, endeleza. 
Spend, tumia, kh^j. 

spend upon or about, harijia, gba- 
rimia. 

spend time, ongea. 
Spill, mwaga, minuna. 

he spiU^ mimJDika. 
Spin, sokota. 
Spit, tema mate. 
Splash, (acL) rushia. 

(neut.) rukia, tawanya. 
Splice [a rope"], unga. 

[a «pari gang»- 
Split, (act) pasua. . 

split up, (neut,) pasukapasnka. 

split down (branches), (cuit) 
kwanua: . 

he split doom, a« when any one has 
been trying to dimh up hy them, 
kwanuka. 
Spoil, haribu, yunja. 

(iieut), harlbika, oza. 
Sport with, laabu. 
Spout out, Tuk&, 

The whale spotUs, Dyamgnmi 
anatoa moshi. 
Sprain, sbtusha mshipa, teuka. 

he sprained, shtuka mshipa* 
Spread, (neut.) enea, fBurishi. 

(act.) eneza. [ka. 

he opened and spread over, kanju- 

spread a doth or a hed, tandika. 

spread out, tanda. 

spread [news'], tangaza. 

(become known), tangaa. 
Sprinkle, nyimyiza. 



SprotU, mea, ohupuka, tokesa (show 
itsdf), obanua (put forth 
leaves). 
Spy out, peleleza. 
Squabble, bisbana, gombana. 
Squander, fuja, iapanyatapanja. 
Squeak, lia. 
Squeeze, kamna. 

(grasp), fumbata. 

squeeze together (act), aonga. 

(neut) songaua. 

squeeze onesd/ into a hedge or 
against a vjoU to let others pass, 
jibanza. 
Squint, pkil-jwa na makengeza. 
Stah, choma. 
Stagger, pepa. 

be staggered, toshea, shangaa. 

(astonish), Bhangaza. 
Stain, tia waa, tia madoadoa (spot). 
Stalk [an animal}, nyemelea. 
Stammer, p^il-jwa na kigogmnizL 
Stamp, piga ohapa. ^^^-^ 
Stand, Bimama, kaa. f^''''^ 

up or still, simama (of persons). 

make to stand, mmAn^^^hf^^ simiki- 
aha. 

stand aghast, ghmniwa. , 

stand by, Bunamia. 

stand in the way of, kindana. 

stand over, akiri. 

stand staring, shangaa. 
Stare at, kodolea. 
Start (he startled), shtuka, gatnka. 

(set out), ondoka, safin. 

start out of tfie way, kwepa. 
Startle, shtua, stusha, kutnsha. 
Starve, (neut.) fa kwa njaa. 

(oc^.) fisha kwa njaa. 
Stay, kaa, kaa kitako, keti (M.). 

He stayed aU day, aliahinda 
kutwa. 



LIST OF VEBB8, 



201 



(mit\ ngoja, subiri. 
(loiter)^ kawia, kawilia. 
(remain aper long\ hajirika. 
(«top) (act), zuia. 
be Steady, tnngamana, tuHa. 
Steal, iba, jepa (A.).*—**' 

steal from, ibia. 
Steep, choveka, owamisha. 

be steeped, oymmsu 
Steer, shika shikio. 
Steer northwa/rds, ehika m^jira ya 
jaa. 
. [a vesseiQ, andika. 
Step over, kiuka, kia. 
Stick, (netU.) shika, gandama, a- 
mbata. 
(act.) ambatiza, ganda. 
stick together, ambatana, ganda- 
mana, guiana (Mer.)> 
. stick fasty kwama, sakama. 

sitiek into {the embers to be roasted], 

yumbika. 
stick out, (neut.) tokeza. 
{act,) b^ua. 
Stifle, zuia pumuzi. 
BtM, tuliza^ nyamaziaha. 

be very still, zizima. 
SUmukUe, tabarrakisba. 
Sting, uma. ^ 
Stifik, iiiika, nnka yibaya. 
Stir, bornga, yuruga, kobga. 
stir up and knock aboitt, tibua. 
siir up, turn over, and press 

together, soDga. 

siir up (fire, strife, &o,), ohocbe- 

Stoop, inama. (lezea. 

Stop, (act,) zuia (hold in), komesba 

(make to cease), MngamiBha 

(bloe2), 

(neut) simama (stand), koma 

(leave off), 
stop a/nd stagnate, yilia. 



stop short of its purpose or per- 
fection, via. 
stop up, ziba. 
Store up, weka akiba. 
Stow, pakiza. 
Straddle (walk with the legs far 

apart), iagaa. 
Straighten, nyosba. 

be straight, nyoka. 
Strangle, nyonga, songa. 
Strain (a liquid), cbuja, tuja (M.). 
See Sprain, popotoa. 
(make a violent efort), kakamuka. 
Stray, potea, zunguka. 
Strengthen, tia ngUYU. 
Stretch, nyosha. 
stretch up to reach anything, chu- 

ohumia. 
stretch one*s legs, kunjua miguu. 
stretch the ihreads for weaving, 

tenda ng^o. 
stretch across an opening (act.), 
tanda, wamba. 
Strew, mwagia, nyunyiza. 
Strike, piga. — — ' 
strike on the ground, piga na nobi. 
strike the foot against anythirig, 

kwaa. 
strike with the hoof, piga kwata. 
strike out (in writing), fata. 
strike a sore plaoe, tonesba. 
String (beads, dsc), tonga. 
Strip off, ambua, pua, menya, 
babua. 
(bramxihes, leaves, Ac), pagua* 
Strive with, sbindana na, teta, bu- 
sumu. 
(make an effort), fia.nya bidii or 

jubudi. 
strive for breath, tweta. 
Stroke, papasa. 
StroU c^nmt, zungukazunguka. 



202 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



he Strong and weU-knit, pirikana, 

kakawana. 
Struggle, fanya jidxndi. 
Study, taali. 

meet in a claesfor study ^ dravaL 
Stumble, jikwaa. 

make to stumble, kwaza. 
Stun, 
be stunned, potea na akili, rukwa 
naakili 
Stunt, Yixii. 

be stunted, via. 
Stutter, [kti-]wa na kigugtunizi, 

babaika. 
Subdue, tiisha, ahinda. 
Submit to, Ui, fuata. 
Succeed (fcUow), ja mahali pake. 
Such a one succeeded him^ baada 

yake aHknJa na fullani. 
(provper), fanikiwa, ktbali. 
succeed in doing, pata ku&nya. 
Suck, nydnya» amwa (M<), fycmda, 
fyonza. 
suck up, nwa. 
such out, sonda. 

. Ikanesw^eed him dry (got aU the 
informaUon, Ac, I can out of 
him), nimemzua. 
Suckle, nyonyesha^ amwiaha (M.). 
Sue for (at latD% dai. 
Stiver, teswa» taalnka, umwa. 
wh<U he suffered, mambo yalio- 

mpata. 
suffer loss, pata basara. 
Suffice, toshai io^eleza, idfa. 
-Suggest, i^iha. 

Suit, isA (be of use to), lingana 
(m4jM^), wafiki (be suiJtdbU to). 
Sum up, jumlisha. 
Superintend, siibamia, angalia. 
Supply, iwini, ruzuku (used es- 
pedaUy of God). 



supply a trader with goods on 
credit, kopesba. 
Support, tegemeza, bimfli, ebukna. 
he supports his parems, awacbu- 
kua wazee wake. 
Suppose, tbani (think), tbania (think 

of), kisi (guess). 
Suppurate, toa tizaba. 
become Surety, tbamini. 
Surpass, pita. 

Surprize, tosbea, taajabisba. 
be surprized, taajabu, tosbewa. 
(come upon sudde/ity), ftimania, 
gundua. 
Surrender, sellim. . 
Surround, zunguka, tapdama (?X 

duru. 
Survey, aoa. 

Survive, [kii-]wa bayi baada ya. 
Suspect, tbania, tabnmn, ingiashaka. 
Swagger, tamba, wayawaya. 
Swallow, meza. 
Sway, punga. 
sway about, like a drunken man, 

lewalewa, lubbaoAba. 
sioay badcwcurds and forwards, 

tangatanga. 
sway like a tree loaded with fruit, 

wayawaya. 
sway about in thd windy ynmba. 
Swear rSLpSk. 
swear at, apiza. 
make to swear, afya, aplsha. 

Sweat, toka bari, fanya jasha 

Sweep, fiagia, pea (M.). 
sweep together, zoa. 
sweep away aU there is, komba. 
Swell, foiBL, viAiba, tuna, ytma. 
rise into little sweUingtf, tutuka, 
tutumka, tutosika. 
Sioim (of a man), ogolea. 
(float), elea. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



203 



moyo unaelea (M.), I fed dU- 

turhed in my inside, 
(make tofloat\ eleza. 
Jdwindle, punja. 

Swing, See Sway (neut.% mng'inia. 
C€ui.)y ning'iniza, bembesha. 
gwing the armB, which it reckoned 

an degonee in a woman^a oar- 

riage, pmiga mikoQo. 
mmng round the head in dandng^ 

liuga. 

T. 

Tack (in »ewing\ piga bandi. 

(in sailing), pindua kwa gofihini. 
TaJce, twaa. 
"^ (receive), pokea, pewa. 
(to a persoii), pelekea. 
(to aplaoe\ pdeka, ehukua, fikiza. 
take a portion from the dish in 

eating, mega, ambtia. 
take a piece in chess, la. 
— to/ee a tool^ tembea, enda t^nbea. 
take across, vua, vukisha, yusha. 
take as spoil, teka. 
— ^ take away, cmdofiha» toa. 

take away from a person, twalia. 
take away from, or off from, epua, 

okoa. 
to^ away the desire of anything 

more, kmaisba. 
take by force, nyang^anya. 
take care, angalia. 
take care of, tunza. 
take civet from the ngawa, zabidi. 
take courage, tawakali, piga moyo 
^onde. 
, take dovm, angoa. 

take leave of, aga, agana na. 
take off (dothes), vua. 

(the fire), ipua. 
take one*8 due, jilipiza. 



take one's retenge, jilipiza kisaai» 

take out, opon, ondosha, toa. 

take out of a trap, namtia (Her.). 

take out of the sun or rain, anna, 

take ouiofthc pot, pakua. 

take suddenly paid violenUy, poka. 

take the responfiibiUty, tadariki 

take to pieces, kongoa. 

take up, tweka. 

take up a little at a time, ohota, 

dokoa. 
take upon onesdf the obligations 

of amoiher, hawilL 
Talk, nena, sema, jizumgomza. 
talk about, to, of, at, for, or against ^ 

nenea. 
talk against one amother, nenana. 
tqlk a person over into doing or 

telling something^ nyenya. 
talk and mtirmur in one*s sleep, 

weiNreseka. 
talk English, d!Cj^ sema Kirngtexi, 

&0. 
talk nonsense, ptiza» puzlka. 
talk scQOkdal about, amba, izam. 
talk through ike nofe, semea pnani, 

[kii-]wa na king'ong'o. 
Tangle, tia matata, tatanisha. 
be ia/ngled, tatana, tatazana. 
Tap, gota, gonga, chapa. 
Tarry, kawa, kaa. 
Ta^te, onda, ouja, thaku, limbuka 

(taste a new crop, &c, for the 

first time). 
Tax, faaya ushuru (?). 
Tea^ih, fundiaha, fuuza,. fnnda, ele- , 

misha («nstn^OJuvya, juyisha 

or julisha (make to know). 
Tear, rarua, babua, papua, papura. 
be torn, raruka, babuka» papuka. 
tear dovon [branches, &c.], kwa- 



204 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 



he t/om down and hrokeny kwa- 
nynka. 
TeazBy chokoza, kefyakefya. 
TeUf ambia. 
tell a UUe^ hadithi, badiihia, nena 

or toa bekdithi. 
tell tales about, cboDgeleza. 
Temptt jaribu (try), shawisbi (jper' 

Buade), 
Tend to, lekea. 
Tend (sheep, <f;c.), cbunga, tunga 

(M.), lisba. 
Terrify, ogofya, tisba, khofisba. 
Testify, sbubudti, sbubudia, sema 
usbnbuda. 
V Tether, funga. 
^ Thank, ambia asanti, Bbukurti (tfery 
seldom used except of Ood), 
Thank you, assent, marababa 
(this last is the proper answer 
to a slave's salutation), 
Thateh, vimba, ezeka. 
Think (consider), aza, fikiri, tafa- 
kari, knmbnka. 
(suppose), tbani, tbania. 
think oneself , yiOTiA, 
think oneself a man, jipeyua. 
think of, tia maanani, kumbuka 
(remember), nia, ania, or nuia 
(have in on^s mind). 
Thirst, ona kiu (feel thirst), [ktf-] 

wa na kiu (have thirst). 
Threaten, ogofya, ogofisba, kbofisba, 

kamia (?). 
Thresh, piga, pura (beat out com), 
fikioba kwa mignu (tread out), 
fikioba kwa mikono (rub out). 
ThriU, tetema. 
Thrive, sitawi, faniklwa (of persons 

only). 
Throb, puma. 
Throttle, kaba. 



Throw, tupa. 

throw a rider, rusba. 

throw a stone, Ac, ynrumisha. 

throw about, tawanya, tapanya 
(M.), cbafua, tefua (H). 

throw at, tupia. 

throw away, tupa. — ^^^ 

throw down, angusba. 

throw overboard, tosa. 

throw up, or off, rusba. 

throw a burden off the shoulder, 
ike, bwaga. 
Thunder, [kii-]wa na ngurumo (dis- 
tant), piga radi (near). 
Thwart, balifu. 

Tickle in the ribs, tekenya, ebtua. 
Tie, funga* — *- 

tie a knot, piga fundo. 

tie up into a bundle or faggot, 
tita. 
Tighten, (a^t) kaza, tia kassi, (neuL) 

kazana, kazika. 
Tingle, ona kinyenyef a. 
Tip off the head, shoulder, Ac, 

bwaga. 
be Tipsy, lewa, jileyya. 

make tipsy, levya. 
Tire, obosba, taajazi. 

become tired, cboka. 

be tiresome, refuse to be pleased. 
Toast, oka. [deka. 

be Together. 

We are Together, tu sote. 
Tolerate, stabimili, yumilia. 
Torment, atbibu, utbi, atbibisba. 
Toss, rusba. 

Totter, tetemeka (tremble), pepe- 
suka (he shaken), kongoja 
(totter in ones undk). 
Touch, gusa. 

touch gently, papasa. 

tou^sh up, tengeneza. 



LIST OF VERBS. 



205 



Tout for custom, &o,, sapa. 
Tow, fangasa. 
Track, fuata nyayo. 
Trade, fanya biashara. 
trade in a gmdU vmy, keep a stall, 
chnraza. 
Train up, adibn, lea. 
Trample, finyanga, kanyaga. 
Transcribe, nakili. 
Transform, geuza, badili 
he Transparent, itg'ara. 
Transgress, taghi, halifa. 
Trandate, tafsiri, fasiri, geuza. 
Trap, tega. 

Travail (of a woman), shikwa na 
utunga. 
- Travel, safiri. 
Tread, kanyaga, vioga' (M.), finya- 

nga (trample). 
Treaty tendea. 
he treats me hacUy, hnDitendea 

vibaya. 
he treats meweU, hunitendea zema. 
Trerrible, tetema, tetemeka, tapatapa. 
TricUe, tiririka. 
Trim, tengeneza. 
trim vegetcibles, <fec., for sale, oha- 
trim (sail), rausi. [mbua. 

Triumph, ahinda, fanya shangwl 
Trot, enda mashindo (of a horse), 

enda matiti (of an ass). 
Trouble, taabisha', sumbua. 
he troubled, taabika, smubuka, 

shnghulika. 
be troubled in mind, fathaika. 
Trust in, ajtami, jetea, tumania. 
entrust to, aminiBha) weka, amini. 
(have confidence), tumaini. 
trust in God and take courage, 
iawakali. 
Try, jaribu, onja (taste), 
try hard, jitahidi, fanya bidii. 



Tuck into the girdle, Ac, fulika. 
Tumble, anguka, pomoka. 

tumbnkia (faU into). 
Turn or turn into, (act.) geuza, geua* 
(neut) turn, turn into, turn itself, 

geuka. 
turn over, or the other way, 
pindua (oe^.)» pinduka (neuU). 
turn round something else, zu- 
ngnka (neut.), zungnsha (act.). 
He turned round, aligenka. 
The river turns, mto unazunguka. 
The ship turned, merikebu ilipi- 

nduka. 
' turn (prevent its going on in the 
same direction), pinga. 
turn aside (neut.), potoa, potoka. 
turn bottom upwards, fudikiza. 
turn in a lathe, kereza. 
turn out well for, fanikia. 
Tweak, nyukua. 

Twist, (act.) nyonga, flonga, popotoa. 
(neut) potoka. 

[a rope"] sokota, suka, pukasa 
(Mer.). 

U. 

UncUm, fnmbua. 

he Uncomfortable, taablka, sumbuka, 

toa kuona raba. 
Uncover, funua. 
Unfasten, fungua. «^-"^ 
Understand, sikia, jna, fafanua, 

tambua (recognize). 
I understand, yamenielea, yamet 

nitulilia. 
make to understand, sikiza. 
to be mutuaUy intelligible, make 

one another understand, sikif 

zana. 
Undertake, thamaini, jilazimibha, 

tadariki. 



206; 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 



Undervalue, rakhisisba. 
Undo (unfasten), faiiigiia. 

untie a knot, fiindua. 

(ruin), poteza. 
Undress, vua nguo. 
Unfold, kunjua. 
Unite, unga, ungana. 
Unpick or Unrip, fumua. 
- become unseum, f umuka. 
Unroof, ondoa sakafu (tdke off a 
stone roof), ezua paa, or zu- 
mbua paa (A.)> (taJce off thatch). 
Unsew, fumua. 

come unseum, fumuka. 
Unihatch, ezua, zumbua (A.). 
Untie, fungua. 

a knot, fundua. 
Upbraid, nenea, tuhumu, taya. 
Upset, pindua. 
Urge, sukuma, kaza. 
UHnate, kojoa. 
Use (make use of), tumia. 

To have been used for something^ 
kiilikuwa na kiiu. 

be of use, faa. 

be of use to one another, faana. 

use bad language to, tukana. 

use words well and correctly, 
fiarifu. 
Use (accustom), zoeza. 

become used to, zaea. 
Utter, ta'mka. 



Value, tia kima (put a price upon), 
penda (like), 
h*^. isaluable, faa, faa sana, [kii-] 
wa na manfaa. 
Ttinish, toweka, toa kuonekana, 
potea, tokoinea (gel out of one's 
sight). 
Co and hide yourself 1 Tokomea ! 



Venture, hatiridha, /ftubutu. 
Vex, kasirisha. 

be vexed, kasirika, ohukiwa. 
be Visible, onekana. 
Visit, enda kuangalia, kutazaioa, 
or kuzuru, jia (come to), endea 
(go to). 

be visited, jiwa. 

visit upon, patiliza. 
Vomit, tapika, kokomoka (belch out). ^ 

make to vomit, tapiaha. 
Void, tangua, batill. 

be made void, tanguka. 
Vow, weka nathiri (make a vow), 
perform a vow, ondoa Dathiri. 

W. 

Wail, omboleza. 

Wait, or wait for, ngoja, saburi, 
Bubiri. 

Wait a bit, ngoja kwanza. 

wait upon, ngojea. 
Walce, (neut.) a*mka. 

(act,) a'msba. 

remain awake, kesba, angaza. 

be awake, pj:u-]wa macUo. 

wahe up suddenly vHth a start, 
zinduka, zindukana. 
Wale, alia. y 

Walk, enda, enda kwa miguu. ^ 

(of a horse or ass), enda delki. 

vjolk about, tembelea. 

take a walk, tembea. 

walk up and down, enda masia. 

walk lavM, chechea, enda cbopu 
Wander, zunguka, potea. 

in mind, papayuka. 
Want (need), taka, ihtajia, ihtaji. 

(wish to have), taka, ipa. 

be wanting, ibtajiwa, pungnka. 
Ward off, kifiga (receive on same- 
thing), bekua (knock cff <igain). 



LIST OF VERBS. 



207 




Warm up^ kaoga moto, pasba moto. 
Warn, onya, ambia, nasi, hatha- 

riaha (put on one*» guard). 
Warp, benuka (as wood does in 
Wash, oeha. [drying), 

wash doihfis, foa; by dabbing 

gently only, chachaga. 
oneself, nawa. 
wash one's hands, nawa mikono. 
Waste, (act.) tUifo, tilifisha, fiija, 
tbii, haribn, tawanya, tapenya 
(M.). 
(neut) pungua, tilifika. 
Watch, (act.) yizia, ngojea, angalia, 
keep watches, ngojea kwa zamu. 
watch over, linda. 
(not to sleep), kesha, angaza. . 
Water, tia maji, ny wesha majL 

make water, kojoa. 
Wave, (oAit) punga. 

(neut.) tangatanga. 
Waver, sbangaa. 
Waylay, otea. 
Weciken, tboofisha, toa nguvu. 

become weak, tboofika. 
be Weaned, acha ziwa (leave the 

breast), shishwa. 
Wear, — the past tenses of kuvaa, 
to put on, are^ used to express 
wearing. 
He wears, amevaa. 
He wore, alivaa. 
Wear away, (neut.) lika, pungua, 

pUDguk£L 

(act.) la, punguza. 
Wear out, (neut.) chakaa (by a^e or 
use). 
He wore out my patience, alinonde- 
lea fiaburi. 
Wear ship, pindua kwa damalini. 
Weary, chosha. 
become weary, cboka. 



Weavcy fuma. 
tenda nguo, to stretch the threads 

ready for weaviitg. 
tarizi, wea/ne.aborder onto a piece 
of cloth. This is the only kind 
of weaving done in':Zanzibar. 
Weed (hoe upwe^), boruga, pali- 
Weep, Ha. <"" pia. 

weep together, lizana. 
burst into tears, bubujika machozi. 
Weigh, pima. 

toeigh down, lemea, topeza. 
TFeW on a piece of steel or iron, 

tambuza. 
Wet, tia maji, ohofya majini (dip «'» 

water). 
Whet, noa. 
Whisper, nong'ona, nong'onezana, 

nong'onia. 
Whistle, piga mbinda, miunzi, mi- 
sono, or miao. Most, if not aU, 
of these refer to an involuntary 
whistling sound; to whistle 
voluntarily is regarded in Zan- 
zibar as profane. 
Widen, panua (act), panuka (pass.), 
Wm, taka, penda. 
If God wUl, inshallab, Muungu 
akinijalia (if God gives me the 
power). 
Win, pata. — — 

Wind (n,eut.), zongazonga, zungu- ,^ 
kazunguka. 
wind thread, kunja uzi. 
Wink, kopesa, pepesa, pesa. 
Eukonyesba, to raise theeyeibrows ; 
this is a sign used as winking 
is in England. 
Wipe, futa, pangusa. 

wipe the nose, fata kamasi. 
Wish, taka, penda 
Wither, nyauka, fa, fifia. 



208 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK 



Withheld from, nyima, hini. 
Witness^ ona (see), 
hear loitneaSf shuhudn. 
witness about, for or against, bIixi- 
hudia. 
Wonder, taajabu, staajabn. 
Work, fanya kazi, tenda kazi. 
work in metal, fiia. 
(ferment), chacha. 
Worry, sumbqa, BumbuBha. 
Worship, abudu, abudia. 
he Worth, pata kima (get a price). 
What is it worth f Ghapataje ? 
r Wound, umiza. 
/ . he wounded, jeruhi. 

wound hy striking or piercing un- 
awares, viiaza. 



Wrap, kunja. 
Wreek, vnnja. 

he iorecked, vunja, vunjika. 

go on sfiore, panda. 

he on shore, pweleka. 
WresUe, pigana kwa mbavu. 
Wriggle, nyonganyonga. 
Wring, sonjoa, kamua, pc^toa^ 
Wrinkle, nyeuka. 

hecome wrinkled, knnjana. 
Writhe (like a toounded snake). 

Write, andika. [fingirika. 

Wrong, thulumu. 



Yavm, enda, or piga miayo, fanua 
kinwa. 



( 209 ) 



ADVERBS, 
PREPOSITIONS AND CONJUNCTIONS. 



Adverbs. 
Adverbs in Swahili follow the words they qualify. • 
. 8ema sana^ speak out. Njema sana^ very good. 

Adjectives may be used as Adverbs by prefixing vi- 

or vy-. 

Eunuha mbaya, to smell badly. 

Verbs in the Infinitive and Substantives generally 
may be made to serve as Adverbs by the luse of the 
Preposition kwa. 

Kwa uwongo, ftdsely. Kwa kujwi, knowingly. 

Many English Adverbs may be translated by sana 
(very), which intensifies the action or quality expressed 
by the word to which it is subjoined. 

Vutasana! Poll hard! 
8hika sana 1 Hold tight ! 
Enda sana ! Go fast 1 

Prepositions. 

There are in Swahili very few Prepositions. Indeed 
there are scarcely more than four, na, ya, Jcwa, and katika. 

p 



210 SWAHILI HANDBOOK, 

Katika has the same force as the case in -ni^ it denotes 
locality in nearly every form in which locality can 
require to be expressed. Kwa denotes instrumentality 
and object, ^a is and or with, and hy of the agent after 
a passive Verb ; in this last sense ni is used at Mombas 
and in other dialects. Fa, or rather -a with a variable 
initial, letter, denotes possession ; it is treated as a pos- 
sessive pronoun, and changes its first letter according 
to the class of the noun which precedes it, that is of the 
person or thing possessed ; it can very nearly always 
be translated by of. Its forms appropriate to each class 
of substantives are : — 



Class I. sing, wa, plur. wa: 
„ II. „ wa, „ ya. 
„ III. „ ya, „ za. 
„ IV. „ cha, „ vya. 



Class V. sing, la, plor. ya. 
„ VI. „ wa, „ za. 
„ Vn. „ j?a, „ pa. 
„ Vin. „ Icway „ hvui. 



See p. 209 in original. 

Many of our Prepositions are expressed by a Noun or 
Adverb followed by -a. Many others are expressed by 
Verbs in their simple or applied forms (p. 159). Some 
can scarcely be expressed at all. The Preposition from 
seems to be almost wholly wanting in Swahili. It is 
sometimes implied in the Verb, as in kutoka, to come or 
go from, or to come or go out of, but generally it is 
marked only by katika or the case in -n*, which denote 
merely the locality in which the action commenced. 
Froniy of time, may be translated by tangu, or by toka, 
or tokea, which do not seem to be used of space or deri- 
vation, but to be best tranalated by since or beginning 
from. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 211 

Until to, as far as, of time and space, are frequently 
translated by hatta, and (less elegantly) by mpaika, 
followed by a substantive. 

Conjunctions. 

Conjunctions are often dispensed with by the use of 
the tenses with -ha-. And, hut, or any other mere con- 
nective in a narrative, is unnecessary where the -ka- 
tense is employed, as in all ordinary cases it must be. 
The Imperative and Subjunctive may also have -ka- 
prefixed with the force o( the Conjunction and. 

Katupa ! And throw it away. 

Enenda sokoni kaleta ndizi I Go to the market and fetch some 

bananas. 
Uone, ukasadiki, that you may see and believe. 

If and other Conjunctions introducing a state are 
generally expressed by using the -ki- tense of the Verb 
(see Verbs, p. 136). 

In order that is generally expressed only by putting 
the Verb which expresses the purpose into the sub- 
junctive. 



p 2 



212 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



LIST OF ADVEKBS, PKEPOSITIONS, AND 
CONJUNCTIONS. 



About, (near) karibu na, kama. 
(in the nHghbourhood of), upeuide 
wa. 
Above, (adv.) juu. 
(prep.) juu ya. 
-^ Abundantly, tele, sana. 
After, (adv.) nyuma, baada. 
(prep.) nyuma ya, baada ya. 
Nyuma is more correctly used of 

place, and baada, of time. 
After this, akiisha (he finishing), 
akaisba (and he finished). 
Afterwards, nyumaye, baada yake, 
baadaye, tena, kiisha, halafu, 
pindi. ' 

Again, mara ya pili, tena. 
Against, jun ya. Against is com- 
monly expressed by the use of 
the applied form of the verb. 
Ago. 
long ago, zamani za kale, zamani, 

kwanza. 
Bow long ago ? Tangu lini ? 
ten days ago, leo siku kumi, kwa 
siku kumi, tangu siku kumi 



Alike, sawasawa, ginsi moja, ma- 

moja. 
Almost, karibu na. ' — ' ^^ 
AUme, peke yake, &c. (by himtelf, 

drc), tu (only). Tu alwoffs 

foUoujs the word or pkraae 

qualified by it. 
Along, kandokando ya. 

along with, pamoja na. 
Alongside, mbavunL • 

Aloud, kwa sauti kubwa. ^^ 
Already, mbele (before), sasa (now). 
He is already gone away, ame- 

kwisba kwenda zake (p. 155). 
Also, na, tena. Na always preced^ 

what it is connected with. 
Although, kwamba, ikiwa. 

Altogether, pia yote, kabisa. 

Always, sikuzote, dayima, abadan, 

kipindi, milele '(/or ever). • 
Amidst, katikati ya. ^^ 
Among, katika. _ .^ 

among themselves, wao kwa Wao. 
Anciently, zamani za kale, kwanza.-^ 
And, na. 

And he, and 1, &e. See p, 103. 



ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



213 



And is very often eapree&ed by the 
use €f the -ka- tense* See p, 134 
tmdp, 141. 

And followed hy a negaUve must 
he translated hy wala. 

Avd so, and then, Ac, bassi. 
Any is expressed hy using the word 
absolutely. 

Anywhere^ po pote. 

1 dovCt see anything, sioni kitu. 

Anything whatever, ^in chochote. 
Apart, mbali. 

Around, pande zote, mzingo wa. 
As {when, ortyX-po-,-ki-. Seep, 136. 

(as if), kama, kana, kwamba. 

(}Ake), -vyo, -vyo-, added to or 
inserted in the verb. 

As you please, npendavyo. 

As it was formerly, yalivyoknwa 
kwanza. 

As followed hy oa is generally 
omitted. 

As big as a house, kubwa kama 
nyumba. 

As it stands, shelabela. 
Ashore, pwaoL « 

go ashore, panda (of a ship), aha- 
ka (of a person), 

be ashore (of a ship), pwelewa. 
iiM(2e, kando. 

At, kwa, katika ; ease in 'Bi, followed 
hy pronouns in p-, when it de- 
notes nearness only, but by pro- 
nouns in kw-^ when it is inde- 
terminate. 

At first, awali, kwanza. 
^ At home, kwangn, kwako, kwake, 
kwetu, kwenn, kwao, nyumbani. 

He is not at home, hako. Hayuko 
is eommofdy used hy slaves in 
Zanzibar, hut is wholly incorrect. 

At last, mwlsbo, hatima, hatta. 



At length, hatta, hatima^ 

At night, nsiku." ^ 

M once, mara, mara moja. 

At the top, jun. 

At the bottom, chini. 
Away, ' 

go away, enda zangu, zako, &o., - 

according to the person going, 
come away, ja zake, &o. 
He is away, hako. 

B. ^ 

Back, nymna. 
He went hack, alimdi nynftia. 
upon the hack, kwa tani, chali. 
Backwards, kingaligali (M.). 

Because, kwa sababu. 

because of, kwa sababu ya, kwa 
ajili ya, kwani (for). 
Before, (adv.) mbele, kwanza. ^^ 
' (prep.) mbele ya or za, kabia ya. 
Kabla is used preferably of time, 
mbele of place. 
To go before, tangulia. 
Before he goes to sleep, asijelala. 
Before I die, kabla 8ija&. 

Behind, (adv.) nyuma. ^ , 

(prep.) nynma ya. 

Below, (adv.) chini. 1 

(prep.) chini ya. 
Beside, kando la, kandokando ya, 

zayidi ya (more than). 
Besides, tena, zayidi ; na (also), pre- 
ceding the thing mentioned. 
Better, afathali, beri or kheiri. 
You had better go, afathali nene- 

nde, n heri nenende. 
Aietthali is preferably, heri means 
it would be a good thing. 
Between, katikati ya, beina. 
Beyond, (adv.) kwa kuko. 
( P»"*?-) zayidiya, juu ya. 



214 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



beyond (of place), npande wa 
pili wa. 
Both — and — , na — ^na, 
Both' of them, wote wawili, zote 

mbili, &c., &c. 
But, lakini, wallakini (and however), 
illakini (except however), ilia, 
ball. In many cases but may 
he best translated by the use of 
the -ka- tense of the verb. 
By (after a passive verb). Da, ni 
. (M.). 

(of an instrument), kwa. 
(neai^ katika), case in -m followed 
by pronouns in p-. 

0. 

Certainly, yakini, haklka, hapana 

shaka. 
Tou certainly, (fee, Hakika yako, 

&o. 
ChokefuU, tobtob. 
Constantly, abadan, dayima. 
Crookedly, kombokombo, mishithari. 

D. 

Daily, killa sikn, siku kwa siku. 
Directly, See Now, 
Distinctly, kiada. 
Down, chini. 
During, wakati wa. 

During his journey, alipokuwa 
akisafiri, akiwa akisafiri. 

E. 

Ea/rly, mapema. 
^ Easily, upesi. 
Either — or — , ao — ao— , ama — 

ama — . 
Elsewhere, panginepo. 
Entirely, pia, kabisa, yote, pia yote. 
Ere, kabla ya, mbele ya. See Before. 



Even, hatta. 

Even if , -japo, Seep.ldS. 
Ever, sikuzote, dayima, kipindi. 

fot ever, milele. 
Everywhere, mahali pote. 
EzacUy, halisi, khassa, bawaba. 
Exceedingly, 'mno subjoined to the 

word qualified, sana. 
Eoccept, ilia, ela (M.). Except may 

.often be expressed by the use 

of the tense vnth -sipo. See 

p. 146. 
except by, biUa. 
Excessively, 'mno subjoined to the 

word qualified, chapa, chapara. 

F. 



Far or far off, mbali. -^ 
First, kwanza, mbele. .-< 

to go first, kutangulia. 
Fluently, kama maji. 
For, (conj,) kwani 

(prep.) kwa. 'IB^r is generally 
expressed by the use of the ap- 
plied form of the verb. 

(in the place of), mahali pa. 

for the space of, muda wa. 

for the sake of, kwa ajili ya. 

for my sake, unipendavyo (ow you 
love me). 
Formerly, kwanza, zamani. 
Forth, 'nje. 

to go forth, kntoka. 
Forward, mbele. 

go forward, endelea mbele. 
Forwards (upon the face), fulifidi, 
fudifudi, kwa kufahamia (M.). 
Frequently, mara nyingL 
From, katika, case in -ni ^^-^ 

from among, miongoni mwa. 

from time to timet mara kwa mara. 

(since), tangu, toka» tokea. 



ADVERB8, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



215 



I had it from (of) the Sheikh, 
nalipokea ya Sheikh. 
Further, tena. 
Further on, inbele. 

G. 

-^Gerdly, polepole, taratibu, tahafifn. 

Gladly, faraha. 
^ Gratis, burre, attia, bilasbi. 



Hard, kassi. / 

to work hard, kutenda kazi sana. 

io run hard, kaza mbio. 
Hastily, hima, kwa haraka. 
Here, hapa, huku. 

He is here, yupo. 

I am here, mimi hapa. 

Here and there, hapa na hapa. 
Hereafter, baadaye. 
Hither, hatta hapa, hapa. 

Hither and thither, kuku na 
huku. 
Hitherto, hatta leo, hatta sasa. 
Howi -je subjoined to the verb. 
Seep. 123. 

kama ipi ? Kwaje ? , 

How is iti Giosi gani ? 

How often ? Mara ngapi ? 

Ho^ much T Kassi gani ? Kadri 
gani? 
How, ginsi with -vyo- joined with 
the verb ; ginsi is often omitted. 

How he was, &c., ginsi alivyo- 
kuwa, &c. 
However, lakini. 



If, kana, kwamba, kama; -ki- or 
-po- inserted in the verb. See 
pp, 136, 146. 



Immediately, mara', maia moja. y^^"^^ 

now immediately, sasa hivi. 
In, katika, ca>se in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 
in the shoulder, ya bega. 
in front, pambele, mbele. 
[J] in going, nikienda, nikiwa 

ijikienda. 
in good tim£, Q,t its proper time, 

tahafifu. 
in heaps, chungu chungu. 
in order that, illi. Seep. 141. 
in place of, mahali pa. 
in the middle, katinakati, kati, 

katikati. 
in the middle of, kati ya, katikati 
in the morning, assubui. [ya. 

Indeed, kusema kweli. 
great indeed, kubwa sana. 

Inside, ndani. * 

inside of, ndani ya, case in -ni 

followed by pronouns in m-. 
He is inside, yumo ndani. 
Into, katika, ccue in -ni followed by 
pronouns in m-. 

J. 

Just, see p. 116, halisi. 
That is just it, ndiyo yalio. 



Lastly, kwa mwisho, mwisho. 

ai last, hatima, mwisho. 
Late, kasiri. — — ^ 
Less, duoi. 

to become less, kupungua. 

Less by, kassa. 
Like, kama, methili, hesabu ya. 

People like us, kina sisi. 
Little, kidogo. w 

a little more, punde. 

a little longer, -refu punde. 



216 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



M. 

Merely, tu, bassi. Both words fdUow 
the word or phrase they qualify. 
Moderaiely, kadiri. 
' More, zayidi. 

more than, zayidi ya. 
a little more, pande. 
Moreover, tena, na. 
Much more, or much less, sembuse, 
senze. 

N. 

Near (adv.\ karibu. 

Near to, kariba na, kariba ya. 

Nearly^ karibu na or ya, kadri ya. 

Necessarily, of necessity, kanuni la- 
zim, ukwasefu. 
V Neither — nor — , wala— wala— . 

Never, kabisa (with a negative pre- 
ceding), kamwi (M.). 

Next, -a pili yake, kiisha. 
next to, -a pili ya. 

No, ahaa, hahda, la, siyo, haknna, 
'-^--~ hapana, hamna. These last 
three words mean, there is not, 
or there is none. 
No, by no means, hasha. 

Nor, wala. 

Not, si. See Negative Tenses of Verbs, 
p. 143. 

Not only — , but also — ; si — ^bassi, 
— ^lakini tena ; si — tn, ilia — . 
^ Not yet, bado, asitasa, haitassa, &c. 
(M.). Hiese words are used to 
denote incompleteness, whatever 
the subject referred to may be. 
Not yet may generaVy be ex- 
pressed by the negative tense 
with -ja- (seep. 145), after which 
tensi bado is generally added. 

Now, sasa, leo (to^y), wakati huu 
(at this time), zamani hizi (tn 



these times), zamani zetu (m our 
times), sika hizi (in these days). 
Now directly, sasa hiyi. 

O. 

Obliquely, hanamu. 

Of, -a, with a first letter varying 
a/icording to the class of the 
preceding word, that is of the 



I. Mtn wa Ali, AWs mar^ 
Wata wa Ali, Al€s people. 
Mbnzi wa Ali, Ali^s goat. 
Mbuzi wa Ali, AWs goats, 
u. Mnazi wa Ali, AWs eoooa- 
nut tree. 
Minazi ya Ali, Al^s ooeoa" 
nut trees. 
m. Nyumba ya Ali, Alt's house. 
Nyumba za Ali^ AWs 
houses. 
lY. Eisu cha Ali, Ali^s knife. 

Vistr vya Ali, AWs knives. 
y. Kasha la Ali, AlCs chest. 
Makasha ya Ali, AWs 
chests. 
Ti. Uimbo wa Ali, Al^s song. 

Nyimbo za All, Al^s songs. 
yn. Mahali pa Ali, Al^s place. 
vni. Eufa kwa Ali, Ali^s dying. 

1. Nyumbani mwa Ali, tn Al€s 

house. 

2. Nyumbani pa AH, by Al€s 

house. 
8. Nyumbani kwa Ali, to AKs 
house. 
Ta is sometimes pronounced a. 

saa a sita, tiodve o*dock. 

Where it is intended to mark specially 

the individuality of the possessor 

the possessive pronoun may he 

used instead oftheprepositum -a. 



ADVERBS, PREPOaiTIOm, *«• 



217 



Kiti ohake Snltani, meani the 
chair in which no one but the 
SuUan tiU, or the SuUan'a own 
chair. 
Of ie included in some words which 
are therefore not followed by -a. 
Kina Abdallah, AhdaJMCspeopley 

or people like AhdaUah, 
Wadi Mohammed, Mohcmmed^s 

son, 
Biati Mohammed, Mohcmimed^s 

daughter. 
In tome common phrases -a is 
omitted typparentty for shortness 
only. 
Often, mara nyingL 
On, juu ya, the case in -ni. 
Put it on the table, weka mezani 
Put it on the top ofthetaJt>le,welsA 

jun ya meza. 
on both sides, pande mbili. 
on every side, kotekote. 
on foot, kwa mignn. 
on one side, onesidedly, pogo. 
on purpose, makosudi. 
on the part of, miongoni mwa. 
Once, mara moja. 
at once, mara moja, mara. 
once only, mara moja tu. 
Only, peke yake, &c. (by itself, 
alone), to, bassi, both following 
the word or phrase qualified. 
Orderly, taratibu. 
Out, nje, 
out and out, tama. 
Speak out, sema sana. 
Outeide, nje, kwa nje. 

'outside of, nje ya. 
Outwardly, kwa nje. 
Over, juu ya (of place), asayidi ya 
(of quantity). Over in the sense 
of excess may be expressed by 



kupita, to pass ; and in the sense 
of finished, by kuisha, to come 
toanend. 
The battle is over, mapigano ya- 
mekwisha, 

P. 

Patiently, stahimili. 

Perhaps, labuda, hwenda, kwenda, 
kwa nasibn, inshallah. 

Perpetually, dayima, dbadan. 

Possibly, labuda, yamkini (it is pos- 
sible), kwa yamkini (by possi- 
bUUy). 

Presently, halafu. 

Properly, vema, halisi, bawaba. 
-to, used as an enditio eubjoined 

to verbs and substantives. 
Amejiwekato, he has placed him- 
self properly. 



(Quickly, hima, himahima, kwa ha- 

raka, upesi, mbio (running). 
(Quietly, taratibu, polepole. 
Quite, kabisa, pia hdlisi. 

R. 

Balher, zayidi (more), afathali (pre» 
ferably). 
much rather, sembuse, seuze. 

S. 

Secretly, kwa 8iri,ndani kwa ndani . 
Side by side, kandokando. 
Silently, kimyakimya. 
^nce, tangu, toka, tokea. ^ 

Slowly, polepole, taratibu, kiada. ^ 
So, when followed by oa is generally 
omitted, when standing alone it 



218 



8WAHILI HANDBOOK. 






may he expressed by ginBi, and 
-Vyo inserted in the verb. 
He is not so taU as you ate^ si 

mrefa kama wewe. 
I did not know he tnas so iaU, si- 

kumjua ginsi alivyo mrefu. 
80 far as, hatta. 
Sometimes, mara, mara kwa mara. 
Sometimes he laughs, sometimes he 
cries, msira hucheka, mara hulia. 
Soon, sasa hivi (immediately), upesi 
(quickly), bado kidogo (yet a 
little), karibu (near). 
Still, tena, hatta leo. 
Strongly, kwa nguvu. 
Sudderdy, gh^ala, mara moja, tM* 
ruba moja. 



TliOi (how that), kwamba, ya kwa- 

mba. 
(in order that), illi. See p. 141. 
Then, is often expressed hy the use of 

the -ka- tense, or hy the verbs 

kwisba, to finish, or, kwenda, 

logo. 
Akiisha akatoka, having finished 

this, he went out = then he went 

out. 
Akaenda akamkamata, and he 

,went and seized him = then he 

seized him. 
(after this), baadaye, baada yake, 

nyiimaye, nyuma yake. 
{then it was), ndipo. 
(in those days), zamani zile, siku 

zile. 
(at that time), wakati vile. 
There, pale, huko, kule. Pale 

points to what is nearest, kule 

to what is farthest off. 
Therefore, kwa sababu hii. 



Though, kwamba; the -ki- tense^ 
p. 186, when the case is put cts 
an existing one ; the -nge- tense, 
p. 138, where the case is put as 
not existing. 

Though he is, akiwa. 

Though he he, angawa. 

(even if), -japo, p. 138. 
Thus (in this way), hivi, hivyo. - 

just thus, vivi hivi, vivyo hivyo. 

(in the same way), vivyo. 
TUl, hatta, mpaka wa. 
To (as the sign of the infinitive)^ 
ku- ; the u becomes w before a, e, 
or i, and is often omitted before 
oandrx. 

Kwisha = ku-isha, to finish. 

kwenda = ku-enda, to go. • 

Kogia = ku-oga, to bathe. 

To before a verb where it expresses 
the purpose or the object aimed 
at, is expressed by the use of the 
subjunctive. 

I stood up to look, nalisimama 
nione. 

TeU him to help you, mwambia 
akufiayidie. 

J want him to go, namtaka aende. 

I want to go, nataka kwenda. 
(In such cases as this the verb , 
in the infinitive is used cw a 
substantive.) 

(unto) is generally contained in 
the verb, kupa = to give to (not 
to give). If not contained in 
the meaning of the original verb, 
it may be expressed by the use of 
the applied form. In the feu> 
cases in which to cannot he 
brought into the meaning of the 
verb, it must be rendered hy 
kwa. 



ADVERBS, PREPOSITIONS, &c. 



219 



(as far as\ hatta. 
(to the hou84 of), kwa. 
0^ Together^ pamoja, wote. 

When joined toith persons together 
i8 expressed by forms of ■K)te, 
all 

twende sote, let us go together, 
mwende nyote, go together, 
wende wote, let them go together, 
both together^ wote, wote wawili. 
Topsy-turvy, kitwakitwa, vitwavi- 
twa. 
,^^ TotaUy, kabisa, pia. 
^ — Trtdyy kweli, hakika, yakini, inna. 
Ttoice over, kuwilL 

U. 
TJnawareSy ghdfala. 

^ Under, chini ya. 

^ Until, hatta. 
Up, juu. 

Upon, juu ya, case in -nL See On, 
Upwards, juu. 
^^^ Utterly, kabisa, pia yote, tikitiki 

■V. 
— V Vainly, burre. 

^ Very, sana. Sana always follows 

the word qualified by it. 
Vigorously, kwa nguvu, sana. 
Violemtly, kwa nguvu, kassi. 

W. 

TTcK, vema, sana, -to. See Properly, 
Vnuxfi Seep, 122, 

What do you want f Watakanini? 

What tree is it i Mti gani huu ? 

What man ? Mtu yupi ? 
Whal = thai which. See Belatives, 

p, 117. 
Whenf Lini? 

When (if, as soon as, &c,), the -ki 
tense, p, 136. 



(at the time iphen), -po, treated at 

a relative particle and joined 

with the verb, p. 119. 
(during the time), wakati wa. 
when it rains, wakati wa mvua. 
When the harvest comes, wakati 

wa kuTuna, [wa]Tunapo. 
(even if), -japo, p, 138. 
Whenever, wakati wote, kiUa -po-. 
Whenever I go, killa nendapo. 

Where i Wapi, api, p. 123. ^ 

Where are you going i Wenda 

wapi? 
Where, po, ko, mo, treated as relative 

particles and joined with ihe 

verb. Po implies nearness, and 

mo the being inside, 
1 don't know where he is, simjui 

alipo. 
I donCt know where I am going, 

sijui uinapokwenda. 
1 dorCt know where I earns from, 

sijui ninakotoka. 
Where Jfee tree is (or was), penyi 

mti. 
Wherever, po pote, ko kote, mo mote*. 
Wherever Ijgo, killa nendako. 
Wherever I enter, killa ningiamo. 
Wherever I am, killa nilipo. 
Wherefore, kwa sababu hii or hiyo. 
Whether — or — , ao— ao — . 
Whether it be, licha. 
(if), kwamba. 
While, maaddm, maaz^l. 
While, is generally expressed by 

the use of -ki- prefixed to the 

verb, p, 136. 
While it is yet early, kungali na 

mapema bado. 
Whyi Mbona? Kwani? Kwa 

nini? Ya nini? Kwa sababu 

gani ? Ginsi or Gissi gani ? 



220 



SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 



Withy na, pamoja na. 
(cu mi in$trumenl)y kwa. * 
(pontainingi having)y -enyL See 
p. 97. 

WWUfiy udani. 

Without, nje. 

TTi^tf^ (2>r€;p.)9 pc^ipo (^^^^ ^^^ 

Without is generally exprewed hy 
the -sipo- tense (p. 146). J< 
maj/ he represented hy a simple 
negative: 

He is without shame, hana haya 
= he has no shame. 

Without, followed in English hy 
the participial or verbal in -ing, 
may he rendered hy the negative 
subjunctive of the verb. 

Without seeing him, asimwone. 

Without there being, pasiwe. 
Wonderfully, ajfb, ajabu. 



Y. 

Yearly, mwaka kwa mwaka. 
Yes, aee, e4e, na*am, vema, njema, 
yakini, ndio, kwelL 
Ewaa or £e wallah are often used 
hy slaves or inferiors to express 
a vjilling assent, 
Inahallah is used as a promise to 

do something, 
Lebeka or Labeka, contracted 
into leb^, ebbe or even he, is 
used hy inferiors as an answer 
when ccdled. Superiors or 
equals generally use naam, the 
Arabic yes. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is fust it. 
Yonder, kule, knlee, j>. 115, 116. 

Z. 

Zigzag, upogoupogo. 



( 221 



> 



INTERJECTIONS. 

There are in Swahili, as in all languages, some 
scarcely articulate Interjections, and many of the nartives, 
especially of the lower class, nse a great deal of action, 
often joined with half-articulate exclamatory sounds, 
to illustrate and enforce their meaning. The following 
are the most usual Interjections, and those which can 
best be written. The words used for Yes and No are 
given in the preceding list, pp. 216 and 220. 

The ordinary salutations are in practice a sort of 
Interjections, not being very easily explained under 
»ny other head. 

A slave addressing a superior says Sikamoo or Ncutika- 
niooj for naahika miguu, I embrace your feet. The 
superior replies Mardhaha, thank you, or welome, the 
word being originally an Arabic form of congratulation 
and well-wishing. 

Equals very commonly say when they meet Jambo or 
Tamhoy to which the reply is Jamhd or Jambo aana. There 
is a playful or very affectionate way of continuing the 
dialogue thus — Jambo, Jambo. Jambo aana, Jambo sana. 
Sana sana. Sana aana. Kama lulu (like pearls). Kama 



222 SWAHILI HANDBOOK . 

marijani (like coral), <fec., dec. The more correct expres- 
sions are — JJw jamho f Are you well ? and the answer, 
Si jamho, I am well. It is difficult to explain these 
phrases intelligibly. Hu jamho f is literally, Are you 
not a matter or affair ? or still more strictly, Are you 
not a word ? The meaning is very nearly that of the 
English, Is nothing the matter with you ? Sometimes 
Ha jambo is used to express. He is well, or Ha jambo 
kidogo, He is not very ill, «r He is a little better. One 
may ask, U halt gani ? What state are you in ? i.e., How 
are you ? to which a proper reply is, Njema, hemd il lUdhiy 
Good, praise be to God. The Arabic Sabdlkheir, Good 
morning, and Maaalkheir, Good afternoon, are ofben 
heard. The more elegant forms are Suhahk AUdh hilh- 
heir and Mosaic Allah hilJcheir, It is not usual to inquire 
about the health of a wife or of the women of a house- 
hold, unless among very intynate friends, or for some 
special reason. When necessary, one should say, Eu- 
jamho nyumhani f or U halt gani nyumhani f How are 
you in the house, i.e.. How are your household, or 
those in your house ? It is proper, if. you are asked 
how you are, always to answer, well, for the sake of 
the omen ; and similarly if you are asked Hdbari gani f 
What news ? to answer Njema, good, and then after- 
wards to give a true account of the matter. 

In Swahili Interjections a final h is often distinctly 
heard. It requires much practice to enable a European 
to make this sound properly. 



(' 223 ) 



LIST OF INTEEJECTIONS. 



Ah ! An exclamation of mingled 
grief and surprize. The final 
h must be distinctly sounded. 

Ahsdnt or asanti, thank you. Ah- 
sdnt is an Arabic word mean- 
ing, You have done well. It is 
sometimes used profusely by 
way of mere compliment. 

Amina, Amen, used at the end of 
a prayer. 

AH! Look you I I say I It is 
used generally as a means of 
calling attention to what hfts 
been said, or is about to be said. 
It is a sort of vocal note ,of 
admiration. 

B. 

Ba88i! or B<ml That will do I 
" Enough I Stop! No morel 



Chub! An exclamation of impa- 
tience and contempt; the ch 
18 the sound most heard, the 
vowel being very short aud in- 
fiignificant. 



E. 

Ee! 01 The interjection of in- 
vocation. 

Evf€ ! pha. Enyi! You there I A 
rather contemptuous way of 
demanding attention. It is 
used for Hi I I say I and any 
exclamation merely meant to 
attract notice. It must not be 
used to a superior and rarely 
only to an equal. It ta custo- 
mary to call to them Bwana I 
i.e., Master I The answers 
will be found in the previous 
list, p. 220, under the word 
Yes. 

H. 

Hayal An exclamation borrowed 
from the Arabic ; it means, 
give your attention to this,. go 
on with it. It is used where 
we say, Come along ! Look 
sharp 1 Be quick I Go on I 
If it has been proposed to do 
anything, Haya! means. Lei 
us set about it. Haya! is 
commonly used by a master or 



224 



8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 



overlooker to hasten men about 
their work. 

Hima! Quick I Be quick I Make 
haste! Often doubled, Eima 
hima! 

Hddil with a great stress on the 
0. It is not right to enter any 
house or room (not your own) 
without first crying Sddil and 
waiting for some one to come, 
or at least to answer, Kdrib, 
Gome in I 

J. 

Je! or Te! Hullo I What now I 
Well! What is it ?' 



Kdrib ! Le., come near ! It is used 
^ to invite people into a house, 
to join a party, or to sit down 
and put themselves at their 
ease. Kdrib! may generally 
b€i translated, Gome and sit 
with us I and a common answer 
is, Nimekaa kitaho, I am set 
down. 

Ki/ulel An exclamation of con- 
tempt. 

Kuahen! Good-bye! Farewell! 
Sometimes a plural is made, 
Kuaherini, though it seems to 
be an incorrept form. 

Sometimes a special friend 
adds, Ya huoncma^ as much as 
to say, May we soon meet again. 

Kumbel What! What then I An 
expression of surprize, espe- 
cially used when things turn 
out not to be as they were 
represented to be. 



L. 

LaUil Oh that! Would that I 
An exclamation of regret, a 
wish that things had been 
otherwise. 

Looo I An exclamation of surprize ; 
the is more dwelt upon in 
proportion to the amount of 
surpr^e. 

M. 

Mardhaba! Thank youl It is 
well ! used by way of acknow- 
ledging a gift or a compliment. 

Miye I Me I II I am the one ! 

Mwenyeuje I You did it yourself ! 

O. 

Ole! An exclamation foreboding 
eviL Woe! OUwennl Woe 
unto you? OU wangul Woe 
is me I 

S. 

8aa! You! I say! It is put 
after a word to ghre emphasis 
to it. Njoo $aa I Gome on, do ! 

Sdlaaml Peace! Hail! It is 
used as a salutation by the 
Indians. The regular Arabic 
Salaam aleikum! Peace be 
with you ! and the answer, Wa 
aleik salaam! And with you 
peace! is not yery oommonly 
heard. Salaam is often used 
in the sense of compliments : 
Salaam BiU! With the mis- 
tress' compliments, — said in 
presenting anything. 

SimiUa! Out of the wayl Ori- 
ginally, as it is said, BirnntOdhy 
In the name of God. It is now 



/ 



r 



LIST OF INTERJECTIONS. 



225 



the oommon cry by which people 
are warned of something com- 
ing. SimiUa punda! Make 
way /or a donkey ! SimiUa 
ubau! Take care of the plank! 
Two seryants frequently go 
before a great man to clear the 
way for him, and call out to 
any one in the road, SimiUal 
SimiUa ! 

A plural SimtUenil is some- 
times made as though it were 
the imperative of a yerb. The 
more correct plirase for Get out 
of the way I is Jitenge ! 
Starehe! Don't disturb yourself! 
^ Vhen a new-comer enters, the 
rest rise to do him honour, 
which he tries to preyent by 
a&ymgy Starehe ! Starehe! It 



is properly used to deprecate 
any trouble or disturbance on 
the speaker's account 

T. 

Tendeni! Go on I Let us go! 
Probably the imperative of kw- 
tenda, to do or to be «nployed 
about 

Tutu! Don't touch! Used to a 
child meddling with what he 
had better leave alone. 



Vema! Very well! So be it! 
That will do t 

W. 

/ You! You are the one! 
It's you I 



226 SWAEILI HANDBOOK. 






FOKMATION OF WORDS. 

The formation and introduction of new words gD on 
so freely in Swahili, that no guide to the language 
would be complete without a section on the subject. 

Foreign words are adopted in a shape as nearly like 
their own as the rules in regard to Swahili syllables will 
allow. At first indeed a word may be used in its crude 
original shape, but it soon has vowels introduced into, 
and subjoined to it, so as to bring it into a regular form. 
Arabic words seldom present great difficulties when 
once the gutturals have been toned down. Thus hhahar 
(news) softens into hahdri, waht (time) becomes first 
icdkii and then wakdtiy kahr or gahr (a grave) is softened 
and expanded into kahuri. It is seldom that an Arabic 
word presents so much difficulty as did these three. 
Portuguese has furnished some words, as kasha (caxa), a 
large box ; meza, a table ; mvinyo (vinho), wine. French 
gives a few, as hweta (boite) a box; divai (du vin) 
claret. An instance of English adaptation occurs in 
manowari, which is the current designation of an English 
man-of-war. 



FORMATION OF W0BD8 , 227 

Verbs. 

Some rules have been given at the end of the section 
on Verbs for the formation of several derived forms 
(p. 157). Verbs in the causative and neuter forms may- 
be made from other parts of speech, especially from 
foreign Adjectives, by changing their final syllable 
into -iaha or -eaha^ -ika or -eka^ as though they had been 
originally Verbs. 

QhaXiy dear. KughalWhay to make dear. 
Laini, smooth. Kulainisha, to make Bmooth. 
Kidainikay to be made smooth. 

Beside those formations which are in daily use, it is 
a great help to the understanding of the language to 
bear in mind the traces of formations not now ordinarily 
employed. In regard to Verbs it is a constant rule that 
those ending in -wa reverse the meaning of similar verbs 
ending in -a only. 

Kufunga, to fasten. Kufungua, to unfasten. 

Kufuica, to fill ii^ a hole. Kufukua^ to clear out a hole. 

Several verbs show traces of a rule, which prevails in 
some other African languages, that the change of -a into 
-ya gives the Verb a causative meaning. 

Kupona, to get well. Kuponya, to cure. 
Kuogopaj to fear. Kuogofya^ to frighten. 

There are many questions about the form of Verbs 
which need much more investigation. What is the rule 
by which some causatives are made in -sha and son\e in 
-«of Has the -sha termination the effect of to make to 
he, and -za that of to make to do f What is the explana- 
tion of the apparently neuter form of some active Verbs, 

q2 



228 8WAEILI BANDBOOK. 

such as JcufuniJcd, to cover ? What is the effect of the 
terminations -ma and -ta, as in kuungama and Jcufumbnta f 
What dialect did they originate in? What are the 
rules for the termination -anya, which seems to be 
common in the most northerly Swahili ? 

It has been shown in the section on verbs how some 
tenses are formed by the use of an auxiliary, and some 
by a tense prefix which has no independent meaning. 
An example of the transition between the two is sup- 
plied by the three forms of the negative infinitive : 1. 
kutoa hupenda ; 2. kutoa penda; 3. hutopenda. In the 
first form both words have a substantial independence ; 
in the second the principal verb, penda, is already 
drawn out of its proper form, and depends for its 
meaning upon the first verb, toa, as upon a prefix ; in 
the third it has swallowed up the final of thfe first verb 
and appropriated its prefix ku-. The form of the future 
prefix which is used with relatives points to taka as the 
original form, and the verb kutaka is so like our own 
word to will that one can hardly be wrong in supposing 
that in both cases the change from a verb expressing 
volition to a mere sign of tense expressing futurity has 
proceeded in a similar manner. Now, if the tense pre- 
fixes were ever independent words, the principal verb 
must have been in the infinitive ; and, if so, the presence 
of the ku' before monosyllabic verbs, wherever the accent 
requires it, is fully explained ; it was dropped wherever 
it served no purpose, and retained where it was con- 
venient to retain it. The original independence of the . 
* tense prefix and of the principal verb would also go to 
account for the way in which the objective prefix clings 



FORMATION OF WORDS, 229 

to the principal verb; it would then have originally 
followed the hu-, and so been severed by it from all the 
other prefixes. The only cases in which the natives 
separate the prefixes from the verbs in writing seem to 
be where a particle of relation is joined with the -wa-, 
-Z«-, and -taha- prefixes, and in the past conditional or 
-ngali- tense. It is curious to have in such a word as 
atdkayekuja the same letters exactly used to form a 
tense prefix and to express an independent verb. Ata- 
haye huja means, who desires to come, atakayehuja, who 
will come, in the sense of a simple future. 

Adjectives. 

Adjectives are made from Verbs in correct Swahili by 

substituting -vu or -fu for the final -a. Where the final 

is preceded by a consonant the Adjective is made from 

the applied form. 

Kunyamaa^ io remain silent. -nyaKnavu, silent. 
Kvharifm, to destroy. 'haribi/u, destructive. 

Yerbs that end in -Jca change this into -vu in making 
the Adjective. 

KucMcaf to become tired, -chovu, tired. 

These forms do not now appear to be freely made or 

used in the common dialect of Zanzibar. A somewhat 

similar meaning may be expressed by the use of the 

variable Preposition -a followed by the Infinitive of the 

Verb. 

Substantives. 

Substantives may be freely made by prefixing to the 
simple form of the Verb the initial letters proper to the 
first, or to the fourth class, according to whether it is 



230 SWAHILI HANDBOOK. 

a living being or a thing which does what the Verb 
expresses. It must be observed, that this form is bo 
purely verbal that it takes an object after it just as a 
Verb would. 

Mfanya Inashara^ a trade maker, i.e., a merchant. 
Vifaa, things wliich are of servioe, necessaries. 
Kifungua mlango, the door opener. 

The final letter is sometimes changed into -t, and the 
word ceases to govern an object. 

Meemi, a speaker. 

Where the final -a is preceded by a -6- it becomes -©-. 

Kwibay to steal. Mwivij a thief. 

Kugoinha, to quarreL Mgomvi, a quan'elsome person. 

Where the above rules would produce a common 
word with another meaning, the ku of the Infinitive is 
retained. 

KuXima, to cultivate. Mkulimay a cultivator. 

MltTna, a mountain. 

There are a few traces of a formation of verbals by 
changing the last letter, into -e, as in -teule, chosen, from 
kuteu[l]a, to choose. 

The habitual doer of an action may be denoted by 
adding -ji to the simple form of the Verb and prefixing 
the initial letters proper to the first Class. 

Kttomha, to beg. Mwomhaji, a beggar, 

Kuihaj to steal. MioHj^jij an habitual thief. 

Another way of denoting a person who does what the 
Verb expresses is formed by changing the final letter 
into -si, -ahi, or -zi, and employing the usual prefixea. 



FORMATION OF WORDS. 231 

Wlien the Verb ends in -ha the -ha becomes sM ; where 
the Verb ends in -ta the -to becomes -si, 

Kuohoa, to save. Mwokoziy a saviour. 

Kununua, to buy. Mnumizi^ a purchaser. • 

Kiialca, to build (in stone). Mwashiy a mason. 

Ku/ttata, to follow. Mfuasi, a follower. 

The result of the action denoted by the Verb may be 
expressed by changing the final -a into -o and using 
some appropriate prefix. 

KuzcMy to bear. MazaOy fruit, produce. 

Kutencia, to do. KUendo, an action. 

Kwenda, to go. Mwendo^ a journey, or going. 

" Of the Substantival prefixes those of the fourth (Ki-) 
Class are most often used. 

,The same forms especially in the fifth Class are used 
to express the place where an action is generally done. 

Kuoha, to bake. Joko^ a bailing place. 

Kukusanyika, to be assembled. MdktuianyikOy a gathering place, 

or an assembly. 

Words of similar meaning are also made by the termi- 
nations -2» -shi, -8%. See above. 

Mavcto, or Mavazit dress, garments. 
Kizcu), or Kizaziy birth, a generation. 
Pendo, or Penzi, love. 

Where the Verb and Substantive are both borrowed 
from the Arabic, it is useful to remember that the Sub- 
stantive has generally a where some other vowel occurs 
in' the Verb. 

Kuahuduy to worship. Ibdda, worship. 

Kvsafiriy to travel. Safari^ a journey. 



232 8WAEILI HANDBOOK. 

Sometidies both the Arabic and the Swahili forms 
occur, 

KuJibUf to answer. Jawabu and majibut an answer. 

Verbs joined with relatives, or with the particles of 
place or time, may be treated as Substantives. ^ 

Wendaiko hole, whithersoever thou goeei 
KiUa nendapo, every time I go. 
Zikerezwazo, turnery, turned goods. 

Substantives of place may be made from Adjectives 
by putting them into the form required by Mahali, 
place (Class VII.). 

Panyamavu, a quiet place. 

The place where something is may be expressed by 

penyu 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree is, or was. 

The place for doing ^.nything may be expressed by 
pa followed by the Infinitive of the Verb. 

PaJcutokea, a place to go out at, an outlet. 

Abstract Substantives are ordinarily formed by means 
of the prefix U- or W-, 

KarimUy generous. JJkarimu, generosity, 

-cifpe, white, Weupe, whiteness. 

Mwizij a thief. Uizi^ thievishness. 

Muuaji, a murder. Uuajiy murders. 

Wazirit a vizier. Utoaziri, vimership. 

An instance in which both Arabic anfl Swahili forms 
are used occurs in the word for enmity, 

Aduit an enemy. Wadui or Adawa^ enmiiy. 

Nations, their country and language, are regularly 



FORMATION OF WORDS. 233 

expressed by the prefixes of the first, sixth, and fourth 
Classes. 

MgcUa, a Galla. Ugaloy GkiUa land. Kigala, the Galla 

language. 
Mzungu, a European. Uzungu, the native country of the 

Europeans. Kizungu, the language which Europeans 

speak. 

It is to be observed that the U- form would also 
express the being a Galla, European, &c., and that the 
Ki' form denotes the sort or kind of anything, not of 
language only. It is seldom used absolutely except of 
the language, but when preceded by -a (of) its true 
meaning becomes evident. 

Mavao ya Kizungu, European dress. 
Viazi vya KizungUt potatoes. 

The Kp- form may be made from other substantives. 

Mavao ya kifaume, royal robes (form mfauTne, a king, and 
ufaumef kingdom or kingship). 

The formation of Adverbs and Prepositions has been 
described in the section on the smaller parts of speech. 






3 



5z 

3 



§ 



S 



I 



c 



I 









I 1 



O 

n 
Eh 






C 234 ) 



I I 



1 



*. 






*i^.. 



^ '^ ii i ^ -^ i^S'k ^ i A ^ ^ ^ 

A 

I I 

'i .f i .f i .f I ^ ^ i" » i" ^ 



3 &■ 



m 



( 235 ) 



Tablk of the Peeposition -a (of) 
in four Languages. 







SWAHILI. 


Shahbila. 


NVAMWBZI. 


Yao. 


I. 


Sing. 


Wa 


Ywa 


Wa 


Jwa 




Plur. 


Wa 


Wa 


Wa 


Wa 


II. 


Sing. 


Wa 


Wa 


Gwa 


Wa 




Plur, 


Ya 


Ya 


Ya 


Ja 


III. 


Sing. 


Ya 


Ya 


Ya 


Ja 




Plur. 


Za 


Za 


Za 


Sya 


IV. 


Sing. 


Cha 


Kya 


Cha 


Cha 




Plur. 


Vya 


Vya 


Fya 


Ya 


V. 


Sing. 


La 


Ja 


Lya 


Lya 




Plur. 


Ya 


Ya 


Ga 


Ga 


VI. 


Sing. 


Wa 


Lwa 


Lwa 


Lwa 




Plur. 


Za 


Za 


Za 


Sya 


vn. 




Pa 


Ha 




Pa 


VTTT. 




Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


Kwa 


(IX.) 


Sing. 




Ka 


Ka 


Ka 




Plur. 




Vya(?) 


Twa 


Twa 



END OP PABT I. 



HANDBOOK OP THE SWAHHil LANGUAGE 

AS SPOKEN AT ZANZIBAR. 

Part H. 
SWAHILI-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



> 



1 



PKELIMINAEY OBSERVATIONS. 



In using the following Vocabulary it is necessary to remember that 
Swahill words change very much at the beginaing and uot often at 
tbe end. 

In searching for the meaning of a word, which is not to be found 
exactly as written, it is well to examine first the final syllable, so as to 
correct, or remove, any termination or enclitic which may be attached 
to it. These are as follow : — 

1. The passive of the verb is made by changing -a into -wa. Verbs 
ending in two consecutive vowels frequently use as their passive the 
passive of the applied form which ends in -Uwa or -lewa. 

Kupenda, to love. Kupendwa, to be loved. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. Kufunguliwa, to be unfastened. 

Kuzaa, to bear. Kuzaliwa, to be born. 

Kukomboa, to buy back. KukomboleiDa, to be bought back. 

2. Verbs ending in -a change the -a into -e in the subjunctive and 
imperative, and into -i in the negative present. 

Pende, love thou. 
Apende, that ho may love. 
Hapendij he does not love. 

The change of the final vowel distinguishes hapendi, he does not 
love, from hapenda, a contracted form of nikapenda^ and I loved. 

3. The plural of the imperative is made by adding -m to the 
singular. • , 

Pendant or Pendent, love ye. 
Sifuni, praise ye. 
Fikirini, consider ye. 

B 2 



240 PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 

4. Snbetantiyes form the locative case by addiog -nL 

Nyumbani mvjanguj inside n\y house. 
Nyumbani hwangu, to or at my house. 
Nyuwbani pangu, by or near my house. All from Nyumba, 

5. -ni may stand for nini f What ? 

Watakani f What do you want ? 

6. Jef How? is subjoined to the verb expressing the action in* 
quired about 

Asemaje f How does he speak ? t.6., What does he say ? 

7. mnoy exceedingly, always follows the word it qualifies, and may 
be treated as an enclitic. 

8. 'to, which, however, rarely occurs in the dialect of Zanzibar, 
denotes goodness and fitness. 

Kuweka, to place. KuwekafOf to place properly. 
Manuka^ smells. Manukato, scents. 

9. The relative signs and the particles denoting time and place are 
Fiibjoined to the verb when there is no tense prefix, otherwise they 
follow the tense prefix. 

Tvlala-po, when we sleep. 
Tuna-po'lala, while we are sleeping. 

The particles denoting time and place are, 

-jjo, when or where. 
'koy whither or whence. 
•mo, wherein. 

These preceded only by the personal prefix imply the substantive 
verb to he. 

Yupo, he ^8 there, not far off. 

Zipo, &e., &e., they are there, not far ofi^ &c., &c 
Yuko, he is there, far off. 

Ziko, «fee, «fee, they are there, far off, &c, &c. 
Yumo, he is there inside. 

Zimo, d;c., &c., they are there inside, &c., &c. 

The relative signs are, -c7to, -lo, -o, "po, -vijo, -wo, -»/«, -yo, -zo. 
These syllables with na prefixed have the meaning of and, or tcith 
him, Iter, it, or them. 



FBELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS. 241 

10. 11)6 possessive pronouns may be nsed in enclitic forms. 

Tkyj or your, may be expressed by subjoining, according to the 
class of the substantive, -cho^ -Zo, -o, -po, -vyo, -wo^ ^yo, or -zo. 

HiSy here, or its, may be expressed by subjoining -^he, -e, -Uf -pe^ 
rye, -we, -ye, or -ze. 
Other enclitic forms of the possessive pronouns are,— 

-m/tt, or -an^ti, my. -e<t*, our. 

•hOf or 'Oko, thy. -enw, your. 

'IcBy or -o^, his, &c. "oo, tbeir. 

The final letter of the substantive generally merges into the initial 
of the pronoun. 

Mwananguy my child. Mwanetu^ our child. 

Mwandko, thy child. Mwanenu, your child. 

MwanahCf his child. Muoanao, their child. 

11. New verbs may always be formed when wanted by changing the ^ 
final vowel into -da or -ea, -lia or -Ua, to make the applied form; into 
'za or '8ha, -iza or -eza, -isha or 'csha^ to make a causative form ; into 
-ana, to make a reciprocal form ; and into -Z;a, 'ihoy or -«Zra, to make a 
neuter or quasi-passive form. 

12. In old and poetical Swahili the object of the verb is suffixed as 
well as prefixed, £ts in U-ni-Mfathi-mi, Do thou preserve me ; where 
both the ni and the mi denote the object of the verb. 

The syllables thus used are -choy -lOf -?t», -nyif -o, -jw, -«i, -ryo, "toe, 
'looy -ye, -yo, 'ZO. 

Having cleared the word of all adventitious terminations it wil 
probably be found at once ; if not, look for the first syllable, and so 
on, taking syllable by syllable until the word, its number, person, and 
tense, will all have been explained. It must, however, be borne in 
miod that nouns in u- or w- generally drop the initial letter in the 
plural and fre.quently substitute for it n- or ny-. 

Verbs and adjectives are here indexed under the first letter of the 
bimplest form, or of that to which the prefixes are joined, 

Kupenda will be found as Penda hu-, to love. 
Mahaya will be found as -haya, bad. 

Words which may be used as adjectives or as substantives, but from 
their nature can hardly be applied to any but animate beings, will be 
found under m- or mw?-, as they can very rarely in the singular take 
any other prefix. 



242 PREilMINAR Y OB SEE VA TIONS, 

Substantives are indexed by the prefix with which they are generally 
used. It must be remembered, however, that the use of particular 
prefixes may be nearly always varied to suit any particular shade of 
meaning, so that if the word is not to be found under one, it may 
happen that its meaning can be found under some other. 

Where no plural is mentioned, it is to be understood that the plural, 
if used at all, is in the same form as the singular. 

The following table of prefixes may be found peful. The use of 
each will be explained in the Vocabulary. 

Substantival prefixes. 

Ch- Ki- Ma- Mw- U- W- 

J. . Ku- Mi- N- Vi- Wa- 

Ji- M- Mu- Ny- Vy- 

Adjectival prefixes. 

Ch- Ku- *M- Mu- Ny- Vi- 

J- Kw- Ma- Mw- p. Vy- 

Ki- M- Mi- N- Pa- \Va- 

Pronominal prefixes. 

Ch- Ku- Li- Mw- Vi- Y- 

I- Kw- M- Pa- W- Z- 

Ki- L- Mu- U- Wa- Zi- 

Verbal prefixes. 

1. Personal or subjective prefixes, which take precedence of all 
others. 



A- 'Ki- 


♦Mw- Si- 


♦Vy. 


Yu- 


♦Ch- ♦Ku-- 


N- «Tu- 


♦W- 


♦Z- 


Ha- •L- 


Ni- ♦Tw- 


♦Wa- 


♦Zi- 


Hu- ♦Li- 


*Pa- ♦U- 


*Y- 


' 


•I- ♦M- 


♦P- ♦Vi- 


♦Ya- 




Tense prefixes which precede all except 


the signs 


of person 


•a- -j«ro- 


-ku- -na- 


-si. 


-ta- 


-ali- -ka- 


-li- -ngali- 


-eije- 


-taka- 


-ja- -ki- 


-me- -nge- 


-sipo- 





* These may all be preceded by Ea^ to form negative tenses In the indicative mood, 
and personal prefixes followed by -si- make negative subjunctives. 



r 



PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS, 213 



3. Particles of place, time, and relation, which follow the tense 
prefix, or, if there is no tense prefix, are subjoined to the verb. 



-cha 


-mo 


-wo 


-ko 


-0 


-ye 


-kwa 


-pa 


-yo 


-lo 


-vyo 


-zo 


4. ObjectiTe prefixes, which always immediately precede the verbl 


-i- 


-mw- 


•fl- 


-ki- 


-n- 


-vi- 


-ku- 


-ni- 


-wa- 


-li- 


-pa- 


-ya- 


-m- 


.tu- 


-zi- 



A suppressed 2 or r always exists between two consecutive vowels. 
It is often heard in the Merima dialect, and frequently appears where 
otherwise three or more vowels would follow one another. However, 
the more classical the Swahili, the less tolerant it is in any case of an 
I between vowels, or even as an initial letter. 

heee = Icdde. ete = lete. 

The following letters are interchanged ; 

I and r, s and sh, and vulgarly hi and chi, and th and z, 

Zanzibar ch = t (M.). 

„ e = a (M.). 

„ h = kh (Ar.). 

„ j =d(M.),y(A.)(N.). 

„ t =ch(Ozi.). 

„ V = z(A.). 

„ z = V (Mer.), th (Patta and Ozi.), j (vulgar). 

The letters enclosed in parentheses denote the various dialects. 
(M.) = Mombas (kimvita). (Mer.) = Southern Coast dialed 

(kimerima). 
(A.) = Lamoo (kiamu). (Ar.) = Arabic. 

(N.) = Poetical Swahili (kingozi). 



} 



SWAHILI-ENGLISH VOCABULAEY. 



The sound of a in Swahili re- 
sembles that of a in the English 
word "father." It is, perhaps, — 
except when doubled — somewhat 
sharper and lighter. 

When the final a of any prefix — 
except the negative prefix ha — is 
I brought by composition to precede 
imi^ddiately either e or ijit coalesces 
with them and produces the sound 
of a long e, 

Aka-enda is pronounced alcenda, 

Akawa'ita is pronounced dkavceta, 

A and u have a tendency to 
coalesce into an o sound. 

Arabic substantives incorporated 
into Swahili have often been made 
by changing -t- ia the verb into -o- 
in the substantive. 

Kubarizi, to hold a public 
audience. Baraza, a public 
audience. 

Kusafirif to travel. Safari^ a 
journey. 

A occurs in some dialects where e 
is used in Zanzibar. See E. 



A-NQ 

A = ya, of. 

-a with a varying initial letter, 

of. -a is used in such phrases 

as the following for in : Unitie 

wa machOf put it ^n my eyes. 

Akamchoma ya kitovUf and he 

stabbed him in the navel. 
A-y the sign of the third person 
singular prefixed to verbs when 
governed by substantives which 
denote animate beiugs — he, she^ 
or it. ; 

Where the tense prefix begins with 
a, one of the a's disappears. 

The following are instances of the 
way in which this a occurs. 

A-penda (for a-a'penda^ he loves. 

A-na-penda, he is loving. 

A-m-pendaf he has loved. 

A'li'penda (for a-ali-penda), he 
loved. 

A'ka-penda, and he loved. 

A-ta-pendaf he will love. 

A'ki-penda, he being in the con- 
dition of loving. 

A-nge-pendttf he would love. 



246 



A-NG 



AMI 



J-ngali-pendat he would have 

loved. 
A-Japo-pendaj even if he loves. 
A'Sipo-pendaj he not loving. 
A'pende, let him, or that he may 

love. 
A-si-pendet let him not, or that 
he may not love, or without his 
loving. 
-0-, the sign of the present in- 
definite; it follows the prefix 
denoting the person of the 
subject or nominative, and 
precedes that denoting the 
object or accusative. 
N-a-m-pendat I love him (I do 
him love). 
Aaliy choice, good. 
Adsi, disobedient, rebellious. 
Abadan, or abadi, always, constantly. 
Abiri ku-y to pass over, go across (a 
AHria^ passengers. [river, &o.). 

Abirisha ^u-, to put across, to ferry 

over. 
Abudia Jcu-, to give worship to. 
Abudisha ku-t to cause to worship. 
Ahudu ku-t to worship. 
Acka ku-,, to leave, leave alone, let 

be, let go, allow, acquit, divorce. 
Achana ku-, to leave one another, to, 

separate. 
Achari, pickle, a relish made of 

lemon-juice and red pepper. 
Achia ku-t to leave to or for, to be- 
queath to. 
Achilia ku-, to pass over what a 
person has done, to forgive, to 
neglect. 
Ada^ a custom, especially a customary 

gift. i 

Adahu, good manners, politeness. 
Kutia adahUy to make polite, to 
teach good manners. 



AdamUf Adam. 

Mwana Adamu, or Bin Adamu, a 
human being, a man. 
Adaway enmity. 
Adi ku-, to accompany a person part 

of his way. 
Adibu kU', to educate, ' to teach 

manners. 
Adili, right, right conduct. 
Adiliku; to learn to behave rightly. 
Adilisha ku-, to teach to behave 

rightly. 
Adui, plur. Adui or mctadui, an 
Aeey Yes. [enemy. 

Afa, plur. maafay an enemy. 
A/athaliy rather, better of the two, 

best, preferably. 
Afictj health, good health. 
Afikana ku-, to eome to an agree- 
ment, agree. 
Afiuniy opium». 
AfUy wild jasmine. 
Afu ku; to save, to deliver, to par- 
don, to preserve. Also, to get 
Afya, See Afia^ health. [well. 

Afya ku; to make to swear. 
Aga kU'f to take leave of, to agree 

with. 
Agana ku-, to take leave of one 

another, to make an agreement. 
Agga ku-, to be lost, to perish. 
Agiza ku-y to commission, direct, 

give in charge, appoint to. 
Agizoy plur. maagizo^ commissioiv 

charge. 
Agua ku-y to predict. 
Agulia ku-y to predict ofl 
Ahaa! No! 
Ahadi (vulgarly w?afcadiO, a promise^ 

promi^^es. 
Ahadiana ku-y to promise mutually, 

agree. 
Ahiliy family, relations. 



AHE 



AL 



217 



Ahera, in the grave,under the earth, 
af(er death, at the end of the 
world. [Ar. aJchr, the other.] 

Ahidi ku-f to promise. 

Ahsdntf or Ahsanti, or Asantij 
thanks! thank you I 

Aibika ku-^ to be disgraced, to be 
put to shame. 

Aibisba ku-, to disgrace, to put to 
shame. 

AibUj a disgrace, a reproach. 

Aina^ kind. 

Aini ku; to appoint. 

Ainisha ku-^ to show, point out. 

AUiwalOj pronounced Etiwalo, what 
he is wanted (or called) for, a- 
Uiwa-lo. 

Ajahisha ku-j to astonish, amaza 

AjabUf a wonderful thing, wonder- 
fully. 

Ajali, fate, death. 
Kusalimika ajali, to be altogether 
come to an end (to be saluted 
by its fate). 

Ajara, merit. 

AjibI or 'Ajah! Wonderful I Won- 
derfully. 

Ajili, or djilit sake, cause. 
Kwa ajili ya^ because of, for the 
sake of. 

Ajiri ku'y to hire. 

Ajirisha ku-, to cause to hire, to let 
on hire. 

*AjJemi, Persian. 

Aka ku-, to build in stone, to do 
mason* 8 work.* 

Akalij some few, some. 
Akali ya watu, ya vitu, &c., some 
few men, things, &o. 

•ake, ot -akwe, his, her, or its, of 
him, &c. 
-ake yeye, his own. 

Akenda, for Akaenda, and he went. 



Akhera = Ahera. 
Akhtilaf, to quarrel. 

Atafanya akhtilaf, she will scold. 
Akia ku'y to build for. 
AkHa ku-f to swallow, gulp down. 
Aki'ba, store, a thing laid by. 
Kuweka akiba, to lay up, to put 
by. 
Akida, an oflScer, a second in com- 
mand. 
Akida wa asikari, an army officer. 
Akidi ku-\ to suffice. 
AkiiBha or Akisha, then, he having 

finished this business. 
Akikay a funeral feast for a child. 
Akili, intelligence, wits, under- 
standing (generally treated as a 
plural noun). 
Akina, you — addressed to young or 
inferior persons. Akina hwana 
young sirs. Akina bibi, my 
young ladies. 
Akiri ku-, to stand over, to remain 

behind. , 

Akirisha ku-y to adjourn, put off, 

make to stand over. 
akoy thy, your, of thee. 
-ako wewe, your own. 
Akraha, relations. 
Akrdba ya kuumeni, paternal 

relations. 
Akrdba ya kukeni, maternal 
relations. 
Aly the Arabic article the. It is 
retained in many words derived 
from the Arabic, as Alf ajiri for 
Al Fajr, the dawn. Sometimes 
its form is varied, as Liwali for 
Al Wali, the governor. 
In Arabic phrases the deffnite 
article prefixed to the second of 
two nouns is the sign of the 
possessive case, as Eayiat al 



248 



ALA 



Ingr^y a subject of the Engliflh, 
i,e.f a British subject. 
Ala, plur.tnoalo or nydla, a sheath, 

a scabbard. 
Mtafca, a tusk of Ivory. x 

Alafuj thousands. 
Alam<h a mark, marks. 
AlaHriy one of the Mohammedan 
hours of prayer, about half-past 

3 P.M., afternoon. 
Albunteyidi (Ar.), of the sons of 

princes. 

Alf = Elfuy a thousand. 

Mfajiriy the dawn, the earliest Mo- 
hammedan hour of prayer, about 

4 A.M. A stress on the second 
syllable denotes very early dawn. 

Alfia. 

Kofin aJfia, a chiefs cap. 
Alhamisi, Thursday. 
-alt- or -li-, the sign of that past 
tense which denotes an action 
complete in past time. 
.Z» or -li- sometimes stands for 
the verb to 5e, as in a-li-ye, he 
who is, or merely, who. A-liy 
he is, or, he being. Nika-li, 
and I am. 
Alia hu; to make a mark by striking, 

to wale. 
AlifUf AUft the first Arabic letter, 

the alphabet 
Aliha hU't to invite, to call, to call 
invited guests to a wedding, to 
inform, to split, to click, to give 
a crack, to snap. 
Alikwa hu-s to go through a certain 
course of medicine, consisting 
chiefly of various fuuiigatious and 
a very strict regimen. 
Aliki ku-, to hang. 
AlikOj where he is, or was. 
Alimislia ku-, to instruct 



AMB 

Aliomoy wherein he is, or was. 
Alisa, a dancing place, a house of 

amusement. 
Alisha ku', to cause to snap. 

Kualitiha mtamho wa bundukit to 
click the lock of a gun. 
AUah (Ar.), God, more reverently, 

AUah ta'cda, God the most high. 
Allah Allaht without delay or pre- 
tence. 
AUah hiVcheiry may God make it 

good. A common answer to the 

usual morning and afteraoon 

salutations. 
Almaria, embroidery. 
AlmaHy a diamond. 
Ama — ama, either — or. 

Ama iiyo ? Isn*t it so ? 
Amali, an act, a thing done. 
Amali, a kind of amulet 
Amama (Ar.), a turban ? 
Amana, a pledge, a thing entrusted, 

a deposit, a present sent by anotbei 

person. 
Amanif peace. 
Amara, urgent business. 
Amara (ya nanga\ a cable. 
Aniba ku-, to speak against, to talk 

scandal, to speak, to say. 
Amha. See Ambaye. 
Amba>a Zcu-, to go near to without 

touching, not to reach, to leave 
Ambari, ambergris. [unhurt. 

Ambata ku-y to attach^ to stiok. 
Ambatana ku-, to cleave together, 

to be mutually attached. 
Ambatiza ku-., to make to stick. 
Ambaye or Ambaye kwamba^ who. 
The final syllable is variable, 

making ambajco, ambayo^ &c., 
which. 
Ambaza ku-^ to cause to pass near 
without touching. 



AM6 



AND 



249 



Amhia Jcu-^io tell, to say to. 

Pass. Ktiamhiwa, to be told, to 
have said to one. 
Ambika ku-^ to put (or be put ?) 

firmly together. 
Anibilika fcu-, to be spoken to. 
Amlmana ku-, to be cemented to- 
gether, to stick together. 
Anhuha ku-, to make to hold to- 
gether. 
Amhua ku-, to peel, to husk, to take 

a morsel in eating. 
Amhukiza ku-, to give a complaint 

to, infect. 
Amdelhan, a silky kind of stuff. 
Amerikano, American sheeting, best 
cotton cloth used in trading in 
the interior. 

NJia, &c., ya Amerikano, the best 
Amill ku-, to manage. [way, &c. 
Amina, Amen. 
Amini kn-, to believe in, trust. 

Kuamini mtu na kitu, to trust a 
taan with something, to entrust 
sornqthing to some one. 
Amini^ or Amini/u, trustworthy, 

faithful. 
Aminisha ku-, to entrust to, have 

perfect confidence in. 
-4mm, plur. maamiri, an emir, an 
Atrika ku-, to awake. [officer. 

Amkia ku-, to salute. 
Awkua ku-j to invite, summon (?). 
Amrawi, a dipping line, made fast 

to the foremost yard-arm. 
Arnrt, order, command. 

Amri ya Muungu, a matter in 
God's hands. 

Sina amriif &c., I have no busi- 
ness, &c. 
Amria ku-, to put a thing at one's 

disposal, to give leave concerning 

something. 



Amrisha lu-, to cause to be ordered, 

order. 
Amru ku', to order, command. 
Amiha ku-, to waken, cause to 

awake, rouse. 
Amu, Lamoo. 

Kiamu, the dialect of Lamoo, of 
the Lamoo kind. 
Amu^ fatlier's brother. 
Amua kU', to judge, to separate two 
people who are fighting. 

TaBsiYO, Kuamuliwa, to be judged. 
Amuka ku- = Amka ku'i 
Amuru ku- = Ami'u ku-, 
AmusTia ku- = Amsha ku-. 
Amwa ku*, to suck (M.). 
Amwisha ku-, to suckle (M ). 
Ana, he has. 
Anakotoka, whence he is coming, 

where he comes from. 
-anana, gentle, soft. 

Upepo mwanana, a soft breeze. 

Maji manana, clear, quiet water. 
Anayokwendai whither he is going. 
Anapolala, while he is sleeping. 
Anasa, pleasure. 
Andaa ku-, to prepare for cooking, 

to make pastry, &c. 
Andalia ku-, to prepare for, to make 

made dishes for. 
Andama ku-, to follow (M.). 

Mwezi umeandama, the month is 

up — the new moon has begun. 

Andamana ku-, to accompany (M.). 

Andika ku-, to put in order, to lay 

out, to describe, to write, to steer 

a vessel. 
Andikanya ku-, to put things one 

upon another, as plates in a pile. 
Andikia ku-, to write, to lay out, 

&c., for or on account of. 
Andikiwa ku-, to be written, laid 

out, &c., for. 



250 



AND 



ASH 



Andikiana hi-, to write to one I 
another, to correspond. I 

Anfu, knowing, ingenious. 
Anga, a great ligWt, the firmament. 

Ndege za anga, birds of the air. 
Anga ku-, to jump or dance about 

like a wizard. ^ 

Angaika few-, to be in a great bustle. 

Angalia ku-j to look attentively, 

regard, take notice, observe, be 

careful, beware of. 

Angama ku-, to be caught in falling 

(as by the boughs of a tree). 
Angamia ku-, to be ruined, to fall, 
come to poverty. 
utaangamia mwituni, you will be 
lost in the jungle. 
Angamisha ku-^ to ruin. 
Angaza ku-, to be light, to be bright, 
to remain awake, to keep watch. 
Kutia mwangaza, to give light to. 
^ngia ku-, to bewitch by dancing 

and jumping about. 
Angika ku-, to hang up, to hang 

against a wall. 
-^ngUy my, of me. 

, -angu mimu my own. 
Angtia ku-, to take down, to hatch 
Anguka ku-, to fall down. [eggs. 
Angukia ku-, to fall down to, or 

before. 
Angusha ku-, to make to fall down, 

throw down. 
Ania I*u-, to purpose, think of doing. 
Anika ku-, to spread out to dry. 
Ankra, a bill of sale. 
Anua ku-, to take out of the sun or 

rain. 
Anuka ku-, to leave off raining. 
Anwani, the address of a letter. 
Anza kU', to begin. 
The kU' is frequently retained, as 
Alikioanza for Alianza. 



Anziliza ku-, to make a beginning. 
Anzwani, Johanna. 
Ao, or. 

Ao — ao, either ^-or. 
-ao, their, of them. 
Apa ku-y to swear. 
Apendalo, wliat he likes. 
Apii where? 

The a sometimes is so run into 

the final a of the preceding 

word as to be scarcely separable 

from it. 

Apia ku'y to swear to, or about. 

Apisha ku', to make to swear, to 

a- 1 jure. 
Apiza ku', to swear at, to imprecate 

against, to wish bad luck to. 
ApizOj ^\ui.maapizo,an imprecation. 
Arahuni, Arabia, in Arabia. 
Arahtmif earnest money. 
Arathij pardon. 
Arha'a, four. 

^*Ari, a thing to make one blush a 
disgraceful thing. 
Aria, following, party, faction. 
Ariaa, lower ! let out the rope ! 
Arifu, knowing, ingenious. 
Ari/u kvr, to inform. 
Arobaini, forty. 
Arohatojiharay fourteen. 
Asa ku; to forbid. 
Asali, syrup. 
A salt ya nyuki, honey. 
Asali ya mua, the boiled juice of 

the sugar-cane, treacle. 
Asali ya tewbo, fresh palm wine 
boiled into a syrup. 
^Askara, ten. 
Affharini, twenty. 

AshekaH, better in health duriug 
sickness. 
Kuwa ashekaJi, to improve. 
Kufanya ashekali, to make bettiT 



ASH 



AZM 



251 



Asheratij dissipation» a dissipated 
person. 

Athiiki hu-, to love, to love ex- 
ceedingly. 

Ashiiia ku-j to make a sign to. 

Ashtir, customs duties. 

An ku', to neglect one's duty to, to 
rebel, to be disobedient. 
Kuasi mkewe, to quarrel with his 
wife, and not do his duty by 
her. 

Asikari, plur. asikarif or waasikarh 
a soldier. 
Kutia asikarit to enlist. 

Asili, origin, nature, source. 

Asisha ku-, to cause to leave, to 
cause' to cease. 

Asitasa, not yet. 

Assubui, in the morning. 

Asusa, that which assuages bitter- 
ness or pain, takes away an un- 
pleasant taste. Also Azuza. 

Ata, Atanay Atia, Atilia, (M.) = 
Aeka, Achana, &c. 

Atamia hu-t to sit on eggs, to hatch 

«ggs- 
Atamisha ku-, to put under a sitting 

Atguly average. [hen. 

Athahatisha ku-, to control. 

Afhama, highness. 
Mwenyi athama, the Most High. 

Athari = Hathari. 

AtMbu &U-, to chastise, to punish. 

Athihisha ku-, to punish. 

Athima = Atluvnm- 

Athimika ku-, to be exalted. 

Athini ku-, to call to public prayers. 

Athuuriy noon, one of the Moham- 
medan hours of prayer. 

Ati I look you ! I say I 

Aiihu, a fragrant herb used in the 
composition of kikuba, . 

Attiay gratuitously, for nothing. 



Atuka ku-j to crack as the earth 
. does in very dry weather. 
Av>a ku-y to make a survey of, to go 

over and look at. 
Auka ku-f to grow large enough to 

bear fruit. 
Auni ku-y to help^ 
Avya ku-f to produce, to spend, to 

give away. 
Awa ku; to go out or away (Mer.). 
Awala, a promissory note. 
Awali or Aowali, first, almost» 

nearly. 
Awaza ku-, to diispose, to allot to 

each his share. 
Awesia, a kind of dhow like a hedeni 
(which see), without any prow or 
head, with merely a perpendicular 
cutwater. 
Avnni /ctt-, to help, to supply, 
Awithi ku't to barter. 
Ayarif a cheat. 
AyarifO, pulley, the stay of a dhow'» 

mast. • 
Auasi, a sort of grass. 

Ayasi ya shaba, brass wire. 
Ayika ku-, to dissolve, to melt. 
Ayithi few-, to preach. 
Aza ku- = Waza ku-, to ponder, 

think. 
Azama, a nose ring. 
Azima, a charm used to bring back 
a runaway slave and to drive 
away evil spirits. 
Azima ku-, to lend. 

Azimwa ku-, to borrow. 
Azimia ku-, to make an azima 

against. 
Azimia ku-, to resolve. 
Azimu ku-, to resolve (generally 

pronounced dzimu). 
Azizi, a rarity, a curiosity. 
Azma, scent, fume. 



252 



AZU 



BAJ 



Azur, peijury. 
AzuzoL. See Astueu 



B. 



B has the same sound as in 
English. 

N changes into m before 6, as 
mbaya for n4>aya, b4d. 
nibiDa for n-bwa, a dog or dogs. 

Nw also becomes mh, 
mhingufoTn-wingu^the heavens. 
Ba, a shortened form of bwana, 
Baa,eYi\ 
Baoj plur. mdbaaf a worthless 

person, an utter reprobate. 
Baaday afterwards. 

Baada ya, after (used preferably 
of time). 

Baadaye, or haada yahe, after it, 
then, afterwards. 
Baathif some. 

Baathi ya watu, some persons. 
Baazi, a sort of pea growing on a 

small tree somewhat resembling 

laburnum. 
Bab (Ar.), a gate, chapter. 

Bah Ulaya^ goods for the Euro- 
pean market. 

Bah Kachiy goods for the Cutch 
trade. 
Bab U amanaj something entrusted* 

lent to one. 
Bahttt father. 

Baha mdogo, mother's brother. 

Baha wa kambo, stepfather. 

Baha wa waana, J ^^ ^^j 

Baha wa watoto, 3 
Bahaika ku-, to hesitate in speaking, 

to stutter, to talk in one's sl^ep. 
Bahata ku-, to pat, to tap, to flatten 

out 
BahUf grandfather, ancestors. 



Bahua ku-f to strip off. 

Bahuka &u-, to tear, to become torn. 

Badala or Badali, a thing given in 

exchange for something else, an 

equivalent. , 

Bddani, See Kaneu. 
Badili few-, to change, exchange, 

alter, become changed. 
Badilika ku-, to be changed, to be 

changeable. 
BadOy not yet, used generally to 
express that the matter in ques- 
tion is as yet incomplete. 

Bado kidogo, soon. 
Bafe, a kind of snake. 
Baftat a sort of fine calico. 
Bagala or Bdgaia, a buggalo, a 

large kind of dhow square in the 

stem, with a high poop and a 

very long prow. Most of the 

Indian trading dhows are of this 

build ; they have generally a 

small mizen-mast. 
Bdghala, a mule. 
Bagua &m-, to separate. 
Baguka ku-, to be separate. 
Bagukana ku-, to be in hostility, to 

be on two sides. 
Baharij sea. 

Bahari iVdli, the Persian Gulf. 

Bahari ya Sham^ the Red Sea. 
Baharia, a sailor, sailors, the crew. 
Bdhaiiha^ a square bag or pocket 

with a three-cornered flap to tie 

over the opening, frequently 

used to keep books in. 
BahatioTBakhtiy luck, good fortune. 

Bakhti miuy that depends on the 
Bahatisha ku-, to guess. [person. 
Bainiy &c. See Bayinif &c. 

Baini ya, between. 
Bajia, small cakes of ground beans 

and pepper. 



BAJ 

. \ 

Bajuni = Mgunya, 

BakakUf to dispute, to argue. 
* BahliUiy a miser, covetous, miserly. 

BakUL See Bdhati. 

Bdltiy tbe remainder, what is left. 

Bciki (in arithmetic), subtraction. 

Uahi ku'j to remain, 'to be over, to 
be left. • 

Biikora, ar walking stick with the 
top bent at right angles to the 
stem. The best are made of a 
white, straight-grained wood 
(mtob we), which will bend nearly 
double like a piece of lead without 
breaking or returning. 

Bakshaf a packet, of clothes, &o. 

BakuU, plur. mahcLkuli, a basin. 

Bakwia ku-, to snatch out of the hand. 

Balaa, sorrow. 
, Balamweziy moonlight, moonshine. 

Bdlanga, leprosy. 

BcUad, a large kind of water jar. 

Bali^ but 

BcUighiy a boy who is a virgin, a youth. 

Balungi, plur. mabadungt, a citron. 

Banibct, plur. mahamba, a plate, a 
flat thin piece. 

Bcunbo^ au instrument like a cheese- 
taster thrust into a bag to draw 
out some of its contents for ex- 
amination. 
Mahambo, large mats for beating 
out mtama upon. 

Bamvuat spring-tides. 

Bana ku-, to squeeze, press as in a 
vice. 

Banada, the Somauli coast. 

Banajiri or Banagiriy a kind of 
bracelet ornamented with points 
or blunt spikes» much worn in 
Zanzibar. 
■ Bandaj plur. mdbanda, a large shed 
Baiida lajrasi^ a stable. 



BAO 



253 



Bandctri, a harbour. 

Bandera, a flag, red stuff the colour 

of the Arab flag* 
Bandi, a Seam. 
Kupiga ha/ndi (ivt sewing), to 
tack, to run, to baste. 
Bandia, 

Mtoto wa handiay a doll. 
Bandika ku-, to put on a plaster or 

any medicament. 
Bandua ku-, to strip ofl^ to peel off. 
BanduJca ki^, to. peel off, to come 

out of its shell, to be peeled. 
Bangiy bhang, Indian hemp. 
Banika ku-, to roast on a spit over 

the fire. 
Bamya, a temple, a building, 

especially that at Mecca. 
Banja ku-, to crack nuts, &c., to 
break off the shell or husk by 
beating. 
Banyani, plur. mahanyani, used in 
Zanzibar as a general name for 
the heathen Indians who come 
as traders from Outch. 
Banza. 
Kujibanza^ to squeeze oneself 
against a wall or into a hedge 
to allow some one else to pass. 
Banzi, plur. mahanzi, a small thin 

piece of wood, a splint 
Bao, the tiller of a small craft (A.). 
Bao, a game in card-playing. 
Mabao sita = Mvumo. 
Kuiia bao, to mark, in card-play- 
ing. 
Bao or Ba^ la komtoe, a board with 
thirty-two > small holes, each 
about the size of a teacup, for 
playing a very favourite game 
also called bao^ with kornwe, or 
with pebbles. The holes are 
sometimes merely scooped out 



254 



BAP 



BAT 



in the ground, and any small 
things used to play with. 
Kucheza bao, to play at the above 
game. 
Bapa, the flat of a sword, &c. 
Kupiga bapa^ to strike with the 
flat of a sword. 
Bara, a species of antelope (Helgo- 

bagus arundinaceus). 
Bara or BarroL, wild country, coast. 
The Arabic name, Z^njibarr, is 
compounded of this word and 
Zenjox Zav^^dkVLQgxo : hence the 
Zanguebar and Zanzibar of our 
maps mean only the negro 
coast The Swahili name for 
Zanzibar is invariably Ungt^ja. 
Barr Fans, the piece of Persian 

coast belonging to Oman. 
Barr Swdhily the Swahili coast. 
Bardba, proper, just, exactly. 
Barahara, a broad open road. 
BarafUy ice. 

Baragumoj a spiral horn used as a 
musical instrument ; it is blown 
through a hole at the small end. 
Barai, an after brace carried on the 
lee side to /steady the yard of a 
dhow. 
Bardkcby a blessing. Also common 

as a proper name. 
Barakoay a mask reaching down to 
the mouth, universally worn by 
the women of Oman and Zan- 
zibar of the upper class. 
Barasi, a disease. 
BarathuU, an idiot, dupe, simpleton. 

Also harazuli. 
Barawaty a swallow. 
Baraza^ a stone seat or bench table, 
either outside the house or in 
the hall, or both, where the 
master sits m public and receives 



his friends ; hence the durbar, cf? 

public audience held by the 

sultan, and the council then held. 
Baridi, cold, wind. 

Maji ya hcuridi, fresh water. 
Baridiyabis, rheumatism. 
Bariki hu-, to bless. 

N.B. — Young people are said in 
Zanzibar to harikiy when they 
first have connection with the 
opposite sex. Girls are though t 
old enough between nine and 
ten. 
Barikia kvr, to give a blessing to, 

to greet. 
BariyoXA.), what is left from the 

evening meal to be eaten in the 

morning. 
Barizi &a-, to sit in haraza, to hold 

a public reception. 
Barra^ See Barci, 
Barua or Bdrua, a summons from a 

judge, a bill, a letter. 
BaruHy gunpowder. 
Barzvli, a fool. 
Batibasi, mace, the inner husk of 

the nutmeg. 
Baahire kheri! may it be lucky! 
Bashiri feu-, to prognosticate, to 

foretell by signs. 
Bashishi or BakhsMshi, a gift, a 

largess. 
Basiri ku-j to foresee. 
Basa or Baasi, enough, it will do. 

When it begins a sentence it 

means— well, and so, and then. 

When it follows a word or phrase 

it means^ust this and no more. 
Bcutola, a pistol. 
Bata, plur. mahata, a duck. 

Bata la bukiniy a goose. 

Bata la mzingaj a turkey. 
Batela, the oommon dhow of Zan- 



Bat 



BIA 



255 



zibar ; it han a square stern and 
an ordinary boat-like head. 

B<xHf tin, block tin. 

BcUil See Betili. 

BaiiK hu-^ to annul, to abolish, to 
reduce to nothing. 

BaQi^ the log (nautical). 

BatobatOf plur. ma-j various colours 
»nd marks on an animal. 

BaUf a wizard's fortune-telling 
board. 
Kupiga hau, to divine. 

Baura, a European anchor. 

Bavuni, alongside, at the side. 

Bcnoa, plur. mabawa, the \ring of a 
bird. Also, the scales of a fish. 

Bawabaf a hinge. 

Bawahuy ahouse-porter,^oor-keeper. 

Bawasir, hsamorrhdids. 

•^Hxya, bad. It makes mhaya with 
nouns like nyumba. 

Bayifd ku-, to recognize, to know. 

Bayinika ftu-, to be notorious, to be 
well known. 

Bayinisha ku-, to distinguish be- 
tween, separate distinctly. 

Bazazi, a trader, especially aicheat- 
ing, over-sharp trader, a huck- 
ster. ' 

Be&a ku-, to carry (a child) on the 
back in a cloth. 

Behera, a he-goat given to covering, 
strong, manly. 

Bedarif the fixed lower pulley for 
hoisting a dhow sail and yard, 
bitts to which and through which 
the jirari are passed and secured. 

Bedenif a kind of dhow with a per- 
pendicular cutwater, or merely a 
piece of board by way of prow, a 
sharp 8t6m,and high rudder head. 
• The mast of a bedeni is per- 
pendicular ; in other dhows it | 



! bends forward. They come from 
the Arab coast. 
BeCf a bargain, a trade, transaction. 

Beekf for LeheJm, 

Begat plur. mabega, the shoulder. 

Bekewa, the inner court in a stone 
house. All large house» in Zanzi- 
bar are built round an inner 
coui-t 

Beina, between. 

Beina yako nini f what do you know 
about it ? Compare Bayini. 

Bekua ku-, to parry, \o knock oflf a 
blow. 

BelghamUj phlegm. 

Benibe, food and confectionery 
cooked by a woman for her lover, 
and sent to him during the 
Bamathan. 

Bembeleza ku-, to beg. 

Bembesha ku^y to swing. 

Bembeza ku- \ to beg, to caress, to 

Bembeleza ku- j pat. 

Benua ku-, to put forward, to stick 
out. 
Kubenua kidari, to walk with the 
chest thrown forward. 

Benuka ku-, to warp. 
Kubenuka kiko ktoa kiko, to warp 
and twist this way and that. 

Besa, vulgar Arabic for pesct, Ben- 
teen = Pe8a mbilL 

Beseray canopy of a bedstead. 

Beiela = Batela, 

Betty a pouch for shot or cartridges. 

Beti (Ar.), a house, a line in verses. 

Betili or Batily a dhow with a very 
long prow, and a sharp stem 
with a hi^ rudder head. They 
generally belong to the Shemali, 
or Persian Gulf Arabs. 

Beyana, legible, clear. 

Bia. 

82 



256 



BIA 



Kula Ua, to subscribe to a meal 
in common, to go shares in a 
meal. 
Bicuihara, trade, commerce. 
Kufanya hiasharaf to trade. 
Mfanyi hicuharckf a trader, a mer- 
chant. 
Bibi, grandmother. It is used as a 
title answering to my Jadyy and 
for the mistress of slaves. 
Biboy plnr. mahibo, a cashew apple. 
'hichi, fresh, green, unripe, raw, 
under-done. It makes nibichi 
with nouns like myumiba. 
Bidii, effort to surpass, emulation. 
Bikira, a virgin. 
Bikiri ku; to deflower. 
Bikuhi, gratis, for nothing. 
BUaurit a drinking glass. 
Bildi, ihe lead (nautical). 
Bilisi = Iblifj the deviL 
Billa, except by. 
BUula, a tap. 
Bimay insurance. 

Bima ku-y to insure against acci- 
dents. 
Binadamuy a human being (a son 

of Adam). 
Bindo, the loin-cloth held up to 
receive or carry things, a bundle 
in a cloth. 
Kukinga Undo, to hold up the 
loin-cloth to receive things. 
Bingwa, shrewd, knowing. 
Binti, daughter. Women in Zan- 
zibar are generally mentioned by 
their father*8 name only, as, Binti 
Mohammedf Mohammed's daugh- 
ter. 
BirikatphiT. mabirika,B. large vessel 

for holding water, a cistern. 
Birinzii a dish compel of meat, 
rice, pepper, &c. 



BOM 

Bisha ku, to knock or cry Hodi ! at 
a door to attract the attention of 
the people within. It is held 
very wrong to go beyond the 
entrance hall of a hopse unlets 
invited in. 
^u^Aitf-, to work in sailing. Also, 

to make boards. 
Bishana ku-^ to squabble, to quarrel. 
Bishara, a sign, a good sign. 
Bisho, tacking, working to the wind- 
ward. 
Upepo wa bisho^ a foul wind* 
Bisi, parched Indian corn. 
Bitana, lined, double, used of clothes 
wherever there are two thick- 
nesses. 
BUhaaf goods, merchandise. 
-bivu or -trtVtt, ripe, well done. It 
makes nibivu with nouns like 
nyumba, 
Biwi, plur. mahimt heaps of garden 

rubbish, leaves, wood, &c 
Bizari, a small seed used in making 

curry. 
Bize, a wild hunting dog. 
Bizimay a buckle. 
'bo/u or -ovu, rotten, bad, malicious. 
Boga, plur. maboga, a pumpkin. 
Boga is used as a general word 
for edible vegetables. 
Bogi = Ponibe, 

Bogoa fcu-, to strip off leaves, to tear 

apart, to chop away wood in 

making a point ? 

Bohari or Bokhari, a storehouse, a 

house with a shop and worerooms. 

BokOy a buffalo (?). 

Bokoboko, a kind of food made of 

wheat, meat, &o. 
Bokwa, jack fruit [Tumbatu], 
Boma, plur. mabomay a heap of 
stones, a rampart 



BOM 



BUN 



257 



Bombay a pump. 

Bomboromokay plnr. ma*. See Boro- 
mdka. 

Bomoa ku-, to make a hole through, 
to break down. 

Bomoka ku-, to have a hole bro'ken 
through it, to be broken down. 

Bongo, plur. mdbongo, brains, mar- 
row. 

Bonfhj a bridge, a pier. From the 
French pont 

Bonyea ku-, to give way, to crush 
Id. 

Bmyetha ku-, to press so as to sink 
in, to make an impression with 
the fingers. 

Bonyeza ku-, to examine by feeling 
and pressing. See Tomasa. 

Boonde, a valley, a hollow place. 

Bora, great, very great, noble, best, 
most. 

Bori, the bowl of a native pipe. 

Boriti, a rafter, thick poles cut in 
the mangrove swamps and laid 
flat to support the stone roofs. 

Borohoa, a dish made of pounded 
pulse with flavourings. 

Boromoka ku-f to fall down a preci- 
pice. 

Boromoka, plur. mo-, precipices, pre- 
cipitous places. Also homboro- 
moka, plur. mo-. 

Borongaiboronga ku-yio make a mess 
of one's work. 

BorosJioa, a long-shaped black in- 
sect found in dunghills. 

Boruga ku-, to stir, to cut up weeds. 

-hovu or -ovu, rotten, bad. 

Boza, a narcotic made by mixing 
bhang with fluur and honey. 

Bozihozi, idle, dull. 

Brdmini, an agent (working for two 
per cent, commission.) 



Bua, p] ur. mahua, the stem of millet. 
Buba, rupia, applied to various skiu 

diseases. 
Buhti, (A.), a teat. 
Btibuy plur. mabvhUj dumb. 
Bubujika ku-y to bubble out, burst 
forth. 

Kububujika machoziy to burst into 
tears. 
Bubur (M.), dumb. 
Bvddiy escape, other course. 

8ina buddi, I have no escape, ie., 
I must. 
Buetay a box. Also bweta, (From 

the French, boUe.) 
Bugay a hare (?). 
Bughuthu ku-y to hate. 
Buhuriy incense. 
Buibui, a spider. 
Buki or Bukiniy Madagascar. 
Bukiy a kidney. 
BukUy a very large kind of rat. 
Bully plur. mabuli, a teapot. 
Burnhuaziy perplexity, idiotcy. 

Kupigwa na bumbuaziy to become 

confused and abashed, so as not 

to be able to go on with one's 

business. 

Bunibwi y rice flour pounded up with 

scraped cocoa-nut. 
Bumiay sternpost. 
Bumundaypiwc, mahumunday a sort 

of soft cake or dumpling. 
Bundiy a native bird, an owl. Owls 

are thought very unlucky. 
Bundukiy a gun, a musket. 
Bungala, a kind of rice; 
Bungo, plur. mabungoy a kind of 

fruit something like a medlar. 
Bungu, plur. mabunguy a dish. 
Bungu la kupozea uji, a saucer to 

cool gruel in. 
Buni, raw coffee, coffi e-berries. 



258 



BUN 







Bum, an ostrich. ^ 

Bunif (Ar.), sone, the sons of. 
Bunt ku; to hegin, to be the first to \ 
do a thing, to invent. i 

Bunju, a poisonous fish. , ' 

Bunzi, plur. mahunzif a stinging 

fly. 

Buothu ku-, to hate. 
BupurUj plur. mahupuru, an empty 
shell. 

Bupuru la kitwa, a skulL 
Burangeni, of two colours, neither 

black nor white ; also painted of 

different colours, as a dhow with 

a white stripe. 
Buratangi, a whirring kite. 
Bardu. 

Marashi ya Burdu, eau-de- 
Cologne. 
Buri, large-sized tusks of ivory. 
Burianif a final farewell, asking 
a general forgiveness. 

Kutakana buriani, to ask mutual 
pardon and so take a last fare- 
well. 
Burikao, Port Durnford. 
Burre, for nothing, gratis, in vain, 

for no good. 
Buruda, a book of the prayers used 

over a dying person. 
Burudiku ku-, to be refreshed. 
Burudisha hu-y to cool, to refresh. 
Buruga ku-, to mix up, to knock 

together. 
Buruhanii token, evidence. 
Buruji, battlements. 
Burura ku-^ to drag, to haul along. 
Bvsarcu, prudence, subtlety, astute- 
ness. 
Busati, a kind of matting made at 

Muscat. 
BushasJii, a thin sort of stuffl 
Bushti, tow, a gun -wad. 



Bushuti, woollen stuff, blanket, 

Bustaniy a garden. 

Bu8u, a kiss. 

Buxu ku-f to kiss. 

Buu, plur. mabuu, maggots ir mefit ^ 

(M.). 
Buyu, plur. mcibuyuy2k calabash, the 
fruit of the baobab tree, useS 
to draw water with. 
Bvjiif plur. maibuzi, a very large 

goat. 
Bicaga. ku-, to throw down what 
one hcLS been carrying; to tip 
off one's head, &c.; to rest by 
throwing down one's burden. 
Kubwaga nazi^ to throw down 
cocoa-nuts. 
Bwana, master of slaves, master of 
the house, lordysir, used politely 
in speaking of one's own father. 
Bwana mdogo, master's son. 
Bwanda = Gwanda, 
Bwara, 
Reale ya hwara, c dollar under 
full weight» a 5-franc piece. 
Bweta. See Bueta. 



C is required only in writing the 
sound of the English ch or of the 
Italian c before i and e. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar ch 
frequently stands for the < of more 
northern Swahili, as — 

Chupa, a bottle (Zanzibar) = 
tupa (Mombas). 

Kucheka, to laugh (Zanz.) = 
Kuteka (Momb.). 

C/ii, in the vulgar dialect, and 
amongst the slaves in Zanzibar, 
stands for ki in the more correct 
language. Several of the tribes in 



/ 



CRA 



259 



the interior follow the same rule as 
the Italian in always pronouncing 
the same root letter ch before e and 
€, and k before a and o. 

Thus slaves commonly say, Chttu 
chidogOyA little thing, for Kitulci- 
dogo. 

As a rule, in all Swahili where 
the preformative ki has to be pre- 
fixed to an adjective or pronoun or 
tense prefix beginning with a vowel, 
it becomes cA, thus — 

Kku c^n^tt, my knife, not Kieu 
kiangu. 
' KUu chakata, the knife cuts, not 

, Kisu kiakata. 

'KUu ehema eho chote, every good 
thing whatsoever, not KUu 
kiema kio Mote, 

Where ch represents kiy as the 
initial sound of a substantive, the 
plural is made by changing ch into 
vy. 

€%am5o, a vessel, FyomlK), vessels. 

But where ch stands for <, the 
plural is made by prefixing ma. 

Machupay bottles. 

Miichunguooy oranges. 

The Arabs confound in their 
pronunciation ch with eh, though 
the sounds are in Swahili perfectly 
distinct 

It would perhaps be an improve- 
ment to write all ch^a which repre- 
sent ki by a simple c, which has 
been used for this sound in Sechuana, 
and to write all ch*a which repre- 
sent i by tyy which has been used 
for this sound in writing Zulu. But 
both are here represented by ch, 
because at least in the infancy- of 
our studies it is puzzling to have 
two signs for one sound, and neither 



way of writing might be quite satis- 
factory in all cases. 

Thefe is little doubt that the 
northern t becomes ch by the addi- 
tion of a y sounds as the same sort 
of change takes place with d, which 
becomes dy or j, and sometimes 
with n, making it ny or the Spanish 
ii. The same sort of change in 
English vulgarizes naturp into 
nachur, and iTidian into Injun, 

Ch' = ki'y whicli see. 
Ch', a prefix required by sub- 
stantives beginning with hi- or 
ch- representing ki-, in all pro- 
nouns and adjectives beginning 
with a vowel, and in tenses of 
the verb where the tense prefix 
begins with a vowel. 
Cha, ot 
Many quasi-substantives may be 
made by prefixing cha to a 
verb, kUu being understood, as 
chakula X^ thing), of eating, 
food. 
Cha or Chayir tea. 
Cha kU', to fear [A.] (the ku- bears 
the accent, and is retained in the 
usual tenses). 
Cha kii', to dawn, to rise [of the sun] 
the kU' bears the accent, and 
is retained in the usual tenses. 
Kwmekuchat the dawn (it has 

dawned). 
Kunakucha, the dawning. 
Usiku kucha, all night till dawn, 
all night long. See Chwa, 
Chaanzu, the beginning of a piece 

of ukiri, 
Chacha ku-^ to ferment, leaven, 

work. 
Cha^haga ku-f to wietsh clothes by 



2G0 



-CHA 



CHA 



dabbing them gently on a stone 

or board, not to beat them so hard 

as is implied in the more common 

word kufua. 
-chachef few, little, not many or 

much. It makes chaehe with 

nouns like myumba, 
Chaehia Teu-, to come with a press, 

to come much at once, to burst 

upon one. 
Chachu, bran, leaTen, ferment. 
Guifi, a kind of fish. 
aiaft. 

Chafi cha mguuj calf of the leg = 
ta/u. 
ChafUj plur. mdchafu, the cheek, 

especially that part which is oyer 

the teeth. 
Chafua Icu-^ to put in disorder, 

disarrange. 
Chafuka kw, to be in disorder, in 
dishabille. 

Mopo umeehafuka^ (I) feel sick. 
Chafukachafuka ku-, to be all in a 

mess, to be all tumbled about 

and in confusion. 
Chaftto, a poisonous horse-fly. 
Chafya ku-y or kupiga chafya, or 

kwenda ehafya^ to sneeze. 
Chagaa = Tagaa, 
Chago, land crabs. 
Chagoy the place where the head is 

laid (on a kitanda, etc.). 
Chagua, kw, to pick out, select, 

garble. 
Chaif or Chayiy tea. 
Chakaa ku-^ to become worn out, 

to become good for nothing 

through age or use. 
CJiakey or ehaktoe, his, her, its. See 

-ake, 
Citnkif chalk, whitening, putty. 
Cliakoj thy. See -aka. 



Chakogea = IKitu] eha knogea^ a 
thing to bathe in, a bath. 

Chakula, something to eat, food, a 
meal. 
Chakula tha mbui, breakfast. 
Ckakula eha mehanaf ^ino^i^' 
Chakula ehajioni^ supper, which 
is the chief meal of the day. - 
Plur. vyakulay victuals. 

Chalet a cut or gash made for orna- 
ment. 

Chalij backward, on his back. 

Chama^ a olub, guild, band of 
people. 
Waana ehama, naembers of it. 

Chamba chajicho, a white film over 
the eye. 

Chambo, plur. vyamhOf a bait. 

Chambua ku-j to dress, clean, pick 
over, as to pludk off the outer 
leavesof vegetables when sending 
them to market, to .pick the 
sticks and dirt out of cotton, to 
pick cloves off their stalk^^ 

&Q. 

Chanibulia ku-, to clean up, to dress 

up work or things. 
ChamhurOf a plate for wire drawing. 
Chamchda, 

Pepo za chamehela, a whirlwind, 
Cha^maha kanwa (something to 

wake the mouth), something 

eaten first thing in the morning. 
Ghana = Tana, 
Chana ku-^y to comb. 
Chanda, plur. vyanda (M.), a finger, 

a toe. 
Chandalua, an awning, a mosquito 

net. 
-ehangdy young, immature. 
Changa ku-, to sift away chafiT and 
husks. 

Kula kwa kuehanga, a feast 



CHA 



CHsy 



261 



irhere each contributes some- 
thing to the entertainment. 
Changa'mka ku-, to be genial, to be 

hearty and pleasant. 
Chanaamtuiha ku-, to cheer up. 
Changanya ku-, to mix. 
Changanyika ku-, to be mixed. 
Uhanganyii^ ku-, to perplex. 
C^an^arotr?, girt,little white stones 

like those in coarse saitd. 
ChangOy plur. vyango, a peg to hang 

things upon. 
Chango, small intestines, xound 

worms. 
ChangUj a kipd of fish. 
Ckangu, a tribal mark (?). 
Changuj my. See -angu. 
Chani = Tani, on the back, back- 
ward. 
Chania ku-y to comb for, &c. 
ChanikiwUi, green. ' 

Chanja ku-j tocut up [firewood, &c.]. 
Chanjtwa /c«-, ndui, to be cut for 

small-pox, to be vaccinated. 
ChanOy plur. vyano, a large wooden 
^ plattor, a mortar-board. 
Chanua ku-, to put forth leaves. 
ChaOt their. See -ao, 
Chapa, pkir. . machapaf a stamp, 

-a «&apa, printed. [typ©» 

Kwpiga chapa^ to print. 

Chapa ku-, to beat, to stamp. 

Chapachapa^ wet through, all 
dripping. 
Chapeo, a hat. From the French 

ehapeau (?). 
Chappa or Chappara, excessively. 
Chapuo, a sort of small drum. 
Chatu, a python, a crocodile (?). 
Chavu, plur. ryaiw, a net. 
-ekitm, filthy, unwashed. 
Chawa, a louse. 
Chayi, tea. 



Chaza, an oyster. 

ChazOf a sucker fish. ^ 

Cheche, a small box (such as a 

lucifer-box). 
0%ecAe,abrownmangouste. Also = 

ohechi, 
Chechet a spark. 
Chechea /fu-, to walk lame. 
CkecheUy an absent person, one who 

goes far beyond where he in- 
tended to stop through inattention . 
Chechemea ku-, to be lame. Also, 

to reach up, stretch up to. 
Chechi, plur. macl^echiy a spark. 
Chegua ku-^ to choose. 
Cheka ku-y to laugh, to laugh at. 
Chekelea Z^u-, to laugh at, because of. 
ChekOf plur. macheko^ a laugh, a 

loud laugh. 
Chelea ku-, to fear for, about, &c. 
Chelema, watery. 

Chelewa kuj to be overtaken by 
something through thought- 
lessness, to wake up and find 
it broad daylight, to be struck 
foolish, to be dumbfounded. 
Also, to be too late. 

Sikukavna wala sikuchelewaf I 

did not delay, and I was not late. 

Cheleza ku-^ to keep, to put on one 

side, to put off. 
CheUzea kvk-, to keep or put aside 
Chdezo = Chilezo. [for. 

Chembey a grain, grains. 
C%em6e,plur. vyemhe (N.), an arrow, 

the head of an arrow or a harpoon. 
Chembe cha moyo (A.), the pit of 

the stomach. 
Chemheuy a chisel. 
Chemchemy a spring of water. 
Che*mka ku-, to boil, to bubble up. 
ChenezOy plur. vyenezoj a measuring 

rod, line, &c. 



262 



CHE 



CTHI 



Chenga Jcu-y to cleave, to cut wood, 

to prune. 
Chenge chenge^ small broken bits. 
Chenja = Chenza, 
Ohenut your. See -enu, 
Chenyi, having, with. See -enyi, 
Chenza^ a large kind of mandarin 
orange. 

Chenza za leiajjemiy Persian, i.e,, 
good chenzas. 
Cheo, plur. vyeo^ measurement* 

measure, length, breadth, &c., 

position in the world, station. 
Chepechepe, wet, soaked with rain, 

wetted. 
Chepulea ku- = Chipuka, 
Oierawiy a well-known mangrore 

swamp in the island of Zanzibar. 
Cheree, a grindstone. 
Cherevuj cunning, subtlety. 
Cherkhana, machine. 

Cherkhana cka ktuihona, a sewing 
Cheruwa^ measles. [machine. 

ChetezOy plur. vyetezOy a censer, a 

pot to fume incense in. 
Chetij plur. vyetif a pass, a passport 
ChetUf our. See -etu, 
Chewttf a kind of fish. 
Cheza ku-, to play, to dance. 

Kucheza gwaridi, to be drilled 
in European fashion. 

Kucheza komari, to play for 
Chezay a kind of oyster. [money. 
Cheza ku-y to play with. 

Kuchezea unyago, to deflower a 
virgin (?). 
Chi = Ki-, 
Chichat the scraped cocoa-nut after 

the oil has been squeezed out. 

It is sometimes used to rub on 

the hands to clean them of grime, 

but is generally thrown a way as 

refuse. 



Chichirij a bribe. 

Chikapo = Ktkapu^ a basket 

Chikichi, plur. machikichi, the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 
Kichikichi, plur. vichikichi^ the 
small nuts contained in the 
fruit of the palm-oil tree. 

Chilezo, plur. vilezo, a buoy. * 

Chimba kit-, to dig (M, timha). 

Ckimhia ku-, to dig for (H. timbia). 

Chimbia ku- = Kiwbia ku^, to iim 
away. 

Chimbua ku-t to dig out or away. 

ChimbukOy origin, first beginning, 
source. 

Chini, down, bottom, below. 
Yuko chini, be is down stairs. 
Chini ya, under, below. 

Chinja ku-, to cut, to slaughter 
animals by cutting the throat, 
which is the only manner allowed 
by the Mohammedan law, hence 
generally to kill for food (M. 
kutinda)* 

Chinkij a smjall yellow bird kept in 
cages. 

Chinusiy a kind of water sprite, 
which is said to seize men when 
swimming, and hold them un- 
der water till they are dead, (?) 
cramp. 

ChinyangOy a lump of meat 

Chipuka, &c. = Chupuka, &c. 

Chipukizi, a shoot, a young plant 
See TepukuzL 
Chipukizi ndio nUi, children will 
be men in time. 

Chirtkiy a small yellow bird often 
kept in cages. 

ChirOy chironi = Choo, choonL 

Chiroko = Oiooko^ a kind of pulse. 

Chiti = Chetiy a note of hand, a rote 
of any kind. 



CHO 



OHO 



263 



Cho, -eho, 'cTkh, which. 
Che chote, whatsoever. 

Choa^ ring^^orm. 

ChfM^ ku', to poke out from, out 
uf a hole. 

Chochea hu-, to make up a fire, to 
turn up a lamp. 

Chochelezea hu-, to stir up and in* 
creasd discord, to add fuel to the 
fire. 

Ckofya ku: See Chovya, 

Choka ku-, to become tired. 
Niinechokckf I am tired. 

Chokaat lime. 

Chokea, a stye in the eye, hordeolum. 

Chokoa ku'i to clear out, to free 
from dirt, enlarge a small hole. 

Chokochoko, a kind of fruit with a 
red prickly rind, white pulp, and 
a large kernel. 

Chokcra ku-, to pick (with a knife, 
&c.). 

Cbokora, plur. machokoray a hanger- 
on, a follower, a dependant. 

Chokoza ku-, to teaze, to irritate. 

Chole, a place on the island of Zan- 
zibar famous for cocoa-nuts ; also, 
the chief town of Monfia. 

Choma ku-^ to stab, to stick, to 
prick, to dazzle. Vulgarly in 
Zanzibar — to vse fire to in any 
way, to bum, to roast, to parch, 
to fire, to apply cautery, to bake 
pottery. 

ChombOy plur. vyombOf a vessel, a 
pot, a dhow. 
Vyombo is used for household 
utensils, things used in a 
house, goods. 
(Jhomea ku-. See Choma ku^, 
Chomeka ku-, to be stuck into, to be 

set on fire. 
Ch(ymelea ku-, to take out a bad 



piece of cloth, thatch, &c., and 

put in a new one. 
Chomoza ku-, to be hot 
Chonga ku-, to cut, to adze, to hollow 
out, to cut to a point. 

Kuchonga kalamu, to make a pen. 
ChoTnge, canine teeth, cuspids. • 
Chongea ku-, to cut for, or with. 
Chongea ku-, to do a mischief to, to 

get (a person) into trouble, to 

inform against. 
Chongdeza ku-, to carry tales, to 

backbite. 
Chongoy loss of an eye. 

Kuwa na chongo, to have lost an 
eye. 

Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed person. 
Chongoka ku-, to be precipitous. 
Choo, plur. vyoo, a privy, the bath- 
room^ which always contains one. 
Chooko, a small kind of pea, very 

much resembling the seeds of 

the everlasting pea of English 

gardens. 
Chopa, plur. machopa, such a quan- 
tity as can be carried in the two 

hands. 
CJiopi. 

Kwenda chopi, to walk lame in 
such a manner as tliat the lame 
side is raised at every step. 
Chopoa hu-, to drag out of one's 

hand. 
Chopoka ku-, to slip out of the hand. 
Clwra ku-, to carve, to adorn with 

carving, to draw on a wall. 
Chorochoro, scratclies, marks. 
CJioropoka ku-, to slip out of one's 

hand. 
Choveka ku-, to put into water, to 

steep. 
Chovya ku-, to dip, to gild. 
Chosha kur, to tire, to make tired. 



2G4 



CHO 



CHU 



Chosi = Kisoze. 

Chota Ttu-^ to make up a little at a 

CAote, all. See -ote, [time. 

C^otTtt, weary, tired. 

ChoyOf greediness, avarice. 

Mwenyi choyo, a miser. 
Chthi^ plur. machoziy a tear, a tear- 
drop. 
Chvhl shtl nonsense! 
Chvbua ku; to take the skin off, to 

bruise. 
Chvhuachubua lew, to bruise about, 

to batter. 
Chubuka fcu-, to be raw, to be 

bruised. 
Chuhwi, a plummet. 
Chuchu ya ziwa, a teat. 
Chuchumia ku-, to stretch up to 

reach something. 
Chui^ a leopard, leopards. 
Chuja ku; to strain. 
Chujuka ku', to have the colour 

washed out. 
Chuki^ the being easily disgusted 
or offended. 

Ana chuki huyu, he is easily put 
out. 
CJtukia kU'y to be disgusted at, to 

abhor, to hate, not to bear. 
Ohvkiwa ku-, to be offended. 
Chukiza ku-y to disgust, to offend. 
Chukizisha ku-^ to make to offend. 
ChukUj a cupping horn. 
Chukua ku-f to carry, to carry 
off, to bear, to support, to sus- 
tain. 

Kuchukua mtmha, to be pregnant. 
Chvkulia ku-, to carry for a person. 

Pass. kuchukuUwa, to be carried 
for, to have carried for one, to 
be borne, to drift. 
ChukvXiana ku-, to bear with one 

another. 



Chukuza kU', to make, to carry, to 

load. 
Chtda or Chura, plur. vytdaj a frog. 
Chumay plur. vyuma, iron, a piece 

of iron. 
Chuma ku-y to pluck, to gather, to 

make profit 
Ohumba, plur. vyumhaf a room. 
Chufnviy salt. 

Chumvi ya haluliy sulphate of 
Chuna kuj to flay. [magnesia. 

Chunga ku-, to pasture, to tend 

animals. 
Chunga ku-y to sift. 
Ghungu, plur. vyungu, an earthen 

cooking pot. 
Chunguy ants. 
ChungUy a heap. 

Chungu chungu, in heaps. 
-chungUy bitter (ttchungUy the 

quality of bitterness). 
Chungulia ku-, to peep. 
Ckungwa, plur. ma^hungway an 
orange. 

Chungwa la kizungu, a sweet 

orange. 

Chunika ku-y to lose the skin, to be 

Chunjutty a wart. [flayed. 

Chunuka ku-, to love exceedingly, to 

long for. 
Chunuzi « Ckinusi. 
Chunyuy an incrustation of salt, as 

upon a person after bathing in 

salt water^ 
ChuOy plur. vyw)y a book. 

Chuoniy school. 

Mwana tea chuoniy a scholar, 
learned man. 
Chupay plur. machupOy a bottle. 
Chupia kthy to dash. 
Chupulta ku' or Chipuka ku-y to 

sprout, become sprouted, to shodit, 

to spring. 



CHU 

Chupuza Tcu-t' or Chipuza kUf to 

sprout, to throw out sprouts, to 

shoot, to spring. 
Churuhiza kur, to drain out. 
Chttrurtka ku- = Churuzika ku'. 
Churuwat measles. 
Churuza ku-, to keep a stall, to 

trade in a small way. 
Churuzika ku-, to run down with. 

Kuchuruzika damu^ to bleed 



DAM 



265 



ChusMLf plur. vyussa, a harpoon. 

Chuuza = Churuza. 

Chwa kit; to set (of the sun). The 
kit- bears the accent and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mchana kuchwa, or kutwa^ all 
day till sunset, all day long. 



D has the same sound as in 
English. It occurs as an initil 
letter chiefly in words derived from 
the Arabic. 

L or r and t become d after an 
n. fie/tt, long, makes kamba nde/u, 
a long rope, not nrefu. 

Kanitafutia, and seek out for me, 
when pronounced quickly becomes 
Kandaftia. 

D in the dialect of Mombas be- 
comes j or dy in that of Zanzibar. 

Ndoo! Come (Momb.). Njoo! 
(Zanz.) 

See Oand j; 

Doha, a small tin box. Also, a fool. 

Dacha kuy to drop. 

Dada, sister, a term of endearment 

among women. 
D w ku', to pry into things, to 



ask impertinent and unnecessary 
questions. 

Dafinaj a hidden treasure. 

Daftarif an account book. 

Dafu, plur. madufu, a cocoa-nut 
fully grown before it begins to 
ripen, in which state it supplies a 
very favourite drink. When the 
shell has begun to harden and 
the nutty part to thicken, it ceases 
to be a J)a/u and becomes a 
Koroma. 

Pagaa, a kind of very small fish 
like whitebait. 

Da^gla^ a short coat, 

Dai ku; to claim, to sue for at 
law. 

Daka ku-, to catch, to get hold of. 

Dakikaf a minute, minutes. 

DakUf the midnight meal durin»: 
the Ramathan. A gun is fired 
from one of the ships at Zanzibar 
about 2 A.M., to give notice that 
the time for eating is drawing to 
a close. The name is said to be 
derived from the saying : — 

** Leni ttp««i, keg?u> kuna ndaa kuu." 
** Eat quickly, to-morrow t|iere will be 
great hunger." 

DakuUza ku-^ to contradict, to deny 

formally, to rebut. 
Dalali, a salesman, a hawker, an' 

auctioneer. 
Dalitty a yellow composition much 

used as a cosmetic : it is said to 

give softness and a sweet smell 

to the skin. 
Dalili, a sign, a token. 

Eatta dalili, auytliing at all, even 
a trace. 
Dama, a game played on a board 

like chess. 
Damani = Demani, 



2G6 



D.AM 



Datnu, blood. 

Danga 7cu-j to take tip carefully, as 
they take up a little water left 
at the bottom of a dipping place 
to avoid making it muddy. 
Panganika ku-t to be cheated. 
Danganikia ku-, to pUt to coufuiion. 
Vanganisha ku-, to confuse. 
Danganya ku-y to cheat, to humbug, 

to impose upon. 
Danzi, plur. madanzi, a bitter, 
scarcely eatable sort of orange. 
The Danzi is reputed to be the 
original orange of Zanzibar. The 
name is sometimes applied to 
all kinds of oranges, and sweet 
oranges are called madanzi ya 
Ktzungu, European (Portuguese) 
oranges. 
Dao. See Dau, 
Dapo, plur. madapo, a native 

umbrella. 
Darahif plur. madardbi, a rose 

apple. 
Daraja, a step, a degree, a rank, a 

staircase, a bridge, a league. 
DarasayA class for reading, a regular 

meeting for learning. 
Dariy a roof, an upper floor. 

Darinii up-stairs, or, on the roof. 
Darizi, embroidery, quilting. See 

also Kanzu. 
Darumeti, part of a dhow, inner 

planking. 
Dasili, a detergent powder made 
of the dried and powdered leaves 
of the mkunazi, 
Dasturi. See DesturL 
Daut plur. madau, a native boat 
sharp at both ends, with a square 
mat sail. They are the vessels 
of the original inhabitants of 
Zanzibar, and ohiefly bring fire- 



DEU 

wood to the town from the south 
end of the island. 
Davlatiy the government. 
Dawa, plur. dawa or madatcc, a 
medicine. 
Dawa ya kuhara^ a purgative. 
Dawa ya kutapika^ an emetic. 
Dawamu ku-, to persevere. 
Dawaiij a writing desk. 
Dayimay always, perpetually. 
Dayimara = Dayima. 
Debe, tin can. See Data. 
Deheniy lime and fat for ehunam- 
ming the bottoms of native craft. 
Deheni ku-, to ehunam the bottom 

of a dhow. 
Deka ku-y to refuse to be pleased, 

to be perverse, to be teazing. 
l!>elkiy a donkey's walk. 
Kwenda delki, to walk (of a 
donkey). 
Dema, a kind of fish-trap. 
Demaniy the sheet of a saiL 
Demaniy the seasoa of gentle 
southerly winds, beginning about 
the end of August. . It is applied 
less correctly to the whole season 
of southerly winds from April to 
the end of October. 
Dendaro, a sort of dance. 
Denge, 
Kukata denge, to shave the hair 
except on the crown of the head. 
jDewgftt, peas, split peas. They are 
not grown in Zanzibar, but are 
brought dry from India. 
Deniy debt, a debt, debts. 
Deraye (?), armour. 
Deeturiy a sort of bowsprit, to carry 
forward the tack of a dhow-sail. 
Desturif custom, customs^ 
DevMy a silk scarf worn round the 
waist 



DEV 



DUA 



267 



Devai, claret, light wine. 

Dia, composition for a man's Kfe, 

fine paid by a murderer. 
Dibaji, elegance of composition, a 

good style. 
Didimia ku-, to sink. 
Didimikia ku-, to bore with an awl, 

Didimiska ku-, to sink, to cause to 
sink. 

Digali, part of a native pipe, being 
the stem which leads from the 
bowl into a vessel of water 
through which the smoke is 
drawn. 

Diko, plur.madikoj a landing-place. 

Dimu, a lime. 
I>imu tamu, a sweet lime. 

Dinif religion, worship. 

THra, the mariner's compass. 

Diriki ku-, to succeed in one's pur- 
pose by being quick, to be quick 
enough to catch a person, to be 
in time. 

Dirisha, plur. madirisha, a window. 

Diwaniy plur. madiwaniy a council- 
lor, a title of honour among the 
coast people. 

Doana, a hook. 

Dobij a washerman. 

Doda ku'j to drop. 

Dodo. See Embe, 

Dodokiy plur. madodokiy a long 
slender fruit eaten as a vege- 
table. 

Dodoa ku-, to take up a little at a 
time. 

VofrOj plur. madofra, a 8ailmaker*8 
palm. 

-dogo, little, small, young, younger. 

Dohaauy Dokhaan, or Dohani, a 
chimney. 
J^rikebu ya dcHuMM^ a steamniip. 



Hence Dohani, or Dokhanij a sort 
of tall basket in which fruit 
is brought on men's heads to 
market. The foundation is 
made of sticks about two feet 
long, loosely tied together, 
which are supplemented with 
plaited cocoa-nut leaves, until 
the whole becomes perhaps six 
feet high and fifteen to twenty 
inches in diameter. These 
dohani are often decked with 
flowers and green leaves. 
Dokaa ku-t to nibble. 
Dokeza ku-, to give a little part of 

anything, to give a hint 
Dokra, a cent. 
Domo. 
Kupiga domo, to tell a person in 
confidence. 
Dona ku-y to peck. 
Donda, plur. madonda, large sores. 
Donda ndttgu^ malignant ulcers. 
DondOy pi. madondoy a tiger cowry. 
Used to smooth down seams with. 
I>on(2o, stMrch, the dressing of calico. 
Dondoa ku-, to pick up small frag- 
ments, to pick up rice, &c., to 
pick up bit by bit. 
Dondoka ku-, to drop from little by 
little. 
Mbegu zimenidondoka, the seeds 
dropped from my band one by 
one. 
DondorOj Dyker's antelope. 
Donea ku-, to flutter like a bird^ 
Donge, plur. madonge, a small round 

thing, a ball. 
Donoa ku-, to peck, to sting. 
Doti, a loin-cloth, a piece of cloth a 

little less than two yards long. 
Doya ku-, to go as a spy. 
Duo, worship, theology. 



268 



DUA 



Duara, a windlasg, anything round. 
Dude, plur. madude^ a what-is-it ? 

a thing of which yon don't know 

or have forgotten the name. 
Dndu, plur. maduduy an insect, 

insects. > 

DaduvulCf a kind of hornet which 

hores in wood. 
'dufu, insipid, tasteless. 
DtjJca, plur. maduica, a shop. 
Dukiza ku-, to listen secretly. 
Dukiztf plur. madukizi, an eaves- 
dropper, a tale-bearer. 
Dunitrnza, a plant having big yellow 

flowers with dark centres. 
Dumia ku-, to persevere. 
Dumuha ku-, to make to oontinne. 
Dumu, a jar (?). 

JDumu ku-f to continue, to persevere. 
Dun, a fine. 
Dunduj plur. madundu^ a large 

pumpkin shell used to hold 

liquids. 
Dunge, the green skin of the ca- 
shew nut) an immature cashew 

nut. 
Dunguy plur. madungu, the roof 

over the little stages for watching 

corn, &c. 
DumgumarOf a kind of spirit, also 

the drum, &c.., proper for expelling 
Duni, below, less. [him. 

Danidy the world, this world. 
Durahiuif a telescope, an eyeglass. 
Kupiga durahini, to use a glass, 

telescope. 
Duru ku-y to surround. 
Durusi ku-f to meet in a regular 

class for study. 
Dusamali, a striped silk scarf or 

handkerchief worn upon the head 

by women. 
Duumif a dhow saiL 



Duzi^ plur. maduzif one who de- 
lights to find out and proclaim 
secrets and private matters. 



E. 

E has a sound between those of a 
in gate and of at in chair. 

In the dialect of Zanzibar it is 
often substituted for the a of more 
northern Swahili, especially as re- 
presenting the Ai&hio /eVha, 

Merikehtkf a ship, is ii\ the 
Mombas dialect Marikabu, and in 
the Arabic Markah. 

The sound of e often arises from 
the fusion of the final a of a prefix 
with an e or i which follows it, as — 

Akenda for A-ka-enda^ and be 
went. 

Akaweta for A-ka-wa-ita, and he- 
called them. 

Some of the c€tses in which e in 
the Zanzibar dialect stands for a in 
northern Swahili may be explained 
by the substitution at Zanzibar of 
in for a mere 'n, as in the word for 
" land " or country," which is *nti 
at Mombas, with so mere an *n that 
the vowelof the precedingword may 
be run into it, as in the saying — 

** Mvunddnti^ mwandnH." 
**A country cAn be mined (mly by tte own 
children." 

Whereas in Zanzibar, besides the 
usual change of t into c/i, the firs;! 
syllable has generally a distinct i 
sound, and may be better written 
inchi. 

Thus at Mombas the root of the 
adjective *' many " seems to be ngi, 
making the substantive ** plenty,** or 
*♦ a large quantity," ungif and with 



KBB 



END 



26J) 



the proper prefix "many people," 
wa-ngt. But in Zanzibar ** plenty " 
is W'ingij and "many people** vjengi, 
as if toa-ingi, 

!Ebhe, for Lebeka. 

Ebu! Eehol well then 1 come then I 

JSda. 

Ku TcaUa eda^ to remain in ex- 
treme privacy and qniet for five 
months, as is usual by way of 
mourning for a husband. 

Edashara, eleven. 

Ee! 0\ 

Me Waa loxEe Wallah ! the common 
answer of slaves and inferiors 
when called to do something, a 
strong assent. 

JEejna (M.) = Derrui, a kind of fish- 
trap. 

Egemea hu-y to lean* 

EheelYesl 

EherdlUj a provocation, an irritating 
word or thing. 

Wcua kU', to break by bending. 

Mkuka ku-^ to be sprung, to be 
broken. 

-^undu, red. . It makes jekundu 
with nouns like ka^ha, and 
nyekundu with nouns like ny* 

Ela (M.), except. lumba. 

Elafuy thousands. 

Elea kU', to float, to become clear. * 
Moyo wammeleaj he feels sick (M.) 
Yamekueleai Do you under- 
stand ? Have they (my words) 
become clear to yon? 

Eleka ku-f to carry a child astride 
on the hip or back. 

Elekea ku-, to be right, to agree, to 
be opposite to. 

Elakeana ku-, to be opposite to one 
another. 



Elemuiha kth, to teach, instruct 
Eleza kth, to make to float, to swim 
a boat, to make clear, to explain. 
Elfeen or Elfain, two thousand. 
Elfu, a thousand. 
Elimisha ku'f w instruct, to make 

learned. 
Elimu, or dimth, learning, doctrine. 
-ema, good, kind. It makes jema 
with nouns like kcuika, and njema 
or ngema with nouns like nyumba. 
-emhamha^ narrow, thin, slim. It 
mtikeBJemhamba with nouns like 
kaehayAnd nyembamba with nouns 
like nyumba. 
Embey a mango. In Mombas the 
plural is Ma^embe, in Zanzibar it 
ia Embe. 
Embe dodo, or Embe za dodo, a 
very large kind of mango, so 
named from a plantation in 
Pemba, where they first grew. 
Enibe kinoo, a small kind of 
mango which is yeiy sweet. 
Embwe, glue, gum. 
Embwe la vbuyu, a kind of paste 
made from the fruit of the 
calabash tree. 
Enda kw-, to go. The kw- is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Kwenda is often used merely to 
carry on the narration without 
any distinct meaning of going. 
Sometimes it is employed as 
an auxiliary, nearly as we say 
in English, he U going to do 
it» Sometimes it expresses 
an action merely, as KvJenda 
cha/ya, to sneeze. Kwenda and 
Kupiga used in this way can- 
not be exactly translated. 
Kto^nda kvaa mguu, to walk. 
Kwenda tembea, to go JTor a walk. 



270 



END 



ESK 



Kwenda mghad, &c., to go oanter- 

ing, fte. 
Kufenda zangu, zdhOj sakey Ac, in 
other dialects, vyangu, vffoke, 
&0.J and {kaitguj thake, &c.,' to 
go away, to go, to go one's way, 
to depart. 
hnehwenda twaUwar, they have 
gone to fetch it 
Endea hw-, to go for, to, or aiBter. 
EndeJca hw-y to be passable, to be 
capable of being gone npon, to 
be gone npon. 
Endelea kw-, to go either forward 
or backward. 
KwendeUa nibele, to advance. 
Kwenddea nyuma, to retire. 
Endeleza ku-, to spell, to prolong. 
Enea ku-j to spread, to become 

known. 
Enenda ku-, to go, mostly in the 
sense of to go on, to proceed, to 
go forward. 
Enenza ktt-, to measure together, to 

try which exceeds the other. 
Eneo, the spread, the extent covered. 
Eneo la Muungu^ God's omni- 
presence. 
Eneta ku-, to spread, to cause to 
spread, to cause to reach. 
Muungu aitiemtfjineza ktUa nUu 
riziki take, God has put within 
the reach of every man what 
is necessary for him. 
Enga ku-, to split miAogo for 

cooking. 
Engaenga ht-, to coddle, to tend 

over carefully. 
Engua ku-, to skim. 
-««», your, of you. 

-enu ninyi, your own. 
Enyi or Enyie, You there! You 
there, I say I 



-enyi, having, possessing, with. Tt 

makes mwenyi, wenyif yenyi, 

zenyi, lenyi, chenyi, vyenpi, and 

penyi, which see. 
Enza ku', to ask news of a person. 
Enzi, or Ezi, sovereignty, dominion, 
majesty. 

Mwenyi ezi, the sovereign, he ^ho 
is supreme. See Ezi, 
Epa ku; to endeavour to avoid (a 

stone, stroke, ftc.) ' 
Epea ku'y not to go direct to, to 

miss a mark, not to shoot straight 

(of a gun). 
Epeka ku-, to be avoidable, to be 

what can be got out of the way ofL 
-epesiy light, not heavy, easy, quick, 

willing. It makes jepesi with 

nouns like kasha, and nyepen 

with nouns like nyuwha. 
Epua kw, to brush or shake off, to 

take away. 
Epuka ku; te be kept from, to avoid, 

to abstain from. 
Epvkana ku-, to be disunited. 
J^kika ku', to be evitable. 

Haiepukiki, it is inevita(>lc. 
Eptesha ku; to make to avoid, to 
keep from. 

Epushwa ktt-, to be kept from, to 
be forbidden something. 
-erevu, subtle, shrewd, cunning. 
Erevuka ku-, to become shrewd, to 

get to know the ways of the 

world, to grow sharp. 
Erevusha ku-, to make sharp and 

knowing. 
Eria ku-, to ease off, let down. See 

Ariaa. 
E^va, the latest Hohammedan hour 

of prayer, which may be said to 

be from half-past 6 to about 

8 p.m. 



ESS 



FAH 



271 



&9e (7), a screw. ^ 
-etUf our, of us. 

^u M#i, our OTm. 
JEua ku-, to sprinkle wUh water 

«lUr praying by way of charm 

against a disease. 
-eupet white, dear, clean, iight- 

oolonred. It makes jeupe with 

nomis like kcuhOf and nyeupe with 

nonns like nyumbcu 
-eupeCf very white. 
..MiM, black, dark'coloored. It 

makes jeim with nonns like 

Tccuhttt and nyeim with nonns like 

iryumba. 
Etcaa = Ee Wna, 
Bme! Ton there 1 Hi I I say, you 1 

plur. Enyi. 
Eta ku-^ to measure. 
Mieha ku-, to thatch, to cover with 

thatdi. 
Ezi = Enzi, sovereignty. 

Mwenyi ezi Muungu, 6r Mwenye- 
z<mngUf Almighty Ood, God 
the Lord, representing in Swa- 
hili the AUah ta'dla, God the 
Most High, of the Arabic. 
Ezna ku; to uncover. 

Kuezna paa^ to strip a roof. 



P. 

F has the same sound as in 
English. 

J* and V are confounded by the 
Anibs, though in Swahiii perfectly 
distinct, thus :— 

Ku-ftta means— to be profitable ta 

Ku-vda means — to put on. 

There is, however, in some mises 
A little iadistinctnesa, as in the 
common termination ifu or ivu ; the 



right letter is probably in all cases 
a v. 

The Arabs in talking Swahiii 
turn p^B into/*s, and esLjfunda for 
punda, a donkey ; and conversely, 
some slaves from inland tribes turn 
fa inlK>p*8. P, however, does some- 
times become/ before, a y sound, 
as kuogopa, to fear, kuogofya, to 
frighten. 

There is a curious fy sound used 
in some dialects of Swahiii, which 
is rarely heard in Zanzibar. 

Fa hi-t to die, perish, cease, fade 
away. The ku- bears the ac- 
cent, and is retained in the usual 
tenses. 

Faa ku-t to be of use to, to avail, 
to be worth something. 
Haifaij it is of no use, it won't do. 

Faana ku-, to be of use to one an- 
other, to help one another. 

Fafanisha ku-, to liken. 

Fafanua ku-, to recognize, to under- 
stand. 

Fa/emtika ku-, to become clear. 

Fafanukia ku-, to be clear to. 

Fafanulia ku-, to make clear to. 

Faganzi ku-, to become callous. 
Mguu ftangu umenifaganzt, my 
foot is asleep. 

Ftigia ku-, to sweep. 

FaJiali, plur. maffdiaU, a bull, used 
of men in the sense of manly, 

Fahamia. ' [strong. 

Ewa kufahamiaiUL.), on the face, 
forward. 

Fahamisha ku-, to make to imder- 
stand, to remind. 

Fahamn ku-, to understand, to re- 

. member. 

FaJiari = FaJchari, glory. 



272 



FAJ 



I'AT 



Eufanya faJuiriy to lire beyond 
one's means and station. 
Faja la/rasij a stable. 
FakefcL, geuerou8,a generous person. 
Fakhaiiy glory, 
Fakiriy pow, a poor person, 
Fala ku-f (Mer.) = Faa ku-, 
Falaki, or fdlak, astronomy. 
Kupiga /aldki, to prognosticate 
by the stars. 
Fait, an omen, omens. 
Fana ku-, to be very good of its 

kind, to become like (?). 
Fanana ku-, to become like, to 

resemble. 
Fananisha ku-, to make to resemble. 
Fanikia /cu-, to turn out well for. 

Kufanikiwa, to prosper. 
Fanusi, a lantern. 
Fanya ku-, to make, to do, to adapt, 
to mend. 
Kvjifanya, to make one's self, to 

pretend to be. 
Kufanya kura, to cast lots. 
. Ku/anya ahauri, to take counsel. 
Fanyia ku-, to do or make for or to. 
Mkufanyiejef What am I to do 
with you ? 
Fanyika ku-, to be made or done, 

makable or doable. 
Fanyiza ku-, to amend, to mend. 
Fanyizika ku-, to be very good, to 

be well done. 
Fara or Farafara, brimful, full to 

the brink. 
Faragha, privacy, secrecy, leisure. 
Faraja, comfort, ease after pain. 
Farajika ku-, to be comforted, to 

be eased. 
Farakana ku-, to be alienated. 
Farakiana ku-, to be alienated in 

regard to one another. 
Farakuha ku-, to alienate. 



Faranga, pi. mafaranga, a diiekeo, 

a young fowl. 
Farasi or Frasi^ a horse, in Arabic 

a marei ^ 

Fartji'ku-, to comfort, to console. 
Fariki ku-, to become separated, lo 

decease. 
Fdrine, a kind of rice and milk 

gruel. 
Farishi ku-, to spread. 
Fantha, pay. 

Faroma, a block to put caps on 
after washing them, to pi-eveut 
their shrinking. 
Farrathi, necessity, obligation^ obli^ 

gatory. 
Farrathi, a place one habituallj 
goes to. 
The ih of this word is the Eng- 
lish ih in that, the ifi of the 
preceding word is a little 
thicker. 
Farumi, ballast. 
Fashifashi, nonsense. 
Fashini, the stempost of a dhow. 
Fasihi, correct, clean, pure. 
Fasili, spreading. 

Huna dsili, wala fdsili, you liave 
neither root nor branches, ic, 
neither good birth nor great 
connections. 
Fasiri ku-, to explain, to interpret 
Fasiria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 
Fataki, a percussion cap, a gun cap. 
Fatlum, restlessness, disquiet 
Fatkaika ku-, to be troubled, dis- 
quieted, thrown into confusicm. 
FaihaU=Afathalt, preferably. 
FaiIiali=F^thai. 

Fathehi ku-, to put to confusion, 
to find out a person in a trick, 



PAT 
FaihUi, a fkvour, a kindness, kind- 



FI^ 



273 



FcUhili ku-t to do a kindness, to 

deserve well. 
FcUihay a Mohammedan form of 

prayer. 
Fatiishi ku-, to pry, to be over 

curious. 
Fatduku'f to getpast, to get through, 

to weather. 
Fawiti ku; to delay, to occupy, to 

hinder. 
Fayidaf profit, gain, advantage, 

interest. 
Fayidi ku-, to get pro£t. 
Fayiti ku-, to delay. 
Fayitika &«-, to be delayed. 
Faz<ia, trouble, confusion, anxiety. 
Feka ku' '= Fieka ku-, to clear 

forest lands. 
Fele/ele, an inferior kind of millet. 
Feleji or Felegi, a choice kind of 
steel. 

Upanga wa feleji, a long straight 
two-eclged sword, used by the 
Arabs. 
Feleii ku-, to discharge, to release 

from an obligation, to release. 
Fdi, plur. mafeli, a beginning of 

speaking or doing. 
Fereji, a channel, a drain. 
Ferusaji = Forsadi. 
Fetha, silver, money. 
Fethcduka, Marijani ya fethcduka, 

the true red coral. 
Feiheha, a disgraceful thing, a 

shame. 
Fetheheka ku-, to be found out in a 

disgraceful thing, to be put to 

shame^ 
Fetiwa ku-, to be condemned or 

adjudged to [a punishment]. 
Feiwa fet*-, to give judgment on 



a question of Mohammedan 

law. 
Feuli, the place in a dhow where 

they stow things which may be 

wanted quickly. 
Fi. by. 

Sahafi sdba, seven times seven. 
Fia ku; to leave behind, to die to. 

Pass. Kufiwa na, to lose by 

death. 
Fiata ku-, to hold one's hands or 

one's clothes between one's legs. 
Fiatika ku-, to be kept back, to be 

delayed. ' 

Fiatua ku-, to allow a spring to 

escape, to let off. 
Fiatuka ku-, to escape (as a spring). 
Fviha ku-, to hide. 

Kunificha kofior, to hide a cap 
from me. 

Kunifichia kofia, to hide my cap. 
Fidi ku; to ransom (of the price 

paid). 
Fidia, a ransom, a sacrifice (giving 

up). 
Fidia ku-, to ransom (of the person 

paying). 
Fidina, mint (?). 
Fieka ku-, to clear. 

Kufieka mvntu, to clear ground 
in a forest. 
Fijia ku-, to disappear, to cease to 

be visible (as a scar or a mark ; 

it does not imply motion), to 

pine away, (of seeds) not to 

come up. 
Figa, plur. mafiga, the three stones 

used to set a pot over the fire 

upon. See Jifya. 
Figao, a movable fireplace. 
Figili, a kind of large white radish. 
Figo, kidney (M.). 
F^a ku-, to arrive, to reach, to come. 



274 



riK 



FOB 



Fikara, thought. 

Fikia A;u-, to reach a person. 

Fihicha ku; to crumble, to rub to 

pieces, to rub hard, to thresh 

corn. (Used also obscenely). 
FikUia Jcu-, to come to a person on 

business oi his, to arrive and 

return without delay. 
FtkUiza ku-, to cause to arrive for. 

Kufikiliza aJiadi, to fulfil a pro- 
mise. 
Fikisha ku-, to make to arrive, to 

lea4, to take. 
Fikiraj thought, consideration. ' 
Fikiri ku-, to consider, to ponder. 
FU, a chess castle or rook (in 

Arabic, an elephant). 
FUa ku- = Fia kw. 

AfiU mhaUj that he may die out 
of the way. 
FUimhi, a flute. 
FUisi ku; to take away a man's 

property, to seize for debt. 
Filisika ku-, to come to want, to 

have been sold up, to have run 

through all one's money. 
Fimhoy a stick. 
Finessiy plur. mafinessi, a jack fruit. 

Finessi la kizungu, a duryan. 
Fin§irika ku-y to roll along, to be 

rolled, to writhe like a wounded 



Fingirisha ku-, to roll, to make to 

Finya kit-, to pinch. [roll. 

Finyfina ku-, to be pinched to- 
gether, to be gathered up small 

Finp(m§a &»-, to do potter's work, 
to make pots, to tread and 
trample. 

Fionya ku*^ to ohirp, to make a 
chirruping noise with the mouth» 
to do so by way of showing con- 
tempt 



Fira kth, to commit sodomy* 
Firana ku-, to commit sodomy to- 
gether.. 
Firigisif the gizzard. 
Firinghi = Firigiau 
Firkoniba, an eagle (?). 
Firuziy a turquoise. 
Fisadij one who enters other peo-* 
pie's houses for a wrongful pur- 
Fisha ku', to cause to die. [pose. 
Fist, a hy«na. 

Ftaidi ku-, to enter other pec^le's 

houses for a wrongful purpose, 

to commit an offence is. another 

man's house. 

Fiihtdi = Fidhuli, officious, over 

talkative. 
Fitinoy slander, sowing of discord, 

a disturbance. 
Fitini ku-, to slander, to saw ^* 

eord. 
Fitiriy alnvi and presents giv«i at 

the end of the Ramathan. 
FUo (plur. of tf^), long slender 

sticks. 
Fiwa ku'j to be died to, to lose by 
death, 
Mtoaiiamke aliofitea na mum^tM, 
a widow. 
Fiwe, a sort of bean growing on a 
climbing plant with a wMIq 
Fofofu, [flowt:r, 

Kufafofqfu, to die outright^ 
Foloy a gift expected from thoM 
who first touch a new-bom baJby, 
paying your footing. 
Foramalh a ship's yard. 
FoniMsh, 

DanmU yaformaah, a workboz^ 
Foraadi, a small kind of edible 

fruit, mulbeirietf. 
Fortha, a custom-house. 
Furthani^ at the cu&tom-liouae. 



FRA 



^UM 



273 



Frasy FravC, or FataMy a horse, a 

mare. 
Frasi, a chess knight 
-/u, dead. 

Uaji mafuy neap tidea 
JPtio, a wooden bowl. 
Fua ku^ to beat (?>, to wash clothes, 
to clear the hu^ from ooooa- 
nuts, to work ii^ metal, to make 
things in. metal. 

Kuftia ehumaf to be a blacksmith. 

Kufuafetha, to be a silversmith. 

Kufua thahdbu, to be a goldsmith. 

Kufua hutty &c., to forge a knife, 
Sso. 
Fuama ht^, to lie can the face 

(Momb.). 
Fuata hu; to follow, to imitate, to 

obey. 
Fuatana hu-, to accompany, to go 

with. 
Fuatanisha &u-, to make to accom- 

pamy. 
Fuaioa kur, to lie on the side and 

be beaten by the waves, as when 

a vessel goes ashore broadside on. 

Pass, of fua (?y 
Fuawe, an anvil. 
Fucha=iFuta, 
Fudifudv, on the Cause (of ftdlibg^ ox^ 

lying). 
Fudikiza kw-^ tb tnnr bottom op' 

wards,t0 tnm card» backs upper- 
most. 
Fufua ku; to canse tb revive, to 

resuscitate. 
Fufuka kvr, to revive, to come to 

life agam. 
Fufvliza ku-9 to cause to come to 

life again fat some one. 
Fufumonyey in the kiteh^i (Pemba). 
Fuga ku-j to keep animtii either 

tame op ib captivity. 



Fug&M hu-r to be capable of being 
kept, to be capable of domesti- 
cation, not to die in captivity. 

Ft^a ku-y to waste, to squandi», to 
leak. See Vujeu 

Ft^ika kvr, to moulder» waste away. 

Fujo, disorder, uproar. 

FujofujOf slovenliness, laziness. 

Ft^a, a land of thin porridge. 

Fuku ku't to fill in a small hole. 

Fuha mothi ^u-, to throw oat smoke, 
to fume. See Vvke, 

Ftikaray very poor. 

Fukia kfj^ to fill up a small hole. 

Fukiza ku', to cense, to put the 
fuming incense-pot under a per* 
son's beard and into his clothes, 
by way of doing him honour. 

Fukizoy vapour, fumes. 

Fuko (?), a mole. 

Fuko, pbir. ma/ukoy a large bag. 

Fiiktta ku^, to dig a small ncurow 
hole, such as those to reoeiye the 
posts of houses; to dig into a 
grave so as to get at the body ; to 
dig out, to dig up. 

Fukua/uktOJb ku-, to burrow, 

Fukuta fctt", to blow with bellows. 

Fiikuza ku-t to drive away, to chase. 

Fukuzana kw-, to chase one another. 

Fttkuzia At*-, to drive away from. 

Fulia kwt to work in metal for, to 
make things in metal for. 

Fulifidiy on the face, forwards. 

Fvliza ku^ to go en, not to stop ; 
also, to blow upon,'to kindle. 

^uUaniy such- a one, such and such 
men or things. 

Fultdiza ku-, not to stop 'or delay 
to go on fast 

Fuma ku-^ to weave. 

Fuma ku-», to hit with a Sf ear, to 
shoot with arrows. 



276 



FUM 



FUN 



Fumania tcu-, to oome raddenly 
upon, to surprise, intrude. 

Fumaniana Xrtf-, to intrude into 
people's houses without reason- 
able cause. Those who do so 
have no remedy if they are beaten 
or wounded. 

Fumatitiy an owl (?). 

Fumba ha-, to close, to shut (used 
of the eyes, the mouth, the 
hand, &c.). 
Maneno ya/unibat a dark saying. 
Makuti ya fumha, cocoa-out 
leaves plaited for making en- 
closures. 

Fumhay a lump. 

Furnba, a kind of sleeping mat, 
which is doubled and sewn to- 
gether at the ends, so as to make 
a large shallow bag. The sleeper 
gets inside, and draws the loose 
edge under him, so as to be com- 
pletely shut in, 

Fumbatahurt to close the fist , to grasp. 

Fumbatika ku-, to be grasped. 

Fumhia ku-, to talk darkly^ 

Fumbo, plur. mafumbo, a dark say- 
ing, a hidden thing. 

Fumbtia ktir, to unclose, to open the 
eyes, &c. 

Funibuka ku-, to oome to light 

FumbuUa ku-y to lay open to, to 
explain. 

Fumi, a kind of fish. 

Fu*mka ku-f to become unsewn, to 
open a1^ the seams, to leak (of a 
boat). 

Fumo, plur. mafumo, a flat-bladed 
spear. 

Fumo, a chief (Kingozi and Nyassa). 

Fumiia ku; to unrip, to unpick. 
KufumiM moto, to draw out the 
pieces of wood from a fire. 



Fumtika ku-- = Fu^nika ku-. 

Funda, a large mouthful making 
the cheeks swell out, a sip (?), 
a draw at a pipe. 
Kupiga /undo, to tak^ large 
mouthfuls one by one. 

Funda kw, to beat up, to mix by 
beating, to pound. 

Funda kw, to teach. 

Fundi, a skilled workman, a master 
workman, a teacher of any handi- 
craft. 

Fundviha hu-, to teach, to instruct. 
Kuji/undisha, to learn. 

Fundisho, plur. wia/wndw^, instruc- 
tion, direction, teaching. 

Fundo, plur. ma/undo, a knot 
Kupiga fungo, to tie a knot 

Fundua ku-, to untie. 

Funga, a civet oat. 

Funga ku-, to fasten, to tie, to bind, 
to imprison, to fast 
Kufunga choo, to become consti- 
pated. 

Fungamana ku-, to cling together, 
to connect, to tie together, to rely 
upon. 

Fungana ku-, to bind, to stick 
together. 

Fungasa ku-, to tow. 

Fungate, a period of seven days 
after the completion of the wed- 
ding, during which the bride's 
father sends food to the bride- 
groom and his friends. 

Fungisha ku-, to shut against. 

Fungo, a civet cat 

Fungu, plur. mafungu, a bank» a 
shoal, a heap, a part, a week. 

Fungwu See M/unguo. 

Fungua ku-, to unfasten, to open, 
to let loose, to leave ofiT fast- 
ing. 



FUN 



FYU 



277 



FunguJca Jcu-, to become nnfaatened, 

to be unfastenable. 
FunguUica Jew, to have unfastened 

for one, to be unfastened. 
Funguo (plur. of Vfunguo\ keys. 
Funguza ku-y to present with food 

during the Ramathan. 
Funika hu-, to cover (as with a lid), 

to close a book. 
Funilcilca kw, to become covered. 
Funikiza kur^ to cover (as with a 

flood). 
Funoy a kind of animal. 
Funua fcu-, to lay open, to uncover, 
to open a book, to unpick sew- 
ing, to show cards. . 

Kufunua machoy to open one's 
eyes. 
Funuka A;u-, to become opened, to 

open like a flower, &o, 
Funza, a maggbt. 
Funza ku-, to teach. 

Kujifunza, to learn. 
Fwpoj plur. mafupa, a large bone, 

the anus (?). 
'fupij short It makes fupi with 

nouns like nyumha. 
Fupiza ku-j to shorten. 
Fura kU', to swell, to be puffed up 

from the effects of a blow only. 
Furahot gladness, joy, pleasure, 

gladly. 
. JV*raAam, with gladness, happiness. 
Furdhi ku; to rejoice, to be glad. 
Furaliia ku-, to rejoice in. 
Fwrdhisha ku-, to make glad. 
Furahiwa ku-f to be made glad, to 

be rejoiced. 
Furijika fcu-, to moulder away. 
Furika kvr^ to run over, to boil 

Over, to inundate. 
Furvkuta ku-^ to move, as of some- 
thing moving under a carpet 



Furumiy ballast 

Furungu, plur. mafurungu^ a large 

citron, a shaddock, a kind of 

anklet. 
Furushi, a bundle tied up in a 

cloth. 
FvLsfus or FusmSy precious stones. 
FuH^ rubbish. 
Futa kU', to wipe. 

Kufuta fcamcMjVtoblow the nose. 
Futa ku-t to draw a sword ( = vtUa ? ). 
Futarit the first food taken after a 

fast 
Futi, plur. mafuit, the knee (A.) 
Futhtdiy oflBciousness. 
Futika ku-, to tuck into the girdle 

or loin-cloth. 
Futua ku-y to open out a bundle, 

take out what was tucked in. 
Futuka kU', to get cross or angry, 
Futukia ku-, to get cross with. 
Futuri, a span. 
Futuru ku-y to eat at the end of a 

fast, to break a fast. 
FuUy plur. ma/uu, a small black 

fruit. 
Fuvu, plur. mafuvu, an empty shell. 

Fuvu la kUioa, a skulL 
Fuza ku-, to go on, not to stop. 
Fuzi, plur. mafuziy a shoulder 

(A.). 
Fwata kU' = Fttata ku-. 
Fyoa ku-f to answer abusively. 
Fyolea ku-y to answer a person with 

abuse and bad language. 
Fyonda ku- or Fyonja fcu-, to suck 

out. 
Fyonya Xeu-, to chirrup. See 

Fionya, 
Fyonza ku-, to suck. 
Fyoma A:tt-, to read (M.). 
Fyuka ku-, to go off", to drop, to 

escape like a spring. 



278 



GAA 



GAB 



Q. 

Q ia always to be pxonoiiiiced 
hard, as in "gate." Much con- 
fusion arises from the way in which 
the Arabic letters jim and kaa/ or 
qaf are pronounced by different 
Arabs. Jim is properly an English 
J, and is so used by the Swahili, 
and qaf is properly a guttural A;^ 
but most Arabs in Zanzibar^ pro- 
nounce either jim or qaf as a hard 
g. This must be rememb^ed in 
writing or looking for many Swahili 
words. 

The Arabic Ghain is retsdned in 
many Swahili words borrowed from 
the Arable, and a similar sound 
occurs in African languages also. 
It is here written gh. Most Euro- 
peans think it has something of an 
r sound, but this is a mistake ; it is 
a hard grating g, made wholly in the 
throat. It resembles the Dutch g, 
and the German g approaches it. 
SeeJV. 

Gaagaa hu-f^ to turn over restlessly, 

to roll like a donkey. 
Gabri, See KahuH. 
Gadi^ a wooden prop to keep a 

yestel from falling over when 

left by the tide. 
Gadimu k%h, to put gadi, 
GagCt plur. magaga, rubbish, dirt. 
Gaij plur. magai^ a large piece of 

potsherd. 
Galme. See faZtne, the small miz^ 

mast of a dhow. 
Galaioa^ a canoe, a small canoe 

with outriggers. GdlawM are 



, hollowed out of the trunk of a 
tree, and have two long poliBs 
tied across, to the end of which^ 
pieces of wood pointed at both 
ends are attached, which servQ 
to prevent the canoe upsetting. 
These outriggers are called 
majingo. See Mtumhvju, 

Ganiba. See Jigamha, 

Garuif the tiller, the rudder handle. 

Ganda, plur. mo^anda,' husk, rind, 
shell, hard bark. 
Ganda la UUu, the three of ca^ 

Ganda ku-^ to stick, to freeze. 

Gandama hu-, to cleave, to stick. 

Crandamana ku-, to cleave to- 
gether, to coagulate, to curdle, to 
freeze. 

GandamtQ A^u-, to stick to, to cleave 
to. 

GandOf plur. magando, the claw of 
a crab. 

Ganga ku-, to bind round, as when 
a stick is sprung to bind it 
round with string, to splice, to 
mend, to cure. 

Gunge, a soft white limestone. 

Gango, plur. magangoy a oramp, a 
si^int, something which holds 
other things together in their 
right place. 

Ganil What? What swfc of? 
The name of the thing queried 
about always precedes the word 
gani, 

Ganzi, 
Imekufa ganzi, it has lost aU 

feeling. See Faganzi. 
Kutia ganzi la meno^ to set the 
teeth on edge. 

Crarif plur. magari^ a carriage, a 
wheeled vehicle. 

Garofuu^ doves. Also, a kind of rice. 



GAU 



6HU 



279 



Gauzay Gauka^ etc. See Geuaet^ 

Geuka, etc. 
Gaioa huy to divide, to part out. 

Kugawa karata^ to deal cards. 
Gaioanya Jcu-, to divide^ to share. 
Gaya ku*,, to change one's mind, 

to vacillate. 
Gayami, a post with a cleat at the 
. side of the pooxH to fastei^ the 

sheet of a dhow sail to» 
Gayogaya, a flat flsh, (?) a sole. 
Gema hu-y to get palm wine. They 

cut the immature flowering shoot 

and hang something under to 

catch what flows from the wound, 

which is the iemho^ or palm wine. 

The cutting is renewed from 

time to time to keep up the 

flow. 
Gembey plur. magembe^ a hoe. See 

Jembe. 
-gent, foreign, strange. 
Genzi. 

Mkuu genziy one who kuows the 
loads well, a guide. 
GerezOy a fort, a prison. 
Geua kur, to turn, to change (Mer.). 
Geuka ku-y to become changed, to 

turn, to change. 
Geuza ku- or Geusha ku- (?), to 

cause to change, to turn, to 
. change. 
Geuzi, plur. mageuzi, a change, 

changes. 
Ghdfalay suddenly. 
Ghafalika ku-t to be imprudent, not 

to attend to, to neglect. 
Ghdfula = ghdfala. 
Ghairi ku; to annul, change one's 
mind as to, put an end to. 

Kutia ghavrij to offend, to irri- 
tate. 
Ghala^ a wareroom, a store place, 



especially the room» oa the 
ground-floor of Zanzibar booses, 
which have generally no win- 
dows, but merely a few small 
round holes (miangeuiay near 
the ceiling. 

Ghalif dear. 

Ghalime. See Gcdme, KaJvM 

Ghalisha ku-, to make dear. 

Ghaaigij a kind of dhow resembling 
a bagala, except that it has not 
so long a prow. 

Ghanima, good luck, profit. 

Gharama, expense, payment to a 
native chief by a caravan. 

Gharika, a flood, the flood. 

Ghariki ^m-, to be flooded, to be 
covered with water. 

Gharikisha M-, to flood, to over- 
whelm. 

Gharimia 2;t(*, to go to expense 
about, to be at the expense of. 

Ghost, a measure of about a yard. 

Ghasi, rebellion. 

Ghasi ku-, to bother, worry. 

GhcLsia, bother, coming and going, 
want of privacy. 

Ghathahika ku-^ to be enraged, to 
be angry. 

Ghathahisha A;u , to enrage, to make 
angry. 

Ghathdbu, an^er. 

Ghelibu ku-, to master. 

Gheiri, jealousy, jealous anger. 

Ghicmaf an aggravating person. 

Ghofira, plur. maghofira, pardon. 

Ghofiri ku-, to forgive sins ; used of 
God only. 

Ghofiria ku-, to forgive a person. 

Ghdrofa, an upper room. 
Ghoshi kw, to adulterate. 
GhvJba (?), a sheltered place, a 
screen. 



280 



GHir 



gum: 



Ghubarif plur. maghuhariy a rain 

cloud. 
Ghubba, a bay. 
Ohumivoa kur, to be startled, to 

stand agbast. 
Ghunka ku-, to be arrogant. 
Ghururij arrogance. 
Gluihi hu' = Gkoshi ku-, to adul- 
terate. 
Ghusubu ku-y to cheat, to swindle. 
Gidamt the strap of a sandal, 

passing between the toes. 
Ginsiy sort, kind. 

Gin$i Uivyokuwa njema, &c.y it 
was so good, &c. 

GinH gani f or GisH gani f 
Why? How is it? 
Giza or Kizay darkness. 
Gnamha or Ng^amba^ a hawk*s-head 

turtle. 
Gru/mbe or Ng*om'be, an ox, cattlA 
Goa. See Goo. 
Goboa hu'f to break off the cobs of 

Indian com. 
Godoro, plur. magodoro, a mattress. 
Gofia, a pulley. 
Gogoj plur. magogOf a log of timber, 

the trunk of a tree when felled. 
Gorriba fctt-, to be adverse to, to 

oppose, to quarrel with. 
G(ynibana few-, to squabble, to quarrel. 
Gcymbeza ku-t to forbid. 
Gombo, plur. magomhoj a sheet of a 

book. 
Gome, plur. magome, bark of a tree. 
Gomea ku-, to fasten with a natlye 

lock. 
GomeOy a native lock. 
Gonga ku-, to knock. 
G<mjweza ku-, to make ill. 

Kujigonjwezaf to make oneself 
out an invalid, to behave like a 
sick man. 



Gongo, plur. magongoj a large 

stick. 
Gongojea ktt-. 

Kujtgongqjea, to prop oneself with 
a staff, to drag oneself along by 
the help of a stick. 
Gongomea hi-, to hammer in. 
Goo, See Mtondo goo, 
Gora, a piece of doth, a package uf 

cloth. See Jura, 
Gorong*ondioaf a kind of lizard. 
Goshif the tack of a sail. 

Upande wa goahini, the weather 
side. 

Eupindua kwa goshini, to tack. 
Ghta ku-y to tap, to knock. 
GatSy plur. magoUy the knee. 

Kupiga magote, to kneel. 
Goteza ^rtt-, to jumble together 

different dialects or languages. 
Govt mbOf uncircumcised. 
Chibeti, prow of a dhow. 
Gubitiy barley-sugar (?). 
Gudi, a dock for ships^ 
Gudulia or Guduioia, a water-cooler, 

a porous water-bottle. 
GtigUj plur. magugUy undergrowth, 

weeds. 
■ Gugu mtniu, a weed resembling 

oom, 
-gugUy wild, uncultivated. 
Gugumiza ku-^ to gulp, to swallow 

with a gulping sound. 
Guguna A;u-, to gnaw. 
G^igurusha ku-^ to run with a 

shuffling noise like a rat, to drag 

along with a scraping noise. 
(xuia ku', to seize (Mer.). 
Guiana ku-^ to oling together. 
GuleguU, a dolphin. 
Cruniba, 

Kidole cha gumha^ the thumb. 
Gumegume. 



GUM 



HA 



281 



Bunduhi ya gumegwne^ a flintgnn. 
-gumu^ hard, difficidt. 
Guna hu-, to grunt, to make a dis- 
satisfied noise. 
Gundua ku-y to see one who thinks 
~ himself unseen, to discover un- 
awares, to catch. 
Gunga ku-, (1) to warn against 
doing something, (2) to refuse 
temptation. 
*Gungu, a kind of dance. 

Gungu la hufundOf danced by a 

single couple. 
Gungu la Tcvkwaa^ danced by two 
couples. 
GuniOy a kind of matting bag. 
Gunzi, plur. magunzi, a cob of 

Indian com. 
Gura ku', to change one's place of 

residence (A.). 
Gurisha ku-, to make to remove, to 

banish (A.). 
Guru. 

Svkari gurUj half -made su^r. 
Gurudumo, plur. WMgurudumOy a 
wheel. 
Gurudumo la mzinga^ a gun- 
oarriage. 
GurugurUf a large kind of burrow- 
ing lizard. 
Gusa ku-, to touch. 
Gutuka kU', to start, to be startled. 
Guu, plur. maguu, leg (A.). 
Guja ku', to fall [Tumbatu], 
Gtoanda, a very short kanzu. 
Gvfia ku- = Guia ku-, 
Gunana ku- = Guiana ku-. 



H. 

H has the same sound as in the 
Enjrlish word «* hate.*' 
There are in Arabic two distinct 



Vs, one wholly made in the throat, 
the other somewhat lighter than the 
English h. In Swahili there is only 
one h sound, which is used for both. 

The Arabic kh is pronounced as 
a simple h in all words whicli are 
thoroughly incorporated i^ito Swa- 
hili. The kh is used by Arabs and 
in words imperfectly assindlated. 
Some people regard it as a mark of 
good education to give tho proper 
Arabic sounds to all words of Arabic 
origin. 

In Arabic a syllable often ends 
with Uy which is then strongly pro- 
nounced; but in Swahili the h is 
generally tmnsposed so as to pre- 
cede the vowel. 

KuiVtimUy to finish one's educa- 
tion = Kuhitimu, 

ff-, sign of the negative in the 
second and third persons sin- 
gular. 

H-upendiy thou lovest not 

H-apendiy he lovest not 
Ila-y sign of the third person sin- 
gular negative when referring 
to animate beings, and of the 
negative when prefixed to 
the affirmative prefixes in the 
plural, and in tho third person 
singular when not referring to 
animate beings. 

ffa-tupendiy we love not. 

Ha-mpendiy you love not 

Sa-wapendi, they love not 

Ba-ifaiy it is of no use. 

The final a of this ha- never 
coalesces with the following 
letter. 
Ha-y a contraction for nika, 

Hamwonay and I saw him. 



282 



HAB 



HAL 



The third person singultr present 
negative is distingQished by 
the final «. 
Hamtooni, he does not see him. 
Htiba^ Httle, few, shallow. 
HahaM, my lord. 

JJdbari, news, information, message, 
«tory. 
Habari zangu ziUzontpatOy an ao- 
eoant of what had happened to 
me. 
JIahiuhia, plnr. mahahutihfay an 
Abyssinian. Many Galla women 
are called Abyssinians, and the 
name is sometimes used for a oon~ 
cubine of whatever race. 
Hadaa, deceit, cheating. 
Hadaa ku-y to cheat. 
HadmkfJk Icu-t to be cheated, to be 

taken in. 
Hadidi, the semicircular ornament 
to which Arab women attach the 
plaits of their hair. 
Hadimu, a servant, slave. See Mu- 

hadimu. 
Hadiihi, a tale, a story, especially 
one bearing upon Mohammedan 
tradition. 
KadiiMa ku-, t& relate to. 
Hafifuy light, insignificant 
Safithika kw- = Bffathika ]fcw-, to 

be preserved. 
HahUhatodhetJia (Ar.), these and 

these. 
Haiba, a beauty, not beauty gene- 
rally, but one good point. 
Ilai', sign of third person singular 
negative agreeing with nouns 
'which do not change to form 
the plnral. 
Sign of the third person plural 
negative agreeing with nouns 
in mi*. 



Hdi = Haytt fiXive. 
HainOt it is not, there is not. 
Haitaaea, not yet. 

Eaithuru, it does not harm, it is of 
no consequence, never mind, it 
would be as well. 
Haj, the pilgrimage to Mecca. 
Hajoy a request. 
Hana haiUy he is good Tor no pur- 
pose, he has no occasion. 
Hajiri ku-, to go to live elsewhere. 
Hccjirika ku-* to remain tjverlong, 

delay. 
Hakali. 
Kumihika hakaliy to require a 
aflirangerwho goes upon work- 
men's woA to pay for iiis in- 
trusion, to make him xiay his 
footing. 
Haki'y sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns in ki- or cfc-. 
Eakiy justice, right, righteousness. 
HaMka, true, certain, certainly. 
Snkika yako, it is true of thee, 
thou certainly. 
Hakiki ku-, to make sure, to ascer- 
tain, to prove. 
Hakiri ku-t to humble. 
Hakirisha ku-, to despise. 
HaJeOj he is not there. 
Haku-y sign of the third person 

negative indefinite. 
Haku'y sign of the third person 
singular of the negative past, 
referring to animate being^s. 
This form is distinguished from 
the preceding by the final letter 
of the verb, which is -» in the 
indefinite and -a in the past tense. 
Hakunaf there is not, it exists not, 

no. 
Bal wdradi, otto of roses. 



HAL 



HAP 



283 



Saletf bHlci&iib, perjury. 
Halafu, afterward», presently. 
HmlaU, lawful. 
Halasa, s&ilors' wages. 
Hali^ state, condition, health. 
U halt gani ? How are you ? 
Wa kali gam 9 How «re they ? 
Amekuwa hcUi ya Tcwcmza^ he is 
reduced to his former condition, 
he is as he used to he. 
It is also used as a' kind of con- 
junction, being, if it be, when 
it is, supposing, so it was. 
JTali for AhalU family, oonneotions. 
Hali'^ sign of the third person 
singular negative, agreeing with 
nouns which make their plural in 
ma-» 
Halilisha fc«-, to make lawfuL 
Halili ydko, at your disposal. 
HoZm or Hdlish exactly, without 

defect or variation. 
HdhMf a sweetmeat made of ghee, 
honey, eggs, arrowroot (?), and 
spice. 
HcdtiU, 
Chumvt ya halidi, sulphate of 
magnesia. 
Ha*m', sign of the second person 

plural negative. 
Hbma hi^ to change houses, to 

move. 
Hamali^ plur. maMmaUf a porter, 

a coolie. 
Samami, a public bal^. There are 

now public baths in Zanzibar. 
Eamaya, protection. 
Fi hamayat at IngreZy under 
British protection. 
Hamdi, praise. 
Scmvi, protection. 
Bami ^tc-, to protect 
SamlU kn^ to be pregna&l 



Hdmirat leaven, made by mixing 

flour and water and leaving it to 

ttim sour. 

Eamiaha hu-t to cause to remove, to 

cause to change one's place of 

residence, to banish. 
Ma*mna, there is not inside, not 
Hamo, he is not inside. 
Eamsi, five. 
Hamsinif'htiy. 
Hamstashara, fifteen. 
HamUy grief, heaviness. 
Hamwimbi f Don't you sing ? 
Sanay he has not. 
Hana ku-, to mourn with, to join 

in a formal mourning.' 
Hana kwao, he has no home, a 

vagabond. 
HanamUf obliquely. 
HoTMrmt, the cutwater of a dhow. 
Hartdakij a dry ditch, a trench. 
Hangaika ku^y to be excited. 
HangoBy the guttural Arabic hy the 

hha. See Mdawari. 
Eanikiza hu-, to interrupt people, 

to talk so loud and long as to 

prevent other people from doing 

anything. 
Hanisiy a man sexually impotent. 
HaniH, a catamite, a sodomite. 
Hanzua, a kind of dance. 
Rao, or Hatooy these or those before 

mentioned, referring to anijnate 

beings. 
Hapa-y sign of the third person 

negative, agreeing with mahaliy 

place or places. 
EapOy here, this place, in this place. 
Hapanay there is not, no ! 

Hapana refers rather to a par- 
ticular place, Hahtna is gene- 
ral. 
ETopo, here, this or that time. 



284 



HAB 



HAT 



Tangu hapo, onoe upon a tiine, 

Mapo hdUy in old times. 

Tokea MpOj ever so long. 

Toka hapo ! get away 1 get ont of 
thisl 
Eara hu-, to be purged. 

Harisha ^u-, to act as a drastic 
purgatiye. 
Uaraha^ haste. 
Haraka hu-y to make haste. 
HardkUha ku-, to hasten. 
Baramia, a pirate, a robber. 
Haramuj unlawful, prohibited. 
Harara, prickly heat, heat, hot 

temper. 
Harara, quick-tempered. 
JSararii, hot-tempered. 
Haru heat, perspiration. 

Kutoka hart, to perspire. 
Haribika hu-, to be destroyed, to 

spoil. 
Haribu ku-, to destroy, to spoil. 

Kuharibu tntm&o, to miscarry. 
Barijia ku-, to spend money, to lay 

out money, to provide (a feast), 

&o, 
Uarimisha ^u-, to make or declare 

unlawful. 
JIarimu ku» = Hartmisha kur, 
JJarioe, a cry raised on seeing a 

dhow come in sight (M.). 
JIariri, silk. 
Ilaru/u, Haruji, or Heru/Uj a letter 

of the alphabet, letters, cha- 
racters. 
ffarufu, a scent, a smell of any kind. 
Harwi, a wedding; vulgarly, the 
bride. 

Bwana haruHf the bridegroom. 

Bibi haruHt the bride. 
Bami = Makeai, castrated. 
Basara, loss. 

Kupaia hasara, to lose. 



Easara Art»-, to spoil a thing so Utal 

its value is gone. 
Ecuihaf not at all, not by any means, 

a very strong negative. 
Bcuiho, a patch in planking, a piece 

let in. 
Bast ktt* or Khasi ku-^ to geld, to 

castrate. 
Basibu ku-, to count 
Eanda^ a kind of porridge. 
Bandit envy. 
BatirOf anger. 
Kwoa na hasirOj to be angry. 
KtUid hanra, to make angry. 
Basira Ant-, to ii^ure. ' 

Basiri &tt-, to vex, to do harm 

to. 
Basirika Ant-, to be injured, to be 

grieved. 
Basiruha Aeu-, to injure. 
Batsa, exactly. 
Bata, See Batta, 
Batamu, a bridle. 
Batariy danger, fear. 
Batharij caution, care. 
Kuwa na hathari, to bewue, to 

be on one's guard. 
Kufanya haiharii to become care- 
ful, to become anxious. 
Bdtfft an angel. 

Batiki &tt-, to bother, to annoy 
• (A.> 
Batima=iKhalimaf end, conclusion, 

at last 
Batiruha Ami-, to venture, to run 

the risk. 
Baiiya = Khatiycty fault 

Kutia hatiyani^ to find fault with. 
Mwenyi 'haiiya namt, who has 
done me wrong. 
BaUay until, so far as, to, at length, 
when a certain time had ar- 
rived. It is used to introdnoe 



HAT 



HEB 



285 



the time when something fresh 
happened. 

Hatta siku moja^ one day. 

Eatta dssiibuif in the morning, 
but in the morning. 

Batfa haada ya mwezi hupita^ and 
when a month had passed. 
Hattia, for nothing. 
Hattiya = natiya, 
EatU'j sign of the first person plural 

negative. 
Eatua, a step, steps. 
Eau-, sign of the third person 

singular negative agreeing with 

nouns in m- or mto-, not denoting 

animate beings, or with those in u-. 
Earn-, sign of the third person 

plural negative agreeing with 

plural nouns in vi' or vy-. 
Eawa-, sign of the third person 

plural negative. 
EaiDO-j Eve. 
Eatoaj these, referring to animate 

beings. 
Eawa or Eewa^ air. 
Eawa or Eawat^ longing, lust, 
loving. 

Usi/anye havoa nafsi, don't be 
partial, don't show favour. 
Earjoa or Eawara, a catamite, a 

paramour. 
Eaicala, transfer of a debt, bill of 

exchange. 
Eawezi^ he is ill. See Weza Jcvr. 
Eawi, he is not. 
Eavjtli &tt-, to take upon oneself 

what was due from another, to 

guarantee a debt, &c. 
Eayor, sign of the third person 

plural negative agreeing with 

plural nouns in ma-, 
Eaya, these, referring to a plural 

substantive in ma-. 



Saya^ shame, modesty, 
Eana haya^ ho is shameless. 
Kuona "kaya^ to feel ashamed, to 

be bashful. 
KuUa haycky to abash, to make 
shamed. 

Eaya I Work away I Be quick I 
Gome along ! 

Eaydle, those, those things. 

Eayamhinif it is impossible. 

Eayawaniy a man without his 
proper senses, an idiot 

Eayit plur. wahayi (?), alive. 

JSayo, these or those before men- 
tioned, referring to plural sub- 
stantives in mor, 

Eayukot vulgarly used in Zanzibar 
for hdko, he is not there. 

Eazi'f sign of the third person 
plural negative agreeing with 
nouns which do not change to 
form the plural, or with those 
which begin in the singular with 

U-. 

Eazibu hur = Eesabu hu-. 

Eazina^ a treasure. 

Eazitassa, not yet 

Eedayaj a choice thing, a tale. 

Eejazi^ the Eejaz in Arabia. 

Eekalu, the temple at Jerusalem, a 
great or famous thing. 

Eekimc^ wisdom, cleverness. 

Eekimiza ku-, to make a man under- 
stand, to put him in possession of 
knowledge. 

Eemidi ku-, or Eamidi ku-, to praise. 

Eenzat halyards. 

Eenzaraniy cane-work. 

Eeri = Khetri^ happy, fortunate, it 
is welL 
Ni heri, I had better, it will be 

well for me. 
Kua herit good- bye. 

u 



286 



HER 



HIT 



Mba wa Tierif a fortunate man. 
Heria, a cry raised on first seeing a 

dhow coming. Compare farfou^e. 
Herimu = Marika. 
JJerOf a wooden platter. 
fferu/u or Earufuy a letter of the 

alphabet. 
JTesdbu^ accounts, an account. 
Hesabu ku-, to count, to reckoi\. 
Jleahima, honour. 
HeBhimu few-, to honour. 
Heth, menstruation, metises. 

Kutoa na htihy to menstruate. 
Hetima, [ancestors. 

Ktisoma ^tma, to pray for one's 
Hetoa or Hawa, air. 
Hezaya, a shame, a thing causing 

confusion. 
Hi', for Niki', See -hi-. 
Hiana, a grudging pei-son, one who 

withholds things. Compare 

GMana, 
Hiari, choice. 

Hiba, property left after death. 
Hidima, service. 
Hifathi ku-j to preserve, to keep. 
ffifathika ku-, to be preserved. 
Hifukuza = Nikifukuza. 
Hit, this, referring to singular 

nouns which do not change to 

form the plural ; these, referring 

to plural nouns in mi-. 
HiUe, that, those. 
Hikaya — Hedaya, a wohderful 

thing. 
HiH, this, referring to singular 

nouns in ki- or ck-. 
Hikile, that, yonder. 
Hila, a device, a stratagem, a deceit. 

Mtu wa hila, a crafty man. 
Hili, this, referring to singular 

nouns which make their plural 

in mor. 



Htlo, tills or that before mentioned, 
referring to singular nouns which ' 
make their plural in ma-, 

Hima, hBste, hastily, quickly. 

Himahima ! be quick ! 

Himili ku-, to bear, to support. 

Himiza ku-, to hasten. 

Hina, henna, a very favourite red 
dye, used by women to dye the 
palms of their hands and the soles 
of their feet, often used to dye 
white donkeys, &c., a pale red 
brown. 

Hini ku-, to refuse to give, to with- 
hold. 

Hirizi, a written charm worn on the 
side. 

Hirimu, an equal in age. 
Hirimu mqja, of the same age 

Hisa, pardon. 
Nipe hisa yangu, pardon me. 

Hitari ku-, to prefer, choose. Ste 
Ikhtiari, 

Hitima, the feast which conclndes 
a formal mourning. 

Hitimu ku; to finish one*s learning, 
to leave off school, to know ontj'a • 
trade. 

Hitimiaha ku-^ to finish a scholar, to 
bring to the end of his learning of 
whatever kind. 

Hivi, thus, these, referring to plural 
nouns in vi- or vy-, 

Hivile, those. 

Hicyo, after which manner, these 
mentioned before, referring to 
plural nouns in vt- or vy-, 

Hiyari, choice. 

Hiyo, this ^ mentioned before, re- 
ferring to singula^ nouns which 
do not change to form the plural; 
these mentioned before, referriog 
to plural nouns in mi- or in mo-. 



HW 



H U J 



287 



Hizl, these, referring to plural 
nounB which do not change to 
fonp the plural, or which begin 
in the singular with t*- or w-. 

Siku hiziy some days ago, some 
days hence, now. 
Hizi ku-, to treat with contumely, to 

groan at, to cry out against. 
Hizile, those. 

Hizika A-a-, to be put to the blush. 
Eobe 1 now go on, be off. 

Kwenda hdb€f to go wherever it 
may be. 
Hobu, grandchild» 
Eodarit strong. 
Hodi! a cry made by way of 

inquiry whether any one is within. 

No one ought to enter a house 

until he has received an answer. 
Hogera ^fw-, to perform a particular 

washing customary after cir- 
cumcision. 
BogOf plur. mahogo, a very large 

root of cassaveu 
Hoke hahey a phrase used to denote 

extreme poverty and destitution. 
Hoho, 

PiUpUi hoho, red pepper. 

Mkaie wa hoho, a cake made with 
fresh palm-oil. 
Hqja = Huja, 
Homtiy fever. 
Kongo, a present demanded by a 

local chief for liberty to pass 

through his country. 
HongWLi a Comoro dance. 
Horari, clever (?). 
Horiy or Khori, a creek, a small arm 

of the sea. 
Hori, plur. mdhori, a kind of canoe 

with a raised head and stem. 
Hu-, a quasi-personal prefix de- 
noting a customary action. It 



applies to all persons and both 
numbers. 
Hunijihui it is in the habit of 

answering me. 
Huenda, lie, &c., commonly goes. 
JButerna, they say. 
Hvr = ^-u-,,the negative prefix of 
the second person sinj^ular. 
This form is distinguish(^d f/om 
the preceding by the ttrmina- 
tiou of the verb. 
Huenda, peo|)le go. 
Huendi, you do not go. 
Hiia, a dove. They are said to cry, 
Mama akafa, Baha akafa, nime 
salia mimi, tu, iu, tu, tu, tu, My 
mother is dead, my father is 
dead, I am left alone — lone— lone 
— lone. Another cry of the same 
class of birds is explained as, 
Kuku mfupa mtupu, mimi nyama 
tele tele tele, A fowl is bare 
bones. I am meat plenty, plenty, 
plenty. 
Eubba, love, affection. 
Evbiri, to announce, to give news. 
Hvdumia ku-, to serve. 
HvdumUj service. 
Hut ku-f to revive, to come to life 

again. 
Huika ku', to be brought to' life 

again, to live agaiin. 
Huisha ku-, to revive, bring to life 

again, resuscitate. 
Huja or hqja, sake, account, con- 
cernment, reasoning. 
Kina huja nyingi, it is ftdl of 

bother, it is troublesome. 
Hakina huja, it is aU clear, it is 
plain sailing. 
Hujambo ? Are you well ? 
Huji ku-, to inquire into, seek out. 
Hvjuru kstr, to desert* 

u 2 



268 



HUK 



Euko, there, at a distance. 

Htiko na hukoj hither and thither. 
HukUf here, there, near. 

Huku na hvkUf ihia way and 
that. 
Hukumu, judgment, authority, law. 
Hukumu ku-, to act as judge, to 

have supreme authority over. 
Hukumia ku-, to judge, to exercise 

authority upoa. 
EuLukiwa ku^ to he created, to he 

a creature. 
Humuma^ plur. ma-, a man who 

knows no religion. 
EundU a draft, a hill of exchange. 
HuOy this or that hefore mentioned, 

referring to singular nouns in 

u- or vj-, or which make their 

plural in mi-, 
Huruj free, not a slave: 

Kuweka or Kuacha hurUf to set 
free from slavery. 
Huru, plur. mahuru, a freed man. 

Mahuru wa Balyozi, or Baruziy 
slaves freed by the British 
consulate. 
Hum, diamonds in cards. 
Huruma, pity. 
Hurumia ku-, to pity, to have pity 

upon. 
Hu88u ku', to divide into shares, to 

put each one*s share separate. 
JluBudu ku'j to do wanton violence, 

to grudge at, to envy. 
Eu$umu ku-j to strive, to contend 

with. 
Humniy a fort. 
Husuru ku-y to besiege. 
BtUhuria ku-, to be present. 
Suu, this, referring to nouns in 

the singular which make their 

plural in ww'-, or to singular nouns 

beginning with u- or t^ 



Suule, thai 

Huyo, this or that before mentioned, 

. referring to an animat« being. 

In chasing a man or animal, any 

one who sees him cries but, 

Huyo! huyo! huyo! Here he is! 

Huyu, this, this person, this one, 

referring to an animate being. 
Huyvlei that. 
Buzuni, grief, heaviness. 
Hvsenda, perhaps. 



I is pronounced like ee in feel. 

I before a vdwel generally be- 
comes y. It is in many cases im- 
material whether « or y be written, 
but where the ^cent would other- 
wise fall upon' it, its consonantal 
character becomes obvious. 

An unaccented i is often inter- 
changed with a short t» sound. 
Thus the word for lead may be pro- 
nounced either rUasi or rusasL 

N has generally an i sound im- 
plied in it. It is sometimes ex- 
pressed following the n, as in the 
prefix m*. The final t' of ni- disap- 
pears in rapid pronunciation, and in 
the first person of the future, as n 
cannot coalesce with t, bolh letters 
are often omitted. When n is fol- 
lowed by a vowel, or by «f, g, j, 
or z, the i sound is Ipst. When n 
is followed by other consonants it 
either disappears altogether or the 
t sound is more or less distinctly 
prefixed, so as to make the n a syl- 
lable by itself. The i sound is more 
distinct in the dialect of Zanzibar 
than in more northern Swahili. 

Where t' follows the final a of a 



IMI 



289 



prefix (except the negative prefix 
/ta> it coalesces with a into the 
sound of a long e. 

J, is or was, governed by a singular 
noun of the class which does 
not change to form the plural; 
are or were, governed by a 
plural noun in mi-, 

J-, or before a vowel, y-, the personal 
prefix used with verbs whose 
subject is a singular noun of 
the class which does not change 
to form the plural, or a plural 
in mi', it or they. 

-t-, the prefix representing the ob- 
ject of the verb when it is a 
singular notin of the class which 
does not change to form the 
plural, or a plural noun in mi-. 

-«-, the reflective prefix in King*ozi 
(and in Nyamwezi), self. 

Iba kw' (the kw- is frequently re- 
tained in the usual tenses), to 
steal, to take surreptitiously. 

Ibada, worshij^. 

Ibia kw; to rob, to steal from. 

IdcuU, 
Eayana idadi, there is no count- 
ing them. 

Idili = Adtli, right conduct 

Idili kU', to learu right conduct» 

Idilisha ku-, to teach right con- 
duct 

Iftahif bringer of luck. 

Iga ku-f to mock, to imitate (M. 
igiza). 

Ih-, See Hi'. 

Ihtahidi ku'y to strive. 

IhHaji /ctt-, to be wanting. 

Ih^tajia ku-, to want, to be wanting to. 

IKtilafUt different Also a fault, 
difference. 



IVtimH ku-t to finish learning, to 

complete one's education. 
JJara, pay, hire, rent 
Ijaza, a reward. 
Ijaza ku; to grant permission for 

worship. 
Ikhtiari, choice. ' 

Ikhtiari ku-, to wish. 
Ikiza ku-y to lay the beams of a 
roof. 

Kuku ya kuikiza, a fowl cooked 
with eggs. 
IkOf there is, it is there. 
Ua, a defect, a blemish. 
Jfe, that yonder, referring to a 

singular noun of the class which 

does not change to form its 

plural; those yonder, referring 

to a plural noun in mi-. 
Hi = mi, 
Hiki, cardamoms. 
HiokOf which is, or was there. 
Eiopandana, the compobition of a 

word. 
Ilizij a small round thing held 

to be a great charm against 

lions. 
Ma, except, unless, but. 
lUakini, but 
lUi, in order that 
Hmu, learning. 
Ima — tmo, either— or. 
Ima ku-9 to stand up {King^ozi and 
Too). 

Njia ya kvyima, a straight road. 
Ima ku-i to eat up food provided 
for other people. 

Ametuimdy he has eaten our shoro 
as well as his own. 
Imani, faith. 
Imara, firm. 
Imba kw-f to sing. 
Jm&u, mosquito, mosquitoes 



290 



IMI 



Imisha ku-t to set up, to make to 

stand. 
Jmma. 

Wa imma, to a certainty. 
Ina, it has, they have. 
Inama ku-, to bow, to stoop, to bend 

down, to slo^. 
Inamisha &u-, to make to bend 

down, to bow. 
Inang^ara, it is briij^ht. See ng*a<i, 
Jnchif land, country, earth. 
Inda. 

Kufanya inda, to give trouble, 
Jnga ku-t to scare away birds. 
-ingu many, much. It makes jingi 

with nouns like katha^ and 

nyingi with nouns like nyumba» 
Ingia ku', to enter, to go or come 

into. 
Ingilia ku-, to go or come into, for, 

or to. 
Ingiliza ku-, to cohabit with. 
-ingine, other, diflferent. It makes 
mgine or mwingine with nouns 
like mtu and mti ; Jingine with 
nouns like kaaha ; ngine or nyi- 
ngine with nouns like nyuniba; 
and pingine or pangine with 
nouns of place. 

Wangine — wanginefSome — others. 
Ingiza ku-f to make or allow to enter. 
Jni, plur. mainif the liver. 
Inika ku-, to hang down, to lay upon 

its side. See Jiinika, 
Jnna, truly. 
Imhallah, if God will, perhaps. It 

is used as a general promise to do 

as one is asked to do. 
Inta = Nta. 

Inua &U-, to lift, to lift up, 
Inttka ku; to be lifted, to become 

raised. 
Inya, mother (A.). 



ITA 

'inyi = -«nyt', having, with. It makes 
mwinyi, toenyi, yinyi, zinyh ^nyh 
kinyi, vinyi, and penyi, 

Inzi^ plur. mainzi, a fly. 

Ipa ku-j to want, desire to have. 
Kuipa rdho mbele, to long for 
everything one sees, to bavo 
unrestrained desires. 

ipi. 

Kupiga ipi, to slap (^N.). 
Ipii what? 

Kama ipi $ how ? 
Ipua kw', to take off the fire. 
Iriba, usury. 
Iriuja, a vice (the tool). 
Isha kw, to finish, to come to an 

end. The kw- is retained in 

the usual tenses, but sometimes 

the w is dropped, as ameHsJia 

for amekvoislwL, he has done. 
Kunaha is commonly used as an 

auxiliary : thus, Amekwifih 

kuja, he has come already. 

Alipokwitha ht^Oy when he 

had come. 
AkaislM, or Akesha, after that, 

when he had done this. 
Ishara, a sign, signal. 
Ishi ku; to last, to endure, to live. 
Isimu or Jemu, name, especially the 

namJ of God. 
Ma imak (Ar.)? What is your 

name? 
Istara, a curtain. 
htiska, dropsy. 
Ita kw-t to oall, to call to, to name, 

to invite. The kw- ifl ^' 

quently retained. 
Kwitwa^ to be called, is sometimes 

constructed as if it were ^»- 

witwa* 
Ita ku-, to cast in a mould. 
Italassi, satin. 






ITH 



JAA 



291 



lihinif sanotion. 

Kutoa iihiniy to sanetion. 
IthneeUt two. 

Jtia ku-, to call for some purpose. 
Itika &«-, to answer when called. 
Itikia ku-j to reply to, to answer a 

person when called to. 
Itikiza ku-f to assent to. 
Ito la guu (A.)) ^he ankle. 
Ira kth or Wivdku-f to beoome ripe, 

to become completely cooked, to 

get done. The ku- is frequently 

retained. 
IvUf plur. maivUy ash, ashes (M.). 
Iwapii where is it? 
Iza ku-j to refuse. 
Izara ku-, to tell scandal about, to 

make things public about a 

person improperly. 

J. 

J. The correct pronunciation of 
this letter, and especially that of 
the Mombas dialect, is a very pecu- 
liar one. The most prominent sound 
is that of y, but it is preceded by 
another resembling cL The French 
di is perhaps the nearest European 
representative. The Swahili write 
it by the Arabic j'im, which is ex- 
actly an Engliah J. 

In the more northern dialects and 
in the old poetical Swahili the j is 
represented by a pure y. 

Muya = moja^ one. 

Mayi = ma/t, water. 

A d in the dialect of Hombns 
very commonly becomes a J in that 
of Zanzibar. 

Ndia (M.), a road, Njia (Zanz.). 

Kutinda (M.), to slaughter ; Ku- 
chinja (Zanz.). 

Many words which are properly 



spelt with a e are vulgarly pro- 
nounced with aj in Zanzibar, as, 

Kanju, for kanzu, 

Chenjaf for chenza, 

Tliis is only carrying to excess the 
rule that a a; in the neighbouring 
mainland languages becomes a j 
in SwahilL 

The Arabs and some Swahili 
confuse J with g. Thus the late 
ruler of Zanzibar was often spoken 
of as Bwana Mag{dif his proper title 
being Seyid Mdjid. 

/-, a prefix applied to substantives 
and adjectives in the singular of 
the class which make their plural 
in tna-, when they begin with a 
vowel. See J*-. 
Ja^ like. 

Ja kil' (the ku- carries the aoceht 
and is retained in the usual 
tenses), to come. The impera- 
tive is irregular, NjoOf come. 
NJooni, come ye. 
Ja is used to form several tenses. 

1. With -j)o- added, meaning even 
if; wa-japO'kupigayeYen if they 
beat you. 

2. With negative prefixes mean- 
ing not yet; ha-ja-ja, he is not 
yet come. 

3. With negative prefix and sub- 
junctive form. Asi-Je'lalay be- 
fore he goes to sleep, or that he 
may not have already gone to 
sleep. 

Jaa hu; to become full, to fill, to 

abound with. 
Maji yanajaa, the tide is coming 

in. 
Mtungi umejaa maji, the jar is 

full of water. 
See Jawa ku-. 



292 



JAA 



JA8 



Jaa. 

Shika mdjira yajaa, steer Dorth- 
wardfl. 
Jaa^ a dust heap. 
Jahaliy plur. majdbalij a rocky hiU. 

Also see Kama, 
«Ta&art» absolute ruler, a title of God. 
Jadiliana ktt-, to argue with. 
Jaha, good luck, unexpected good 
fortune. 

Kilango cha jalia, the gate of 
Paradise. 
Jaha^if a vessel, a ship. 
Jahili ku', to dare, not to fear. 
Jaladaj the cover of a bound book. 
Jali ku; to give honour to. 
Jgilia ku', to bless, to enable, to 
grant to. 

Maungu ahinijalia^ God willing. 
Jaliwa hu-, to be enabled, to have 

power, &c., given one. 
Jaliza ku-, to fill up, used of vessels 

which have already something in 

them. 
Jamaa, family, assembly, gathering, 

society, company. 
Jarnaa A;tf-, to collect together, 

gather. 
Jamaat (Hind.), a council of elders. 
Jamala, courtesy, good manners, 

elegance. 
Jamanda, plur. majamanda^ a solid 

kind of round basket with a lid. 
Janiba, breaking of wind down- 
wards. 
Jamba kvr^ to break wind down- 
wards. 
Jamhia^ phir. majaiMa^ a curved 

dagger always worn by Muscat 

Arabs. 
JambOy plur. mambo (from hMmba,) 
a word (?), a matter, a circum- 
stance, a thing,, an afiair. 



Akanitenda kUla Jarribo la wema^ 
and he showed me all possible 
kindness. 
Jamba for ti Janibo, hu JawhOy ha 
JambOj &c., I am well, are you 
well? he is well, &c., &c. 

Jarribo tana, I am very well, are 
you very well ? &c. 
Jami ku-j to copulate, to have con- 
nection with. 
Jamii, many, a good colleotion, the 

mass, the company of, the body of. 
Jamiisha ku-^ to gather. 
Jamviy plur. majamvt, a coarse kind 

of matting used to cover floors. 
Jana, yesterday. 

Mwakajana, last year. 
Janna, paradise. 
Janaba, filth, undeanness. 
Janga, punishment. 
Jangwa, plur. majangwa^ a large 

desert. 
Janiy plur. majaniy a leaf. Majani 

is commonly used for any grass 

or herbage. 
Janvia = Jambia, 
'japo-y sign of a tense signifying 
even if. 

UjapoJUca, even if you arrive. 
Jarari, the ropes passiog through 

the pulley attached to a dhow's 

halyards. 
Jaribu ku-, to try. 
Jarifa, plur. majari/ay a seine or 

drag-net made of European cord- 
age. See Juya, 
Jasho, sweat 

Kufanya jasho, to sweat 
JoBirisha ku-, to dare. 
Jasisi ku; to explore. 
Jamnini or Jasmin, jasmine. The 

flowers are sold in the streets of 

Zanzibar for their soent 



JAS 



JIB 



293 



/awi, plur. maJasHf the ornament 

in the lohe of the ear. It is 

generally a silver plate about an 

inch and a half across. 
Jatharif take care ! 
JatDtty a coarse kind of Indian 
earthenware. 

Kikombe cha Jawa^ a cup of coarse 
Indian ware. 
Javoa hu', to be filled with, to be 
full of: used of something 
which ought not, or could not 
be expected to be there. 

Maji ydme^awa dudu, the water 

is full of insects ; but mtungi 

um^aa maji, the jar is full of 

water. 

Jaioahuj an answer, a condition, a 

matter. 
Jawahir (Ar.), jewdfl. 
Jaza ku'y to fill. 
Jazi, a common thing, a thing which 

is abundant. 
Jazi ku-^ to supply, to maintain. 
JazUia ku-y to reward. 
/6/ Hullo 1 WeU! What now! 

"je ? how ? 
JehUf an ornament worn by women, 

hanging under the chin. 
JekundUf red. See -ekundu, 
Jelidi kvrt to bind books. 
Jemoy good. See -ema. 
Jemadariy plur. majemadarij a com- 
manding officer, a general. 
Jembcmbck, narrow, thin. See 

•emhambci, 
Jembe, plur. majembef a hoe. 

Jemhe la kiztmgu, a spade. 
Jenadza or Jeneza^ a bier. 
Jenga ku^, to construct, to build. 
Jengea Xmi-, to build for, or on ao- 

oount of. I 

JengOf plur. majengOf a building. 



Majengo, building materials. 

Jenzi ku'y to construct. 

Jepa ku- (A.), to steal. 

Jepesi, light, not heavy. See -epesi. 

Jerahaj a wound. 

Jeribu ku- = Jaribu ku'^ to try, 

Jervhi feu-, to be wounded. 

Jetihi, plur. majeshi, a host, a great 
company. 

Jetea fct*-, to be puffed up. to be 
over proud, to rely upon, to 
trust in. 

Jethamu, a leprosy in which the 
fingers and toes drop off, ele- 
phantiasis (P). 

JeuH or Jeurij violence. 
Anajeuli, he attacks people wan- 
tonly. 

Jeupe, white. See -ettpe, 

Jeusi^ black. See eusi, 

Ji'^ a syllable prefixed to subst m- 
tives which make their plural 
in ma-f if they would otherwise 
be of one syllable only. This 
syllable is sometimes inserted 
after a prefix to give the idea 
of largeness, or to prevent con- 
fusion witli some other word. Be- 
fore a vowel it becomes j- only. 

'ji'f an infix giving a refieclive 
meaning to the verb. 
Kupenda, to love. 
Kujipendtty to love oneself. 

Kuponya, to save. 
Jiponyey save yourself, look out I 

Jia ku-j to come for, by, to. 
NJia tdiyojia, the road you came 
by. 

Jtbf'ni, cheese. 

JiMwa feu, to receive an answer, be 
answered. 

Jibu feu-, to answer, to give an 
answer. 



294 



JIB 



JON 



Jibwa, plar. wia/t6im,an exceedingly 

large dog. 
Jichoy plur. mcuihoy the eye, 

Jicho la maji, a spring of water. 
JifUi plur. majifu, ashes. 
«/i/V»» plur. mafya, one of three 
stones to support a pot over the 
fire. Mafya is the usual word 
in the town, nMfiga is commonly 
used in the country. 
Jigamba ku-f to boast, to praise one- 
self. 
Jiinika ku', to lie'on the side. 
JikOf plur. meko, a fireplace, one of 
the stones to rest a pot on (?). 
Jikoni, in the kitchen, among the 
ashes. 
Jilia ku-, to come to a person on 

some business. 
Jiliwa, plur. majilivoa, a vice (the 

tool). 
Jtmbij a cock. 

Jimbi, AUocasia ednlis. Both 
leaves and root are eaten : (a sort 
of Arum). 
Jimbo, plur. majimbo, a place a part 

of the country (Old SwaLili). 
Jimbo, 
Kuosha najimbo^ to wash a new- 
born child with water and 
medicine. 
Jinay plur. majina^ a name. 
Jina lako nanif what is your 

name? 
Jina la kupangwa,, a nickname, 
Jinamid, nightmare. 
Jingi, much. See -dngi. 
Jingine, other. See -ingine, 
Jini^ plur. mo/m*, jins, spirits, genii 
Jinoj plur. menoy a tooth, a twist or 
strand of rope, or tobacco, &o. 
Kamba ya memo maiatu, a cord of 
three strands. 



Jionij evening. 

Jipu, plur. majipuy a boil. 

Jipotoa ku-, to dress oneself up 

excessively. 
Jipya^ new. See -pya. 
Jirani, a neighbour, neighbours. 
Jieiy quality. 
Jisu, plur. mc^iiUf a very lar^'e 

knife. 
Jitenga ht-y to get out of the way. 
Jiti, plur. majUi, a tree trunk. 
JUimaiy excessive sorrow. 
JitOy plur. nuLto = JtcAo, tlie eye (M.)- 
JitUy plur. maiu or majita, a great 

large man, a savage. 
Jituza ku; to make oneself mean or 

low. See Tuza. 
Jivarij purchase (of a dhow hal- 
yards). 
Jiviy a wild hog. 
Jivu = Jifu. 
Jiwa kw-, to be visited. 
JitoCf plur. matoe, a stone, a piece 
of stone. Plur. nuyiumy of very 
large pieces of stona 
Jitoe la manga, a piece of freestone. 
Nyumba ya matoey a stone house< 
Jodariy a kind of fish. 
Jogoi = cTb^oo. 
JogoOy plur. majogoo, a cock. 
Johari, a jewel. 
Joho, woollen doth, a long loose 

coat worn by the Arabs. 
Joka, plur. majokOy a very large 

snake. 
Jokoy a place to bake pots in. 
JokuMy charge, responsibility. 
JoTnbOy plur. ma^ombOy an exceed- 
ingly large vessel. 
Jongea ku-y to approach, come near 
to, move. , 

Jongea mvulini, move into the 
Bhade« 



JON 



JUZ 



295 



Jongeleza ku-t to bring near to, to 

offer. 
Jongeza ku^, to bring near, move 

towards, move. 
Jongoy gont 

Jongoe, a large kind of fish. 
Jongoo, a millepede. 
Jotjiya^ a Georgian, the most valued 

and whitest of female slaves. 
Jororo, soft. See -ororo, 
Joshj a voyage, a cruize. 

= Goshi, Luff! 
Jotqjoto. 

KupatajotojotOy to grow warip. 
Joyd, plur. majoyOt a cocoa-nut 

which is filled with a white 

spongy substance instead of tlie 

usual nut and juice. They are 

prized for eating. 
Jozi, Jeoziy or Jauzi, a pair, a pack 

of cards. 
Jozt, a walnut. 
Jua, plur. fno/tta, the sun. 

Jua kiltoani, noon. 
Jua &U-, to know how, to under- 

' stand, to know about, to know. 

Namjua aliko, I know where he is. 

Najua kiunguja, I understand the 
language of Zanzibar. 

Najua hufua chuma^ I know how 
to work in iron. 
Jvba, a mortice chisel. 
Jiiburu ku-f to compeL 
Jugo, ground nuts. 
Juhudi, an effort, efforts. 

KufanyaJiAhudi, to exert oneself. 
JuJUf plur, majt^ju, a fooL 
JukUf risk, a word iised by traders. 
Jukwom^ a scaffold, scaffolding. 
Julia ku-t to know about, see to. 
JuUsha ku , to make to know. 
Juma, Friday, a week. 

Juma amosi, Saturday. 



Juma a pUij Sunday. 

Juma a iatu, Monday. 

Juma a *nne, Tuesday. 

Juma a tano, Wednesday. 
Juma^ small brass nails used for 

ornamentation. 
Jumaa, an assembly. 
Jumba^ plur. majumha, a large houpe. 
Jumhey plur. majumbe, a chief,, a 

head-man, a prince, a sultan. 
Jumla, the sum, the total, addition 

(in arithmetic). 
Jumlisha ku% to add up, sum up, 

put together. 
Junta,, a kind of matting bag. See 

Ounia, 
Jura, a pair; a length of calico, 

about thirty-five yards. 
Jusi, 

HaijvM, it is unfitting. 
Jut Kdsam (Hind.), perjury. 
Juta ku't to be sorry for, to regret. 
Juu, up, the top, on the top. 

Yuko iuu, he is up-stairs. 

Juu ya, upon, above, over, on the 
top of, against. 
Juviika ku-, to make to know, to 

teach. 
Juvya ku-, to make to know. 
Juya, plur. majuya, a seine or drag- 
net made of cocoa-nut fibre rope. 
Juza, obligation, kindness. 
Juza ku; to make to know. 
Juzi, ihe day before yesterday. 

Mwakajuzi, the year before last. 

Juzijuzi, a few days ago. 
Juzia ku', to compel, to have power 

to compel. 
Juzu, necessity. 

Jambo lajuzu, a necessary thing. 
Juzu ku'y to oblige, to hold bound, 

to have under an obligation to do 

something. 



296 



JtJZ 



KAl) 



JuzuUy a seofion of the Koran. 
There are in all thirty, which are 
often written out separately. All 
the Juzuu together are Khitima 

K. 

K is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabs have two h'ny one, the 
kef or kafy a little lighter than the 
English k; and one, the kahf or 
qafy made wholly in the throat, and 
confounded by many Arabs with a 
hard g. There ,is a curious catch in 
the throat between the preceding 
vowel and the qafy very hard to 
explain, but easy enough to imi- 
tate. Although the correct pronun- 
ciation of these two k*a is an ele- 
gance, it is not necessary nor very 
commonly observed in spectking 
Swahili. 

Ki is very commonly i^onounced 
chi in Zanzibar, especially by slaves 
of the Nyassa and Yao tribes. 

Khy the Arabic kha, occurs only 
in words borrowed from the Arabic, 
and subsides into a simple h so soon 
as the word is thoroughly natu- 
ralized. I 

Khahari or Habari, news. 

Kheiri or Heri, well, good, for- 
tunate. 

7ia-, 'ka-, a syllable prefixed to or 
inserted in the imperative and 
subjunctive of verbs, with the 
force of the conjunction •* and.** 
-ka-, the sign of a past tense, used 
in carrying on a narration; it' 
includes the force of the con- 
junction •• and." 



AkamtoambiOy and he said to 
him. 

Nika- is often contracted into ha-. 
KoLa ku', to sit, to dwell, to stay, to 
live, to be, to stand, to remain, 
to continue, to live in, or at 

Kukcta kitako, to sit down, to re- 
main quietly. 
Kaa, plur* makaa, a piece of char- 
coal. 

Makaa, coals, charcoal, embers. 

Kaa la moshi or Makaa ya moski, 
soot. 
Xoa, a crab. 

Kaa makokOf small mud craba 
with one large claw. 

Kaa la kinwa^ the palate. 
Kaaka or KaaMay the palate. 
Kaanga ktt-f to fry, to braze, to cook 

with fat. 
Kaangoj plur. makaango, an earthen 

pot to cook meat in. 
Kaba ku-y to choke, to throttle. 
Kaha la kanzUy a sort of lining round 
, the neck and a short way down 

the front of a kanzu, put in to 

strongthen'it. 
KahaHs a wedge. 
KaMbu, narrow. 
Ifabila, a tribe, a subdivision loss 

than taifa. 
Kahili ku-y to be before, to be op- 
posite. 
KMluka ku-y to put opposite, to set 

before. 
Kabisay utterly, altogether, quite. 
Kabifhi ku-y to give into the hand. 
KaJtHay before, antecedently. 

Kahla yay before (especially of 
time). 
JTa&i^Zt, acceptance* 
Kahuliy pillaw, 
Kaburiy plur. mo^abuH (pronounced 



KAD 



KAL 



297 



by many Arabs Gahri), a grave, 
a tomb, 

Kadamu, a servant, the lowest of 
the three chief men usually set 
over the slaves on a plantation. 
On the Zambezi the man who 
stands at the head of the canoe 
to look out for shoals is called 
Kadamo, 

Kadiri or Kadri^ measure, modera- 
tion, capacity, middling, mode- 
rate, about, nearly, moderately. 
Kadri gani f how much ? 

Kadiri ya, as, whilst. 

Kculiri Zct^, to estimate. 

Kadri = Kadiri. 

Kafara, an offering to avert evil, a 
sacrifice of an animal or thing to 
be afterwards buried or thrown 
away, a charm made of bread, 
sugar-cane, &c., thrown down in 
a cross-way. Any one who takes 
it is supposed to carry away the 
disease, misfortune, &o. 

Kafij plur. makajU a paddle. 

Kafiri, plur. maJcafiri^ an infidel, an 
idolater, one who is not a Moham- 
medan. 

Kafuri, camphor. 

Kaga ku-, to put up a charm to 
protect something. 

Kago^ plur. nuigo, a charm to pro- 
tect what it is fastened to. 

Kngua fcw-, to go over and inspect. 

Kdhdba, plur. makahaba^ a prosti- 
tute. 

Kdhawa^ coffee. 

Kahini, plur. mdkahini, a priest, a 
soothsayer. 

Kai ku-f to fall down to, embrace 
the knees. 

KaidGy regularity. 
Va kaida, regular. 



'kaidi^ obstinate. 

KaimUf plur. maJcaimu, a vice- 
gerent, a representative. 
Kaka, a lemon after it has been 

squeezed, the rind of a lemon, 

the shell of an egg, &c. 
Kaka, a brother {Kihadimu, see 

Muhadimu), 
Kaka, a disease with swelling of 

the hand and opening into sores. 
Kakakaka^ very many. 
Kakamia, hard of heart. 
Kakamia ku, to be longsufferiog, 

slow to jbe affected. 
Kakamuka ku', to make an effort, 

to strain (as at stool, or in 

travail). 
Kakawana ku-, to be strong, capable 

of great exertion, well-knit and 

firm ii^ all the muscles. 
Kaki, a very thin kind of biscuit or 

cake. 
Kalafati ku-, to caidk. 
Kalamika ku-, to prevaricate in 

giving evidence (?), to cry from 

pain caused by medicine (?), 
KaWmka ku-, to be sharp, to have 

one's eyes open. 
KaWmkia kvr, to outdo, to be too 

sharp for. 
Kalamu, a pen. The pens f«ir 
writing Arabic are made <»f 
reed, and the nibs are cut 
obliquely. 

Kalamu ya rmjoanzi^ a reed pen. 
Kalamuzi, cunning, crafty. 
KaUisia, little brass pots. 
Kale, old time, formerly. 

-a kale, old, of old time. 

Zamani za kale, old times. 

Ha'po kale, once upon a time. 
Kalfati or Kalafati, caulking. 
'kali, sour, sharp, keen, ravage, 



298 



K AL 



crosB, severe, fierce. It makes 
kali with nouns like nyuniba, 
Jua Italiy a hot sun. 
Kalia fctt-, to remain fqr. 
Ku'mkalia tamuj to remain as he 
would wish. 
Kalibu, a mould, a furnace. 
Kamaj Karmna, Kana^ or Kwamha, 

as, as if, like, if, supposing. 
Kama few-, to milk, to squeeze. 
Kamamanga, a pomegranate. 
Kamali, a game played by chucking 
pice into a hole. If only one 
goes in they say ^Maliza** and 
' the player throws a flat stone on 

the one that is out. 
KamoM, mucus from the nose. 
Kufuta hamasi, to blow the nose. 
Siioezi fcawMMt, I have a cold in 
my head. 
Kamata ku-y to lay hold of, take, 

seize, clasp. 
Kamatana ku-, to grapple, to seize 

one another. 
Kamati, balls of wheat-flour lea- 
vened with tembo. 
Karnba, a crayfish. 
Kamba^ rope. 
Kamba ulayiti, European or 
hempen rope. 
Kambaa, plur. of ukambaa^ cord, 
string (M.). 
Kamhaa, a plaited thong or whip 
kept by schoolmasters and 
overlookers in Zanzibar. 
Kambali, plur. makaTnbali, a oat- 
fish living in ^resh water. 
KamharaUf a forelwaoe carried to 
the weather side to steady the 
yard of a dhow. 
Kdnibif plur. makambi, a circular 
encampment, a place where a 
caravan has hutted itself in. 



KAN 

Karnbo. 
Baba voa kawho, stepfather. 
Mama wa karnbo^ stepmuther. 

Kame, quite dried up, utterly 
barren. 

Kami, a bulbous plant with large 
head of red flowers. 

Kamia ku', to reproach. 
Kujikamia, to reproach oneself. 

Kamili, perfect, complete. 

'kamUifu, perfect, wanting nothing. 

KamiUka ku-, to be perfect. 

Kamilisha fett-, to make perfect. 

Kamua ku-f to press, to press 
out. 

Kamusif an Arabic lexicon. 

Kamwe (M.), not at 411, never. 

Kamwi — Kamwe, 

Kanoy a tiller. 

Kana, if, as. See Kama. 

Kana ku-j to deny. 

Kanda, plur. maJcaTida;, a long nar- 
row matting bag, broader at the 
bottom than at the mouth. 

Kanda ku-, to knead dough, to 
knead the limbs, to shampoo. 

Kandamiza ku-, to press upon. 

Kande, food (Mer.). 

Kanderinya^ a kettle. 

Kandika ku-, to plaster. 

Kandili, plur. mdkandili, a lantern. 

KandOy side, aside. 
Kando ya or Kandokando ya, 
beside, along by the side. 

Kanga, a guinea fowl. 

Kanga, a dry stem after the cocoa- 
nuts have been taken off. 

Kanga ku-* 
Kukanga mota, to warm. 

Kangaja, a small mandarin oiange. 

Kania ku-, to deny a person. 

Kanikiy dark blue calico. 

Kanisoy plur. makaniMy a ^urch. 



^AN 



EAR 



299 



Kanisha ku-, to deny, to make to 

deny. 
Kanjif starch, arrowroot. 
Kanju, plur. mdkanjUf a cashew 

apple (M.). 
Kanjuy vulgarly nsed for Kanzu, 
Kanuni, a thing implied, a neces- 
^ sary condition, of necessity. 
Kanioa, plnr. makantca, the mouth. 
Kanya ku-j to contradict. 
Kanyaga ku-, to tread, to tread 

upon, trample on. 
Kanyassa ku-, to scc^d. 
Kanzi, a treasure. 

Kanzu, a long shirt-like garment 
worn both by men and women 
in Zanzibar. Men's kanzus 
are white or^of a brown yellow 
colour, with ornamental work 
in red and white silk round 
the neck and down the breast; 
they reach to the heels. Wo- 
men's kanzu8 are generally 
shorter, and are made of every 
variety of stuff, frequently of 
satin or brocade, but are always 
bound with red. 
Parts of a Kanzu (men's) \ 
Too la kanzu, bottom hem. 
Ma^ongo nena, seams. 
Badani, front and back pieces. 

Also Kimo. 
TdharizU side pieces. 
SijafUf pieces turned in at the 
wrists, to receive the darizi. 
Vikujapa, gores. 
Lisani, flap under the opening 

in front 
Jdbali, red line across the back. 
Mkalbori, lining at the back of 

the darizi in front. 
Kaabay lining of the neck and 
shoulders. 



Sliada, tassel at the neck. 
Kitanzh loop opposite the tassel 

in front. 
Kazi ya shingo, the elaborately 
worked border round the 
neck, including— 
Tiki, red sewiug over of the 

edge of the neck. 
Mrera, lines of red round 

the neck. 
Vihokoy shiall zigzag orna- 
ment in the middle of the 
neck-border. 
Vinara, small spots forming 
the outer edge of the 
border. 
Darizi, lines of silk worked 
round the wrists and down 
the front. 
Mjuzi (Ar. Bhararajt), orna- 
ment at the bottom of the 
strip of embroidery in front. 
Mkia tea mjuzi, line of silk 
running up the front from the 
mjuzi. 
Vipajiy or viguu, four little 
projections on the sides of 
the mjazi. 
Kanzu ya ziki, worked with white 
cotton round the neck instead of 
red silk. 
Kaoleni, one whose words are not 
to be trusted, a double-tongued 
man. 
Kaomwaf cidumba root. 
Kapi, plur. makapi, a pulley. 
Kapi, plur. makapiy bran, husks. 
Kapiana feu- (mt'&ono), to shake 

hands. 
Kapu, plnr. makapu^ a large basket 

or matting bag. 
Kapwaiy a kind of rice. 
Karafati ku- = Kalafati. 



300 



KAB 



gAT 



Karafu mayiti, camphor, 
Karama, a special gift of God, an 

answer to a holy man's prayer, 

an honour. 
iaramuy a feast 
Karaniy a secretary, a derk, a 

supercargo. 
Karantf tucks. 
Kararaj the woody flower-sheath of 

the cocoa-nut tree. 
KaratOj playing-cards. 
Karatha, a loan of money. 
KarcUasi, paper. 

Karihy near, come near, come in. 
Kartbia feu-, to approach, to draw 

near to. 
Karibiana feu-, to be near to one 

another. 
Karibisha, to make to come near, to 

invite in. 
Karibu, near, a near relative. 

Karihu na or ya, near to, near. 
KarimUf liberal, generous. 
Karipia feu-, to cry out at, scold. 
Kariruha ku-, to recite, 
Kasa, a turtle. 
Kaearanij sorrow, grief. 
Kasasiy . retaliation, revenge, ven- 
geance. 
Kashay plur. makaahOy a che^t, a 

large box. 
Kashifu kur, to depreciate. 
Kashmir^ the ace of spades. 
Kasia, plur. mdkasiaf an oar. 

Kuvuta mdkasiaj to row. 
Kasiba, a gun barrel. 
KoMdij intention, purpose. 
Kasifa, inquisitiveness. 
KcLsifu ku-, to be inquisitive. 
Kanki, a large earthen jar for ghee. 
Kasimele, the juice of grated cocoa- 
nut before water is put to it. 

Tut la kasimeU, See Tui, 



Tui la kupopoloa, the same after 
mixing with water, and straiu- 
ing again. 
JTonrt, towards the end, late. 
Kcmrika ku-, to become vexed, 
Katirisha feu-, to vex, 
Katiri ku-, to hurt, vex, 
Kaskaziy the northerly wind which 
blows from December till 
March. 
Kaskazintf in a northerly direc- 
tion. 
Kasoro, less by. 
Kasm, less by. 
Kas»a robOf three-quarters of a 
dollar. 
Kassi. See Kuun, 
Kasi^ hard, with Tiolenoe. 
Kwenda ktusi^ to rush along, 
KuJtia kasdf to tighten. 
Katumboy a preparation of opiam. 
Kataa ku-, to refuse. 
Kata, plur. makata^ a ladle made of 
a cocoa-nut, only about a third («f 
the shell being removed. A kata 
holds Crom a quarter to half a pint, 
Kata, a ring of grass or leaves put 
on the head under a wate^pot or 
other burden. 
Kata ku-f to cut, clip, divide. 
Kujikatoy to cut oneself. 
Kukata hananu, to cut obliquely. 
Kukata maneno, to settle au affair, • 

to decide. 
KvJcata naJcahi, to ornament with 

carving, to carve. 
Kukata tamaoy to despair. 
Njia ya kukaia, a short cut, the 
nearest way. 
Kdtaha ku-, to write. 
Katakata feu-, to chop np. 
Katalia ku-, to deny all credence, 
to refuseto be convinced. 



KAT 



KAZ. 



301 



Katani, flax, thread, striog, cotton- 
thread. 
Katazfl hu't to prohibit, to deter. 
Kailidliha^ in like mantier. 
KathdiodkcUha, Inany, many more. 
WcUu kathdwakaUia, snoh and 
snch people. 
Kathi, plur. mahathi^ a judge, a 

cadL 
Kaii^ inside, middle, the court 

within a house. 
Katia ku'y to out for. 
Kukatiwa, to have cut, or cut out 

for one. 
Ni kiasi changu kama nalikaiiwa 
mimij it fits as though I had 
been measured for it. 
KatikcL, amoDg, at, from, in, about. 
Katika implies nearness at least 
at the beginning of the action ; 
it has very nearly the same 
meaning as the case in -nt. 
Katika tafari mle, during that 
journey. 
Katika ku-j to come apart, to be cut, 

to break, to be decided. 
Katikati^ in the midst. 
Katikati ya, &c., in the midst of, 
between. 
KatUh a murderous, bloodthirsty 

person, an infidel. 
Katinakati, in the middle. 
Katiti (A.), little. 
Katiza ku-, to put a stop to, to 

break off, to interrupt 
Koto, plur. makato, a cutting, a 

breaking off. 
Katu, a kiud of gum chewed with 

betel. 
Katu^ ku-^ to polish, to brighten. 
Katuka ku-, to be polished, to be 

brlghU 
Kauka ku-, to get dry, to dry. 



Sauti imekaukoy I am hoarse. 
KatUi, a word. 
Kauri, a cowry. 

Kausha ku-, to make dry, to dry. 
'kavuy dry. It makes kavu with 

nouns Uke nyumba, 
KavDOf a oonioal dish-coyer of 
plaited straw, often ornamented 
with spangles, &c. 
Kawa, mildew, spots of mould. 
Kufanya kaujo, to get mildewed 
or mouldy. 
Kawa ku'f to be delayed, to tarry, 

to be a long while. 
Kawa4i (a term of reproach), a bad 

man. 
KavjaicUiy necessity, custom. 
Kawe, a pebble, a small stone (M.). 
Kawia ku-, to delay. 
Kawilia ku-, to loiter about a busi- 
ness. 
Kawisha ku-j to keep, to delay, to 

cause to stay. 
Kaya, plur. makaya, a pinna, a kind 

of shell-fish. 
Kayamba, a sieve, a sort of rattle. 
Kaza ku; to fix, to tighten, (of 
clothes) to fit tightly, to go 
hard at anything. 
Kukaza kwimiba^ to sing louder. 
Kvkaza mhio, to run hard. 
KoMina ku', to fix one another, to 
tighten together, to hold together 
tightly, to be robust 
Kazi, work, labour, employment, 
business. 
Ndio kazi yoke, that is what he 

always does. 
Kazi mbi m mtezo mwema? Is 
not poor work (as good as) good 
play (mbi for n-wi) 7 
Kazika ku-, to become tight, to 
become fixed. 



302 



-KAZ 



EHE 



-hazoy nipping:, pressing? tight. 

'he, female, f jminine, -the weaker. 

Kee = Kelele (N.). 

KeezOi a lathe, a maohiiie for turn- 
ing. 

Kefule! an exdamation of con- 
tempt. 

Ke/yakefya leu-, to teaze, to put in 
low spirits. 

Keke, a drill. The oarpenters in 
Zanzibar always use drills, which 
are much better anited to the 
native woods than gimlets are. 
The iron is called hekee, the wood 
in which it is fixed msuhano^ the 
handle in which it turns Mvu, 
and the bow by whidi it is turned 
Uta. 

Kekee, a kind of silver bracelet. 

KeleUy plur. makelde, noise, uproar, 
shouting. 

jrem(Ar.),Hbwmuch? How many? 

Kmtiea ku-^ to rebuke, to snub, to 
scold. 

Kenda = Kwenda and Kaenda. 

Kenda, nine. 

Ya kenday ninth. 

Kend^pii for kwenda wapi, going 
where, i.e., where are you going ? 

Kenge^ a large water-lizard with 
slender body and long limbs and 
tail. 

Kengea, the blade of a sword, knife, 
&c. 

Kengelct a bell. 
Kupiga kengele^ to ring a bell. 

Kera ku-, to worry, to nag at. 

Kerani = Karani. 

Kereketa ku, to irritate the throat, 
to choke. 

Kereza ku-, to saw, to turn, to cut 
a tree half through, and lay it 
down, 80 as to make a fence. 



Kerimu hu-, to feast, to be liberal to. 

Kering'ende, a dragon-fly, the red* 
legged partridge. 

Kero, trouble, disturbance, uproar. 

Kesha, a watch, a vigil. 

Kesha'ku', to watch, to remain 
awake, not to sleep. 

Kesheza ku-, to make, to watch, to 
keep awake. 

Kesho, to-morrow. 
Kesho kutwa or huchwa, the day 
after to-morrow. 

Kete, a cowry. 

Keti ku', to sit down, stay, live(M.). 

Khahari, news, information. 

Khadaa, fraud. 

Khafifu, light, unimportaat. 

Khaini, a traitor. 

Khdfds, the end, there is no more. 

Khdlifu ku- or Halifu ku-, to resist, 
oppose, rebel against. 

Kkalisi ku-, to deliver. 

KhanU, a chess bishop. 

Kham»i, five. 

Kkarmini, fifty. ^ 

Khamstashara, fifteen. 

Kharadali, mustard. 

Khdrij ku-, to spend. 

Khashifu ku- = Kashifu hu-. ' 

Khatari, danger. 

Khati, a note, letter, documeut, 
memorandum, writing, hand- 
writing, 

Khatibu, plur. makhatibtt, a secre- 
tary, a preacher. 

Khatima, end, eompletion. 

Khatimisha ku-, to bring to an end, 
complete. 

Khafiya, fault. See Hatiya, 

Khazanti, a treasure. 

Khema, a tent. 

Kheiri = Heri, well, forluuate, 
happy, good. 



KHt 



KIA 



303 



JfSRu wa kheiri, a happy man. 

JCtra Jcheirij for good. 

Ni Meiri, I had better. 
Kkitvi ku^, to betray. 
Khitari hu-y to choose. 
Khitima nzimay a complete copy of 

the Koran. See Juzuu, 
Khojisha ku-, to frighten. 
Khqfu, fear, danger. 

Kuwa na Ithofu^ ^ to become 

Kuingiwa na khofu, S afraid. 
> Kutia khofu, to frighten. 
Khorj, a pad nsed as a saddle for 

donkeys. 
Khoshi (?), paint, colowr. 
Khvhiri hu-, to inform, give news. 
Khtuumu, enmity. 
Khtaubu hu-y ta preach. ' 
Khuzurungi or Huthurungi, a sinff 

of a brown yellow colour, of which 

the best men's kanzus are made. 
Ki-y a prefix forming a diminutive. 
It becomes ch- before a >oweI, 
and ip the plural it becomest^i- 
and vy-, or in other dialects zi- 
or ihi', 

Ki' as a prefix also means (es- 
pecially if prefixed to proper 
names), such a sort ; and when 
used alone, words of such a 
J sort, i.e. such a language. 

Mavazi ya kifaume, royal robes. 

Viazi vya kizungu, European 
potatoes. 

Kiarahu, Arabic. 

Kiyao, the Yao language. 
Ki- or ch-, the adjectival and pro- 
nominal prefix proper to words 

agreeing with substantives of the 

above forms. 
Ki- or eft-, the personal prefix of 

verbs having substantives of the 

above form as their subject. 



'hi-, the objective prefix of verbs . 
having substantives of the above 
form as their object. 
-ki-, the sign of tiliat tense which 
expresses a state of thiogp, 
being that, which may be trans- 
lated by the help of the words, 
if, supposing, when, while, or 
be treated as a present parti- 
ciple in 'ing. « 
Niki- may be contracted into hi-. 
Alikuwa akiogolea, he was bath^ 

ing. 
Akija, if he comes, or when he 

comes. 
The syllable -ki- is inserted in 
the past perfect tense to d&r 
note a continuing action or 
stHite. 
Walip(hki-pendana,'S9h.en or while 
they loved one another. 
Kia, plur. via, a piece of wood) a 

kind of latch, a bar. 
Kia ku-, to step over. 
Kiada, slowly, distinctly. 
Kialio, plur. vialio, cross pieces 
put in a cooking pot to prevent 
the meat touching the bottom 
and burning. 
Kianga, the coming out of the sun 

after rain. 
Kiapo, plur. viapo, an ordeal, an \ 

oath. 
Kiarabu, Arabic. 

Ya kiarabu, Arabian. 
Kia^i = Kiassi. 
KiasB cha bunduki, a cartridge. 
Kiassi, measure, moderation. 
Kiassi gani ? or Kassi gani f How 
much? 
Kiatu, plur. viatu, a shoe, a sandal. 
Viatu vya mti, a sort of tall 
wooden clog wtnrn in the lK>tise> 
x2 



304 



KIA 



KIO 



and especially by women. They 
are held on by grasping a sort 
of button (msunidki) between 
the great and second toe. 
Kiazi, plur. viazi, a sweet potato. 

Kiazi kikuu^ plur. viazi vikuUf a 
yam. 

Kiazi sena, with white skin. 

Kiazi kindorOf with red skin. 
Kiba haluli, a knot of maJcuti to 

light a pipe with. 
Kibaha, a measure, about a pint 

basin full, a pint basin, about a 

pound and a half. 
Kibaktdi, a kind of mtama, 
Kibali fcu-, to prosper. 
Kibanda, plur. mbandctf a hut, a 

hoyel, a shed. 
Kibanzi, plur. vibanzit a splinter, a 

very small piece of wood. 
Kibao^ plur. mhao, a shelf, a small 

piece of plank. In Tumbatu a 

chair is called kiha^, 
Kibapara, a pauper, a destitute 

person (an insulting epithet). 
KibarangOf a short heavy stick. 
Kibaraza, plur. vibaraza, a small 

stone seat. 
Kibarua, plur. vibarua^ a note, a 

ticket. Kibarua is now used 

in Zanzibar to denote a person 

hired by the day, from the 

custom of giving such persons a 

ticket, to be delivered up when 

they are paid. 
Kiberiii, sulphur. 

Viberiti, matches. 
Kibetiy a dwarf. 

Kuku kibetit a bantam. 
Kibia^ plur. vibia, an earthen pot-Hd. 
KibiongOf plur. vibiongo, a person 

bent by age or infirmity. 
Kibobtoe, plur. vibobwe,. a piece of 



cloth tied round the loins during 
hard work. 

Kibofu^ plur. vibofu, a bladder. 

Kibogoshif plur. vibogoiki, a small 
skin bag. 

KibokOy plur. vtboko, a hippo- 
potamus. See also Kanzu, 

Kibua, a small fish. 

Kilmetaj plur. vibuet^, a box. 

KibtUa, the kebla^ the point to 
which men turn when they pray. 
Among the Mohammedans the 
kibtUa is the direction in which 
Mecca lies, which is in Zanzibar 
nearly north. Hence kibtda is 
sometimes used to mean tbe 
north. 

Kibvia ku-t to point towards, to be 
opposite to. 

Kibumba^ plur. vibumba, a small 
paper box or case of anything. 

Kiburit pride. 

Kiburipembe, a native bird. 

Kichaay lunacy. 
Mwenyi kiehaa^ a lunatic. 

Kichakat plur. vichaka, a thicket, a 
heap of wood or sticks. 

KiehakLy plur. vichala, a bunch. 
Kiehala cha mzabibtt, a bunch of 
grapes. 

Kichekoy plur. vicheko, a laugh, a 
gigRle. 

Kichikichiy plur. vichikichi^ the 
small nuts contained in the fruit 
of the palm-oil tree. 

KichilenMy plur. vichilema, the 
heart of the growing part of 
the cocoa-nut tree, which is 
eaten as a salad, and in various 
ways. 

Kicho, plur. vichoy fear, a fear. 

Kichocheoy tlie act of pushing wood 
further into the fire, an instru- 



KIO 



KIF 



305 



ment for doing it, exciting woirds 

to stir up a quarrel. 
KuhocJiorOy plur. vickochoro, a very 

narrow passage, such as ja gene- 
rally left between the houses in 

Zanzibar. 
Kichwa, plur. vichwa, for Kitwa, the 

head. 
Kidaka, plur. vidaka^ a recess in 

the wall. 
Kidaka, plur. vidaha, a cocoa-nut 

when just formed. 
Kidaka tonge, the uvula. 
Kidanga, a very small fruit, before 

it gets any taste. 
Kidari, the chest : kidari is used of 

both men and animals, kifua of 

men only. 
Kidau, plur. vidauy a small vessel. 

Kidau cha wino, an inkstand. 
Kidevu, plur. videvu, the chin. 
Kidimbmf plur. vidimbud, a pool 

left on the beach by the falling 

tide. 
Kidinga popo, the dengtte fever. 
Kidogo, plur. vidogo, a little, a very 

little, a little piece, a morsel, a 

crumb. 
Kidoko. 

Kupiga kidoko, to click with the 
tongue. 
Kiddle, plur. vidole, a finger, a toe. 

Kidole cha gumha, the thumb. 
Kidonda, plur. vidonda, a sore, a 

small sore, a wound. 
Kidonge, plur. vidonge, a very small 

round thing, a lump in flour, a pill. 
KidotOy plur. vidoio, a small piece of 

cloth tied over a camel's eyes 

while turning an oil press. 
Kidezo, plur. viehzo, a pattern, 

spmething to make something 

else clear. 



Kievu (A.) = Kidevu. 

Kiendelezo, progress. 

Kifa, plur. rifa, the nipple of a gun. 

Kifa uwongo, the sensitive plant. 

Kifafa, epilepsy, fits. 

Kifafa, plur. vifafa, sparks and 

crackling of damp firewood. 
Kifani, plur. vifani, the like, a 

similar thing. 
KifanOf plur. vifano, a likeness. 
Kifaranga, plur. vifaran^a, a 

chick, a very small chicken. 
Kifaruy plur. vifwruy a rhinoceros, 

a small rhinoceros. 
Kifaume, royalty, a royal sort. 

Ya kifaumej royal. 
Kifiko, plur. vijiko, arrival, point of 

arrival, end of journey. 
Kifu ku'f to suffice. 
Kifu ndugu, the oa coccygis, the 

bone which the Mohammedans 

say never decays. 
Kifua, plur. vi/ua, the chest, the 

bosom. 
Kifufu, plur. w/w/t*, the shell of the 

cocoa-nut (M.). 
Ki/uico, plur. vi/uko, a little bag, a 
pocket, a purse. 

Kifuko cha kutilia fetha, a purse. 
Kifumbu, plur. vi/umbu, a small 

round basket or bag for squeezing 

scraped cocoa-nut in to get out 

the tui. 
Kifumbo, plur. vifumbo, a very large 

kind of matting bag. 
Kifundo eha mguu, the ankle. 
Kifando cha mkono, the wrist. 
Kifungo, plur. vffungo, anything 

which fastens, a button, prison, 

imprisonment, a kind of rice. 
Kifungua, an unfastener, an opener. 

Ki/ungua kanwa, early food, 
breakfast. 



808 



KIV 



SIJ 



Kifungua nilango, a preseat made 
by the bridegroom to the Icungu 
of the bride before she allows 
him to eater the bride's room, 
on the occasion of his first 
visit to her. 
Ki/unikoy plui. vifunikoy a lid, a 

cover. 
Kifuo^ plnr. vifuo, a stick stuck in 
the ground to rip the husk off 
cocoa-nuts with. 
Ki/urushi, something tied up in .the 

comer of a cloth. 
Kiftisiy rubbish, rubbiflh from old 

buildings. 
Ki/uu, plur. vifuiLy a cocoa-nut 

sheU. 
Kigaga, plur. vigaga^ a scab. 
Kigai, plur. vigai^ a piece of broken 

pottery or glass, a potsherd. 
Kiganda chapili, the two of cards. 
Kigaogao, the Pemba name for a 
chameleon, meaning changeable. 
Kigego = Kijego. 

Kigerenyenz4i, plur. fftgerenyenza, a 
very small piece of broken pottery 
or glass, a splinter. 
KigeUgele, plur. vigdegeU^ a shrill 
trilUng scream much used as a 
sign of joy, especially on the 
occasion of a birth. 
KigogOf a little block of wood. 
Kigogo cha kushoneay a small 
oblong piece of wood used by 
shoemakers. 
Kigmgoy the hump of a humpbacked 
person. 
Mwenyi kigongo, a humpback. 
Kigono^ plur. vigono (Yao), a sleep- 
ing place. 
Kigosho, a bend. 
Kigoeho cha miconoj an arm tiiat 
cannot be straightened. 



Kigugumiziy stammering,» stavux^r- 

Kigulu, lame. 

Kigunni, plur. ^viguntd, an oHong 

matting bag of the kind in which 

dates are brought to Zanzibar. 
Kigunzi, the day before the Siku a 

mwdka, 
Kigwe, plur. vigwe^ a plaited cord, 

reins, a string of beads, a piping 

on the edge of a dress. 
Kiharusi, cramp. 
Kiherehere (cha moyo\ trepidation, 

palpitation (of the heart). 
Kikindi, the Indian sort, an Indian 
language. 

Ya kihindiy Indian. 
Kihoroy sorrow at a loss» ^ght, 

homesickness. 
Kiini, kernel, the heart of wood. 

Kiini cha yayi, the yolk of an 

egg. 
Kiintmacho, a oonjuror. 
Kiisha or KUha^ afterwards, next, 

this being ended. 
Kijakazi, plur. mjakazi, a slave girL 
Kijamanda^ plur. vijamanda^ a 

small long-shaped boK commonly 

used to carry betel and areca- 

nut in. 
Kyanoy plur. vijafM^ a youth, a 

young man, a complimentary 

epithet, ^a boy or girl, a son or 

daughter. 
Kijaluba, phir. v^ahba, a small 

metal box. 
Kijamba, plur. v^amiba^ a smidl sock. 
Kijardha, plur. vijaraha, a onall 
wound. 

Kijaraha cha hooni, sores on the 
penis, syphilis. 
Kijego, plur. mjego, a child wbicli 

cuts its upper teeth first They 

aro reckoned unlucky, and ammg 



KIJ 



KIK 



807 



the wilder tribes are often killed. 

Applied by way of abuse to bad 

children. 
Kijiboho, pliir. mjibokot a little 

hippopotamus. 
Kijicho, envy, an envious glance. 
Kijiguu, plur. vijiguu, a little leg. 
Kijiko, plur. mjiko, a small spoon, 

aspocHi. 
Kijitif plur. vijiti, a little tree, a 

bush, a shrub» a small pole, a 

piece of wood. 
Kijito^ plur. vijUo^ a small stream, 

a brook. 
Kijito (M.) = Kijicho» 
Kijitwa or Kijidiwa, plur. vijUwa^ 

a little head. 
Kijivi, thievish. 
Kijogoo, plur. vijogoOy a mussel, a 

kind of shellfish. 
Kijoliy the slaves belonging to one 

master. 
Kijomha, Swahili (M.). 
Kijongo = Ki$ongOy a humpback. 
Kijukuu, plur. vijuhuu^ a great- 
grandchild. 
Kywwbey plur. vijumbe, a go- 
between, a match-maker. 
KijwmbcLj plur. vifttm&o, a little 

house, a hoveL 
KikaangOy plur. vikaango, a smaU 

earth^L pot for cooking with oil 

or fat. 
Kikakaj over-baste. 
KihaUy old style, the antique. 

Ya kikale^ of the ancient kind, 
antique» of old times. 
KikaOy plur. v&cao, a seat, sitting, 

dwelliDg-place. 
KikapUf plur. vihapu^ a basket, a 

matting bag. 
Kikaramba, a very old person (dis- 
respectful). 



Kikiea kw^ to understand half of 
what is said. y 

Haiti Mi yanikikitUj I know some 
of the words, but not all. 
Kiko, plur. viko^ a tobacco pipe, a 

pipe. The native pipes consist 

of a vessel half full of wat« with 

two steiM, one leading to the 
• bowl and one to the mouthpiece : 

the water vessel is properly tire 

kiko. See horiy digali, timUo, and 

^tHamu. 
Kikoa, plur. mkoa. 

Kula kikoa, to eat at the expense 
of each one in turn. 
KiJcofiy the inside of the fingers. ^ 
Kikohozi, a cough. 
Kikoi, plur. vikoi, a white loin* 

cloth with coloured stripes near 

the border. 
Kikombe^ plur. vikombe, a cup. 
Kikcmbo, a little crooked thing. 
KikomOf plur. vikomo,. end, end of 
journey, arrival. 

Kikemo eha tao, the brow, es« 
peeially if prominent. 
K^ndoo, See Kondoo. 
Kikongwe^ plur. vikongum, an ex- 
tremely old person, a £eeble old 

woman. 
Kikona, pltlr. vikonOy the prow of a 

small native vessel. 
Kikonyo, plur. vikonyOi flower and 

fruit stalks, the stalks of cloves. 
Kikarombtoe, a cry made into the 

hand by way of signal, a call. 
Kikosi or Ukosi, the nape of theneek. 
Kikoto, plur. vikoto (M.), a plaited 

thcmg <»r whip carried by an 

overlooker and used in schools. 
Kikoti, plur. mkozi, a detachmenii, 

a band, company, division. 
Kikvba, plur. viktdbat a small packet 



308 



KIK 



KIM 



. of aromatic leaves, ^&c., worn in 
the dress by women. It is com- 
posed of rehani, sprinkled with 
daliay and tied up with a strip of 
the mkadi, 

Kikuku, plur. vikuku, a bracelet, an 
arm ring. 
Kikuku cha kupandia frasiy a 
stirrup. 

Kikunazi (?), labia (obscene). 

Kikurhbo. 
Kupiga kikumho^ to push aside, 
to shove out of the way. 

Kikutay pliir. vikutay a small stone 
wall. 

Kikvjapa, the perspiration from the 
armpit. See also Kanzu. 

Kikwiy plur. rnkwi, a thousand, ten 
thousand. 

Kilango, a narrow entrance. 
Kihmgo cha bdhari, straits. 
Kilango cha jaha^ the gate of 
Paradise. 

Kile, that, yonder. 

Ki/e/«, a round flat wheaten cake. 

KtlelCi plur. vHele, a peak, a sum- 
mit, a pointed top, a pointed 
shoot in a tree or plant. 

Kilemay plur. vilema, a deformed 
person. 
Si vema kucheka kHema, it is 
wrong to laugh at one who is 
deformed. 

Kilemha, plur. vilemha, a turban, a 
customary present at the comple- 
tion of a job and on many other 
occasions. 

KHemb-we, a great-grandson. 

KiUo, plur. vileo, intoxication, an 
intoxicating thing. 

Kilete, plur. vilete, metal rowlocks, 
crutches. 

Kilevu = Kidevu, 



Kili/Uy plur. vUifu, the cloth-like 

envelope of the young ooooa-nut 

leaves. 
Kilima, plur. mUma, a hill, arising 

ground, a mound of earth. 
KUirnhiliy the wrist. 
Kilimia, the Pleiades (?). 
£t2tmo,cultivation,the crop planted. 

Kilimo cha nini? what is the 
crop to be? 
Kilindiy plur. mUndi, the deeps, 

deep water. 
KUinga popo (?), rheumatism. 
Kilinge cha mai^eno, cha uganga^ 

speaking in a dark manner not 

generally understood. 
Kilioj, plur. t?t7tp, a cry, weeping. 
KUiza ku-, to chink money. 
KiUa or KuUa, every. 

Killa nendapo, wherever I go, or, 
every time I go. 
Kiluthuy velvet 
Kima, a monkey. 
Kimay price, measure. 
Kivfiajiy damp. 
Kimanda^ an omelette. 
Kimanduy the piece of wood put on 

behind the sill and lintel of a 

door to receive the pivots on 

which it turns. 
Kimanga, a small kind of grain. 
Kimangay of the Arab sort. 8ee 

Manga, 
Kimango, 

Chui kimango, a full-grown leo- 
pard. 
Kimashamba, belonging to the 
country, a country dialeci 

Ya kinmshamha, countrified. 
KimbaumbaUi a chameleon. 
Kimbia kw, to run away, to flee. 
Kimhiza ku-, to make to run away, 

to put to flight. 



KIM 



KIN 



3C9 



Kimbizia htht to make to run away 
from. 

Kimerima. See MeHma. 

Kimeta, a sparklino:, a glitter. 

Kimetimetif plur. vimetimeti, a fire- 
fly. 

Kimia, plur. i^mtd, a circular cast- 
ing-net. 

KimiOj the uvula, an enlarged 
uvula. 

KimOy it is or was inside. 

Kirnqja, one. See Mojo, 

Kimporoto, nonsense. 

Kimurimurif plur. tnmurimurit a 
fire-fly. 

Kimvunga, a hurricane. 

Kimwa ku-, to be tired, disgusted, 
to be cross at having anything to 
do. 

Kimwondo, plur. vimwondoy a mis- 
sile, a shooting star, because they 
are said to be thrown by the 
angels at the Jins. 

Kimyoy silence, perfect stillness. 
Mtu toa himyakimyay a still man. 

Kino, 
Kina «m, people like us. 
Makasha haya ya kina Ahdallcih, 
these chests belong to Abdal- 
lah's people. 

Kinay plur. vtna, a verse, the final 
syllable of the lines, which is the 
same throughout the poem. 

Kinai ku-, to be content without, 
to withhold oneself from desiring, 
to be self-satisfied, to revolt at, 
to nauseate. 

KinaUha ^u-, to revolt, to make 
unable to eat any more, to take 
away the desire of. 

KirujMiizi or Kiinamiziy stooping to 
one's work. 

Kinandih plof- vinanda^ a stringed 



instrument, applied to nearly all 
European instruments. 

Kinara, plur. vinara, a little tower, 
a candlestick. See also Kanzu, 

Kifiayat self-content, insolence. 

Kinayi ku- s Kinai ku", 

Kinda, plur. makinda, a very youngs 
bird, the young of birds. 

Kindana ku-y to object to, to stand 
in the way of. 

Kinena, the abdomen. 

Kinga, plur. wngfo, a brand, a half- 
burnt piece of firewood. 

Kingoy a stop, a limit put to a 
thing. 

Kinga ku-, to put something to catch 
something, to guard oneself, to 
ward a blow. 
Kuhinga mvua, to put something 
to catch the rainwater. 

Kingaja, plur. vingaja, a bracelet of 
beads. 

Kingalingali, on the back (of falling 
or lying). 

Kingama ku-, to lie across. 
Mti umekingama njianif a tree 
lies across the road- 

Kingamisha ku-, to block, to stop, 
to spoil. 

Kingey too little. 

Chakula kinge, too little food. 

KingojOf a watch, time or place of 
watching. 

Kingozif the old language of Me- 
linda, the poetical dialect, diffi- 
cult and ill-understood language. 

Kinguhway the spotted hysBua. 

Kinika ku-, to be certain or ascer- 
tained about a person. 

Kinjunjuri, 
Kukaia kinjunjuri, to shave all 
the hair except one long tuft. 

Kinono, plur. vinonOj a fatling. 



310 



Ellf 



KIP 



Kifwo^ plur. vinoOf a whetstone. 

Kinoo. 
Embe kinoo, a small y^ow kind 
of manno. 

Kinu, plur. vinu, a wooden m<»rtar 
for pounding and for cleaning 
com, an oil-mill, a mill 
Kinu cha kukhindikia, a mill for 

pressing oiL 
Kinu cha moshi, a steam mill. 

Kinvhi^ plur. wnvhi, a harp» 
Ya Kimdti, Nubian. 

Kinwa = KinywcL • 

Kinvsa, plur. vinwa^ a mouth. 

Kinwa nuihuzi, the imperial, the 
place wh^:e the imperial grows. 

KinyaOf filth, dung. 

Kinyago, plur. vinyago, a thing to 
frighten people, such as a mock 
ghost, &o., &0. 

Kinyegere, a small animal, a skunk. 

Kinyemi, pleasant, good. 

Kinyenyefu, a tickling, a tingling. 

Kinyezi. See Kinyaa, 

Kinyi, having. Bee -inyi. 

Kinyonga, plur. vinyongoy a chame- 
leon. 

Kinyozi, plur. vinyosi, a barber, a 
shaver. 

Kinyuma = Kinyumie» 

Kinyume, afiserwards. 

Kinyume, going back, shifting, 
alteration, an enigmatic way of 
«peaking, in which the last syl- 
lable is put first See Appendix I. 

Kinyumbaf a kept mistre^ss. 

KinyunyOy plur. vinyunyay a kind 
of cake, a little cake made to try 
the quality of the flour. 

Kingwa, plur. vinywa, a drink, a 
beverage. 

Kinywajiy plur. vinywajif a beve- 
rage» a usual beverage. 



Kinxa ftt*-, to contradict, deay. 
Kioga, plur. viogat a mushroom. 
Kiokosi, plur. viokosi, a reward for 
finding a lost thing and retomiog 
it to the owner. 
KicjOf plur. ffiojay a curiosity. 
£fOft<la, a taster. 
Kionda mtuzi, the imperial, the 
place where the imperial grows 
(M.). 
Kiongozi, plur. viongosi, a leadtf, a 

guide, a caravan guide. 
KiongiDe,' plur. viongtoe^ a donkey 
£iom the mainland; they are re- 
puted very hard to manage. 
KioOy plur. vuH), ^ass, a gkss, a 
looking-glflss, a piece of gkus, — 
a fish4iook (M.). 
Kiopoo, a pole or other instrument 
to get things out of a well, ke^^ 
with. 
Kiosha miguu, a present made by 
the bridegroom to the kungu of 
the bride on the occasion of his 
first visit 
Kiota, plur. viota, a hen's nest, a 

laying ]:^aoe, a bird's nest , 
Kioto = Xioto. 
Kioujo, 
Kupiga kiovje^ to scream, ozy for 
help. 
KiotoevUf a liquid. 
Kioza, putridity. 

Kipa mkono, a present made by the 

bridegroom to the bride when he 

first sees her taoe. 

KipaOj plur. vipaa, a thatched root 

the long sides of a roof. 

Kipaa eka mbeU, the front skpe 

of the roof. 
JSjipoa eha nyuma, the back slope 
of the roof. 
Kipag^ a kiod of mtama. 



KIP 



KIB 



311 



Kipaji, a kind of cosmetk. See 

also Kanz^. 
KipakUj plur. vipaJcu, a spot or 

mark of a different colour, 
Kipamho^ adornment 
Kipande, plur. vipaiidef a pieoe, an 
instrument, a small rammer £or 
beating roofis. 
Vipande vya kupimia, nautical 

instruments. 
Kipande kilichonona, a piece of 
fsd, 
Kipanga, a large bir^ oi prey, a 

horse-fly. 
Kipangozi^ a sluggish incurable 

sore on a horse or ass. 
Kipara, plur. vipara, a shaved place 

on l^e head. 
Kipdcj plur. vipeUy a pimple. 
Kipendij a darling, a favourite. 
Kipenu^ plur. vipenUf a lean-to, the 

side cabins of a ship. 
Kipenyo, a small plaoo where some- 
thing passes through. 
KipepeOy plur. vipepeo, a fSswi for 

blowing the fire, a butterfly. 
KipetOj plur. vipetOj a padiet 
Kipi or Kipia, a cock's spur. 
Kipigi a rainbow (?). 
Kipilaj a curlew. 
KipiJipili' 

Nyele za kipilipili, woolly hair, 
Kipindif a time, a period of time, an 
hour. 
Kipindi chote^ at every period. 
Kipindi cha aihihum'i, the hour 
of noon. 
Kipioda,' 
Ku/a kipinda, to die a natural 
death, as cattle, &e. 
Kipindupindu^ cholera. 
Kipingwa, plur. vipingwa, a bar^ 
Kijnni, plur, vipiniy a hilt, a haft, 



fk handle of the same kind as a 
knife handle, a stud-shaped orna- 
ment worn by women in the nose, 
and sometimes in the ears also. 

Kipimo, plur. vipimo, a measure. 

Kipofu, plur. mpo/Uf a blind per- 
son. 

Kipolepale^ a butterfly. 

Kiponza, paralysis. 

Kipukubat dropped early, oast fruit, 
etc. 

KipuktUe, Kipukuse = Kipukvha. 
Ndizi kipukute, little bananas. 

KiptUi, plur. viptUi, a dangling 
ornament worn by women in the 
ear; they are often little silver 
crescents, five or six round the 
enter circumference of eadi ear. 

KipunguOy plur. vipunguo, defect, 
deficiency. 

Eipupwe, the cold season (June and 
July). 

Kipwa, plur. vipwa, rocks in the sea. 

Kirakay plur. viraJccL, a patch. 

Kiri ku'y to confess, accept» acknow- 
ledge, assert 

Kiriba, plur. viriba, a water-skin. 

KiriM ku-, to provoke. 

Kirihika Ajm-, to be provoked, to be 
ofi(^ded. 

Kirihisha ku-, to make offended, to 
aggravate. 

Kirimba^ a cage for wild animals, 
a meat-safe. 

Kirimu ku-, to feast. 

Kirithi hu-, to borrow, specially to 
borrow money. 

KirobotOy plur. virdboto, a flea. The 
Hathramaut soldiers are nick- 
named VirobotOy and their song 
as they march is parodied by, 
JCirobotOf Kirdboto^ tia motOy tia 
moto. 



312 



EIB 



KIS 



Kirukanjiay a kind of mouse found 

in Zanzibar. 
Kirukia, a kind of parasite growing 

on fruit trees. 
Xiniti, blind rage. 
Kiaoj plur. visa, a cause, a reason, 
a short tale. 
Visa vingiy many afikirs, a com- 
plicated business. 
Ki$a cha koko, kernel of a stone. 
Kisaga, a measure equal to two 

Kibabas. 
Kisahani, plur. visahanif a plate, a 

small di»h. 
Kisanduhuy plur. visandukuy a small 

chest, a box. 
Kisarani, a greedy fellow, a miser. 
Kisasi, revenge, retaliatioxL 
Kishada, a tailless kite. 
Kishaka, plur. vi^^Tiaka, a thicket. 
Kishedtty a bunch of grapes, a paper 

fiuttei:ing in the air like a kite. 
Kishenzi, of the wild people. 
Lugka ya kishenzi, a language of 
the interior. 
Kishi, a chess-queen. 
Kishigino = Kisigino. 
Kishinda, a small residue left in a 
place or inside something, as 
in a water-jar less than half 
full. 
Vishinda vingapt umetiaf How 
many portions (of grain) have 
you put (in the mortar, to be 
cleaned) ? 
Kishindo, noise, shock. 
Kishogo, the back of the head and 
neck. 
Akupaye Tciahogo si mvfenzio, one 
who turns his back upon you 
is not your friend. 
Kishwara, a loop of rope to haul by 
in dragging a vessel into or out 



of the water, a loop in the side of 

a dhow to pass an oar through 

for rowing. 
Kisi kur, to g^ess. 
Kiikisi tanga, to shift oyer a sail 

to the opposite side. 
Kisi, Kee^ her away f 
Kisibao, plur. vistbao, a waistooat 
with or without sleeves; they 
are very commonly worn in 
Zanzibar. 

Kisibao cha mikono, a sleeved 
waistcoat. 

Kisibao cha vikapa or vikwapa, a 
sleeveless waistcoat. 
Kistbu (?), a nickname. 
Kisigino or Kishigino, the elbow. 

Kisigino cha mguu, the heel. 
Kisiki, plur visiki, a log. Used in 

slang language for a prostitute. 
Kisiki cha mvtM, a rainbow (M.). 
Kisima, plur. visima, a well. 
Kisimi (obsceneX the clitoris. 
Kisitiri, a screen, screen-wall, 

parapet. 
Kisitea, plur. visiwa, an island. 
Kisiyangu [Tumbatu] = KizingitC 
Kisiiciso, 

Kisiioiso cha choo chauma, consti- 
pation. 
Kishoka, plur. vishoka, a hatchet, a 

small axe. 
Kishubaka^ plur. vishubaka, a small 

recess, a pigeon-hole. 
Kishungi, plur. vishungi, the ends of 

the turban cloth, lappets. 
Kisma, a part. 
Kisomho, a paste made of beans, 

mahoga, &o, 
Kisongo, plur. visongo, a piece of 

wood to twist cord or rope with. 
Kisoze, a very small bird with baok 

blue, and breast yellow. 



EIS 



KIT 



313 



Kisu, plur. msu, a knife. 

KutM, a suit of clothes. 

Kisugtduy plur. visugvlu^ a mound 
of earth, an ant-hill. 

Kisungura, plur. vuungura, a little 
rabbit or hare (?). 

Kisunono, gonorrhoea. ' 

Kisunono cha damUy with passing 

blood. 
Kisunono cha uzdha, with passing 

matter. 
Kisunono cha mkqjOf with constant 
micturition. 

Kisusuli, a whirlwind (?) a boy's 
kite (?). 

Kimgi, plur. vieuHf the hip of a 
roof. The main roof starts from 
the long front and back walls, 
and is called the paa; small 
roofs start from the end walls, 
and are carried to the ridge under 
and within the jpaa: these are 
the visusi, 

Kisuto = Kisutu. 

KuutUf plur. visutu, a large piece 
of printed calico, often forming 
a woman's whole dress, a cover- 
lid. 

Kigwa = Kisa, 

Kitabu, plur.' vitahu, a book. 

Kita^alifa, a small matting bag for 
halua, &0. 

KUakhOf plur. vitahizo^ the head 
and foot-pieces of a bedstead. 

Kitako, sitting. 
Kuhaa kitako, to sit down, to re- 
main in one locality. 

Kitale, j)lur. vitahy a cocoa-nut'just 
beginning to grow. 

Kitaliy sailcloth. 

Kitalu, a btone fence, a wall. 

KUambaOy plur. vitambaa^ a small 
piece of cloth a rag. 



Kitamhaa cha kufutia mkono, a 
towel. 

Kitambaa cha meza^ a table napkin. ^ 
Kitambi cha kilemha, a piece of stutf 

for making a turban. 
Kitamho, a short time. 
Kitamiri^ a kind of evil spirit. 
Kitana^ plur. vitana, a small comb. 
Kitanda, plur. vitanda, a bedstead, 

a couch. 
Kitangay plur. vitangay a round mat 
used to lay out food upon. 

Kitanga cha mkono, the palm of 
the hand. 

Kitanga cha mzani, a scale pan. 

Kitanga cha pepo, the name of a 
dance. 
Kitaniy flax, linen, string. 
Kitanziy plur. titanzif a loop, a 

button-loop. 
Kitaowa, the kind proper for a 

• devotee. 

Amevaa nguo za kitaxnjoa, he is 
dressed like a devotee. 
Kitapo, plur. vitapo, a shivering, a 

shiver. 
Kitara, plur. vitaray a curved sword. 
Kitara, an open shed in a village, 

where people sit to talk and trans- 
act business. 
Kitasa, a box lock, a lock. 
Kitatangiy a cheat. Also a very 

bright-coloured sea-fish with 

spines, a sea-porcupine. 
Kitawi, a kind of weed. 
Kitawiy plur. vitawi, a branch, a 

bough, a bunch. 
Kite, feeling sure, certainty, faith- 
fully (?), affection. 

Kana kite haye^ he has no affec- 
tion. 

Kupiga kite, to cry or groan from 
inward pain. 



314 



KIT 



KIT 



KUe/Uf», Bobbin)^ befofa or after 

crying. 
Kitefute, the oheek, the part of the 

fiice orer the cheek-bone. 
Kiteku, a toseer. 
Kitembe, a lisp. 
Kitemhwi, a thread of flax or fine 

grass. 
Kitendawitij plm*. vUendawili, an 

enigma. The propoimder says 

KitendawiH; the rest answer 

Tega; he then proponnds his 

enigma. 
KttendOy plar. vitendo^ an action. 
KUengenya^ a small bird spotted 

with white, yellow, and red. 
KUeo^ plur. viteo^ a small sifting 

basket 
Kiteto, a Tase. 

Kiteuje, loss of the use of the legs. 
Kithiri hu-, to grow large, in- 
crease. 

Umekithiri huzaa^ it has borne 
more than before. 
Kiti, plur. viti, a chair, a seat. 

Kiti chafraM, a saddle. 
Kitimbi, plur. vitiwhi, an artifice, 

an artful trick. 
Kitinda mirnhay the last child a 

woman will bear; 
Kltindi. See Vitindi. 
Kituho, plur. vitishoj fear, a terrify- 
ing thing. 
Kititi, plur. vititi, a hare, a rabbit, 

a little thing (M.). 
Kiiitiy to the full, entirely, alto- 

srether, all at once. 
Kiiiii e?Ui hahari, the depths of the 

sea. 
KHitia^ a child's windmill. 
Kitiwanga, chicken-pox. The 

natives say an epidemic of Ittti- 

wangaj always precedes one of 



small-pox. Also titiwanga, and 

perhaps tete ya kwanga. 
Kito^ plur. vftOy a precious stone. 
Kitoka (M.) = KUhoka, 
Kitoma, pint, vitoma^ a smaD round 

pumpkin. 
KiUmay orchitis. 
Kitone, plur. vitone, a drop. 
Kitonga, hydrocele (?). 
Kitongcjiy a village. 
Kitongolongo, 

Kutezama kUongotongo, to glance 
at contemptuously with hall- 
sbut eyes. 
Kitoria, a kind of edible fruii 
Kitoteo (M.) = Kichocheo, 
KitotOf plur. vitoto^ a little child. 
Kitovu, plur. mtovUf the navel. 
Kitoweo, plur. vitoweo, a relish, a 

something to be eaten with thti 

rice or other vegetable food, sncU 

as meat, fish, curry, <fec. 
Kitu, plur. vitu, a thing, especially 
a tangible thing. 

8i kitu, nothing, worthless. 
Kitua, plur. vitvuiy the shade of a 

tree, &o. 
Kitukoy startledness, fright. 
Kitukuu^ plur. vitttkutt, a great 

grandchild. 
Kitulizo, plur. vitulizo, a soothbg, 

quieting thing. 
Kitumhua^ plur. vvtumhua^ a sort of 

cake or fritter made in Zanzibar. 
KiiundOf plur. vitundat a chess 

pawn. 
Kitundmf a water-jar [Tumbatu]. 
Kttunga, plur. vitungaj a small 

round basket. 
Kitungu (?) a small round earthen 

dish. 
KUunguley plur. vitungtde, a hare or 

rabbit (?). 



KIT 



KIW 



315 



KitunguUf plnr. vUunguu^ an onioD^ 

KUftnguu »omu, garlk;. 

KituTigwa, a small bird ]&• a 

sparrow. 
Kituoy plur. mkto, an enoampment, 
a restiDg-plaoe, a putting down. 

Hana kituo, he is always gadding 
about. 
Kitupaf plur. ffitupat a little bottle, 

a vial. 
Kitutia, 

Bahari ya JtUvHa^ a boiling sea, 
deep and rough. 
Kitwa, plur. vitway the bead. 
KUwenigcmbat a somersault. 
KitwakUuM, topsy-turvy. 
Kttwana, plur. vi^tmma, a slave boy. 
Kiu, thirst. 

Kuuja na leiv, to be thirsty. 

Kuona km, to feel thirst. 
Kiua, plur. viua, an eyelet hole. 
Kmka ku-, to step over. 
Kiukia = Kirukia. 
Kiuma, plur. viuma, a fork. 
Kiuma mbuziy a small dark-coloured 

lizard. 
Kiumbey plur. vtumhCf a creature, 

created thing. 
Kiumhizi, a peculiar way of beating 

the dram; the people sing the 

while, Sheitani ndoo iupigane 

fimbo. 
Kiunga, plur. viungoy a suburb, the 
outskirts of a town. 

Kiunganif near the town^ in the 
suburbs. 
Kiungoy plur. vitmgoy a joint, — an 

acid thing put into the mchttzi. 
Kiwngujoy the language of Zanzibar. 
Kiungwana, the free or gentlemanly 
sort. 

Ya kiungwana, civilized, oour- 
teoos, beoomiug a free man. 



Mwanamke wa kiungwana, a lady. 

KitmguHoy plur. vUmguUa, an eruc- 
tation, a breaking of wind. 

Kiunoy plur. viuno, the loins. 

Kiunza, plur. vitmza, the {i^nk laid 
over the body before the grave 
is filled in. (Coffins are never 
used.) 

Kiuwajiy murderous, deadly. 

Kivi, the elbow. 

' Kivimhay plur. vivMbOy the g^irth of 
a tree, the circumference. 

Kivimibi, a small swelling. 

Kivukoy plur. mwkoy a ford, a ferry, 
a crossing-place. N 

KivuUy plur. mwliy a shadow, a 
shade, a ghost. 

Kivwnhaziy a strong-smelling herb 
said to scare mosquitoes: wash- 
ing in water in which it has been 
steeped is said to be a preventive 
of bad dreams. 

KivumbOy lonely (?). 

Kivumiy plur. tfivumiy a roaring, 
bellowing sound. 

Kioyao = Kizao» 

Kivyazi, birth. 

Kiwambeuiay plur. viwamhazay a 
mud and siud wall. 

KiwambOy something strained 
tightly over a frame, like the 
skin of a drum, a weaving ^me. 

Kiwanday plur. vivocmday a work- 
shop, a yard, a plot of laud. 

KiwangOy plur. viucangoy a number, 
position in the world, duties be- 
longing to one's position, a man's 
place. 

Kiwanja = Kiwanda, 

Kivoaoy a great feast [Tumbatu]. 

Kiwaviy plur. viwaviy a nettle, a seat* 
nettle. 

Kiioavu chdnm (A.)^ ribs. 



316 



Ki w 



KOH 



Kiuoe, plur. viioe, 

Kitoe cha U90y a tmall kind of 
pimple on the face. 
KiujeUy an udder. 
K%aemb€f a pocket-knife. 
Kiioeo (M.)) thigh, lap. 
Kitoete^ loss of the use of the legs. 
Kiwi^ moon-blindness, a dazzle. 

Ku/anya hiwiy to dazzle. 
Kiwiy plur. viwiy a small stick, a 

piece of wood, a bar. 
Kiwiko, 

Kiwiko cha mkono, the wrist 

Kitoiko cha mguu, the ankle. 
KiioUiiDilt, the human trunk, the 

body without the limbs. 
Kiyama^ the rei^rrection. 
Kiyambaza^ a bulkhead, partition 

Also = Kiwamhaza. 
Kiyambo^ neighbourhood, a village. 
Kiza or Gizay darkness. 

Kutia kiza, to darken, to dim. 
Kizao, plur. tTtzoo, a natife, one 

bom in the place. 
Kizaziy plur. vizazi, a generation. 
Kizecy diminutive of mzee, gene- 
rally used of an old woman. 
Kizibo, plur. vizibo, a stopper, a 

cork. 
Kizio, plur. vizio, half of an orange, 

cocoa-nut, &c. 
Kizimhiy plur. mzimbif a cage. 
Kizinda, a virgin. 
Kizinga, plur. vizinga, a large log 

half burnt. 
Kizinjiti, threshold, the top and 

bottom pieces of a door or window 

frame, bar of a river. 
Kizingo, turnings, curves of a river, 

&c., (?) a burial ground. 
Kizingoy sharp shore sand used for 

builiing. 
Kiziwi, plur. vizim, deaf. 



Kizuio = Kizuizi, 

Kizuizi, plur. vizuizij a stop, a thing 

which hinders or stays. 
KizuizOf plur. mzutzo, a hindrance. 
Kizukaf plur. vizuka^ a kind of evil 

spirit, a woman who is staying 

in perfect secrecy and quiet 

during the mourning for her 

husband. See Eda, 
Kizungu, a European language. 

Ya kizungu, European. 
Kizunguzungu, giddiness. 
Kizuri, beauty, a beauty. 
Kizuihi, an intruder. 
Kizuu, plur. vizuu, a kind of evil 

spirit, which kills people at tUa 

order of its master. 
Ko, 'ko, -ko, where, whither, whence, 

Ko kote, whithersoever. 
Koa, plar. makoa, a snaiL 
Koa (plur. of Ukoa\ the silver rings 

on the 8cab1>ard of a sword, &c., 

plates of metal. 
Kobe, a tortoise. 
Koche, plur. makoche, the fruit of a 

kind of palm. 
Kodi, rent 
Kodolea ku-, to fix the eyes upon, 

to stare. 
Kofi, plur. makofl, the fiat of the 
hand. 

Kupiga Itofi, to strike with open 
hand, to box the ears. 

Kupiga makofi, to dap the hands. 
KofiM, a cap. 
Kdfila, a caravan. 
Kofua, emaciated. 
Koga = Kuoga, 
Kohani, a small red fish like a 

mullet 
Kohoy a large bird of prey. 
Kohoa, kU', to cough. 
Kohozi, expectorated matter. 



KOI 



KON 



317 



Koikoiy plar. mahaihoi, a sort of 

evil spirit. 
JETo/a, a gold ornament for the 

neck. 
Kqfoa ku-t to make wat^* 
Koka = Kuoha, 
Koka htk-, to set on fire. 
Koko, plur. makokOf kernels, nuts, 

stones of frait. 
Koko, plur. maJcokOf broshwood, 
thickets, bushes. 

Mbioa kokoy a homeless dog that 
lives in the thickets and eats 
carrion. 
Kokomoka ku-t to vomit, to belch 

oat, blurt out 
Kokota kurj to drag. 

Kukokota roho, to breathe hard. 
Kokoteza ku-t to do anything slowly 

and oarefally. 
KokotOf plur. makokotOf a small 

stone, a small piece of stone. 
Kokwa, plur. makoktoa, nuts, stones 

of fruit. 
Kolekole, a kind of fish. 
Kolea ku-, to become well fiavoured, 

to get the right quantity of a 

oondiroent. 
Koleo, plur. makoleOf tongs. 
Kologa ku-, to stir. 
Komat plur. makoma, a kind of fruit. 
Koma kvry to cease, to leave oflf, to 
end a journey, to arrive at a 
destination. 

Kama usije I Gome no further I 
Komaa ku-, to be full grown. 
Komaza kvry to mock, to make game 

of. 
Kombch a galago. 
Kamba ku-, to scrape out, to clean 
out. 

Dafu la kukomba, a cocoa-ntit in 
which the nutty part is but just 



forming, which is then reckoned 
a delicacy. 

Ktikomha mtu, to get all hlsmoney, 
to clean him out. 
Kombamoyo^ plur. makombamoyo, 

one of the rafters of a thatched 

roof. 
Konibe, plur. makombe, a large dish! 

Konibe la nikono (A.), the shoulder- 
blade. 

Komhe za pwani* oysters (?), 
cockles (?), sea-shells. 
Kombeka kvr, to be cleaned out, to 

have had all one's money got from 

one. 
Konibeo, a sling. 
KombOf plur. makombOf scraps, 

pieces left after eating. 
E^ambo^ a defect, crookedness. ^ 

KfUoa k*07nbOy to notice a defect. 
Komboa ku-y to ransom, to buy baek. 
Kcymboka kt^, to be crooked. 
KombokonibOy crooked. 
Eomboroy a bomb, a mortar. 
Kombozif a ransom. 
Kome, plur. makome, a pearl 

oyster (?), a mussel (?), a shell. 
Komea ku-f to fasten with a native 

lock (komeo). 
Komeo, a kind of wooden lock. 
K&mesha ku-, to make to cease, to 

put a stop to. 
Komwe, plur. makomwe, the seeds of 

a large climbing plant abundantly 

furnished with recurved thorns ; 

they are used to play the game of 

boo with. 
Konda ftu-, to grow thin and lean. 
Kimdaviy large beads worn by 

women, as a belt round the loins. 
Konde, a fist. 

Kupiga moyo ktmde^ to take heart, 
to resolve firmly. -* 

T 



318 



KON 



Kondesha hu-t to make to grow lean. 
K^ondoy war (Merima). 
Kondoa, a sheep [Lutdi]. 
KondoOf sheep, 

Yua/a hikondoot be dies like a 
sheep, silently (which is high 
praise). 
Konga ku-, to g|ow old and feeble. 
Kongoa kth^ to draw ont nails, ftc., 

to take to pieces. 
Kongoeaf Mombas. 
Kongoja h^, to walk with diffloolty, 

to totter. 
Kongolewa hu-t to be taken to pieces. 
Kongomero, throat. 
Kongoni = Kunguni. 
Kong^otOy a sort of woodpecker» 

black and yellow. 
Kongtoa, a slaye-etick. 
Kongtoe, 

Kutoa kongwe, to lead off the solo 
part of a song, in which others 
join in the chorus. 

"kongtpet OTer-old, wc^rn out with 
age. 
Kono^ a projecting handle, like that 

of a saucepan. 
Konokono, a snail. 
Konyesha hu- = Konyexa ku-* 
Konyfiza ku-^ to make a sign bj 

raising the eyebrows, 
Konzij what can be graj^d in the 
bund, a fist full 

Kupiga komit to xap with the 
knuckles, 
Koo, plur. makoo, a breeding animal 
or bird. 

Koo la kuku, It laying hen. 

Koo la mbuzit a breeding goat 
KoOy plur. makoQt throat 
Koonde^ plur. makoondSf eultirated 

land, fields, the piece of a thamba 

Allotted to a slave for his own use. 



KOR 

Konffoa ku-^ tq break off the ooba of 

Indian com. 
Kopa, hearts, in eardg. 
Kopay plur. mdkopa., a piece of dried 

mu^o,. whic^ has been ste^ted 

and cooked. 
Kopa ku", to get goods on oredit for 

the purpose of trading with, to 

cheat, to swindle. 
JTope, plur« of Ukape, theayelaahes. 
Kopcy plur. makapef the wick of a 

candle. 
Kop€$a ku-s to wink. 
Kopesha ku-f to supply a trader with 

goods on credit to give on trust, 

to lend. 
Kopo, plur. mahopo, a large m^al 

vessel, a spout. 
Kopoa ku-t to drag ont of one's 

hand, = Chopoa ku-. 
Kora Ml-, to seem sweet to^ to be 

loved by. 
Koradani, a sheave of a pulley, 
i&m/a, a pucker in sewing. Also, a 
Korja, a score. [score. 

Koroanahu-, to steep in water. 
Korofi, a bird of ill omen,- a 

messenger of bad luck. 
Korofiaha leu-, to ruin a man. 
Koroga ku-, to stir, to stir up. 
£broma, plur. moijporoma, aoocoa-nnt 

in its last stage but one, when the 

nut is formed but has not yet its 

full flavour. It has ceased to be 

a dafu and is not yet a wui. 
Koroma ^u«, to snore. 
Koroago, a crane. 
Korongo, plur. makorongo^ a kole 

dibbled for seed. 
KororOf a erei^ted guinea-fowl. 
Koroshoy plur. makoroshoy cashew 

nuts. 
KorUf the waterbuck. 



K06 



•KUB 



319 



Kosa hu', to err, mistake, miss, go 

wroDg, do wrong, blunder. 
Kosekana hu-, to be missed, not to 

be there. 
Koietha hu-y to lead astray. 
Kosudia ku-y to pnrpoBe, to intend, 
= Kusudia. 
Kota, plur. mdkota, the stalks of a 

kind of millet which are chewed 
Kota, a crook. [like Bugar-Ksane. 
Koia ku-. 

Kukota motoy to warm oneself. 
Kotama, a onryed knife used in 

getting palm wine. 
Kotey all. 8ee -ote. 
KotekoU, on every side. 
Koto. 

Kupiga koto (M.), to strike with 
the knnckles. 
KovOy plur. makovOy soar. 
Ku' or KiD^, 

1. The indefinite verbal prefix 
answering to there in English. 
Ku4ikuway there was. 
Ku'kcUanday and there spread. 

2. The sign of the infinitive. 
J^thpiga, to strike. 
Kvy-enday io go. 

The infinitive may be used as a 
snbstantive answering to the 
English form in -ing. 

Kufay dying, the act of death. 

Kwenda, going. 

The kth of the infinitive is re- 
tained by monosyllabic verba, 
and by some others in all 
tenses in which the tense 
prefix ends in an unaccented 
syllable. 
,^i The prefix proper to adjectives, 
pronouns, and verbs agreeing 
with infinitives used as sub- 
stantives. 



Kufa kvDttu kwema kutampendexay 
our good deaths will please him. 

4. The prefix proper to pronouns 
agreeing with substantives in 
the locative case (rni)y where 
neither the being or going 
inside, nor mere nearness, ie 
meant. 

Enenda nytmlbani hwanguy go to 
my house. 

Ziko kwetUy there are in our pos- 
session, at our place. 

5. In a few words a prefix signi- 
fying locality,CQmmonly so used 
in other African languages, but 
generally represented in Swa- 
hili by tiie case in -nt. 

Kuzimuy among the dead, in the 
•ku'. [grave. 

1. The sign of the negative past 
always preceded by some nega- 
tive personal prefix. 

Sikujua, I did not know. 
Hazikufaay they were of no use. 

2. The objective prefix denotiog 
the second person singular. 

Nakupendtty I love thee, or you. 
Aliktipa, he gave thee, or you. 
SikukvjwLy I did not know you. 

3. The objective prefix referring 
to infinitives of verbs, or to 
hvikuy there. 

Kua ku'y to grow, to become large. 
'kuba or -kubuHiy great, large. 
Kubali hiy to aocept, assent to, 

acknowledge, approve. 
Kuhalika ku-y to be accepted, to be 

capable of acceptance. 
KubiUiBJui ku-y to make to accept. 
Kubboy a vaulted place. 
'kubwoy large, great, elder, chief. 

It makes kubtea with nouns like 

nyumba, 

t2 



320 



KUO 



KuchOi or Kumekueha, the dawn. 

. Usiku hucha^ all night 
£uchua hvr, 
Kamba im^tkuchua, the rope has 
worn away, chafed, stranded. 
Kufuti, a padlock. 
Kufuru hu', to become an infidel, 

to apostatize. 
Kufuru hu'y to mock, to deride. 
JKtt^untjthe hartebeest (boeelaphus). 
Kuke, See -he. 
Mkono wa kuke, the left hand. 
Kukenif on the female side. 
Kt^ko, yonder, to yonder. 

KuM kuko, beyond, on yon side. 
iTuAjtt, a hen, a fowl, fowls, poultry. 
Kuku na huku, backwards and for- 
wards. 
'kvkuu, old, worn out. It makes 

hukuu with nouns like nyumha. 
Ktdahu, a hook to steady work with. 
KuUj there, far off, yonder. 
KuUe, yonder, very far off. As the 
distance indicated increases the 
4 is more dwelt on, the voice 
raised to a higher and higher 
falsetto. 
KulekfUe, there, just there. 
KuUa ku-, to become great for, to 

bcQome hard to, 
KulihOy where there is or was. 
Kulikmif Where there is what 

= why? (M.). 
Kuliko, isusedin theordinary way 
of expressing the comparatiye. 
Mwema kuliko huyuy good where- 
this coan is, and therefore 
better than he. Because if a 
quality becomes evident in any- 
thing by putting some other 
thing beside it, the first must 
possess the quality in a higher 
degree than the others 



EUM 

KuUa, often pronounced A;»na, every, 
each one. 

KultUuy nothing at all. 
Nikapaiakvlulu = Sikupataneno. 

Kululu, tiger cowries, Cypraaa tigris. 

Kulunguy a sort of antelope, 

Kuma, the vagina. 

Kumba kU', to push against, to take 
and sweep off the whole of any- 
thing, e.g. to clear water out of a 
box, to bale a boat. 

Kumbatia ku-, to embrace, to clasp. 

Kumbatiana ku-, to embrace (of two 
persons). 

Kumhe? What? An expression of 
surprise used especially when 
something turns out otherwise 
than was expected, commonly 
joined with a negative verb« 

Kunibi (Mer.), circumcision. 
Anaingia kumUni, he is being 
cii-cumcised. 

Kumbi, plur. makurnbif cocoa-nut 
fibre, the husk of the cocoa- nut 
and the fibrous mass out of which 
the leaves grow. Also, at Mgao, 
gum copal. 

Kumbikumbi, ants in their flying 
stage. 

KumMsha ku-, to push off upon, to 
lay upon some one else. 

Kunibuka ku-, to think of, to remem- 
ber, to ponder over, to recollect. 

Kuwibukumhuy a memorial, a men- 
tion. ' 

Kumhuray an explosive shelL 

Kwmbusha ku-j to remind. 

KumbuHiya^ a kind of drum stand- 
ing on feet. 

Kumekuchay there is dawn, the 
dawn. 

Kumi, plur. makumi, ten. 

Kumoja, on one side. 



tUM 



KUN 



321 



Kumpunty plnr. makumpuni, a por- 
8on who has obtained fall know- 
ledge of his trade. 
Kumunta ku-Qler.}, to shake out 

or off. . 
KumuntOy a sieve of basket-work. 
Kumutika ku-, to desire (?). 
Kumvif husks and bran of rice. 
Kuna, there is, 
Kunaye, depending upon him. 
KuTiani f What is the matter ? 
Kuna kwcmbaje f What do you 
say? [Tumbatu]. 
Kuna ku-y to scratch. 
Kunakuchay there is dawning, the 

dawning. 
Kunaziy a small edible fruit. 
Kunda ku- (M.) = Kunja ku-, 
Kundoy plur. makunday a green 

vegetable like spinach. 
Kundaa ku-, to be short and small 

of stature. 
Kundamana ku- = Kunjamana ku-, 
Kundey beans, haricot beans. 
Kundiy plur. makundiy a crowd, a 

herd, many together. 
Kundua ku-, to please (?). 
-kundu/Uy giving pleasure. 
Nyumba ni kundu/u, the house 

is commodious. 
Muungu ni mkundufuy God is the 
giver of all good things. 
Kunduka ku-y to grow larger, to 
open. 
Moyo umekundukoy he is gratified 
(N.). 
Kunga ku-, to hem. 
Kungoy cleverness, clever. 
Kcusi haifai ilia kwa kunga, it 
wants to be done cleverly.. 
Kungali, 
Kungali na mapema hadOy while 
it is yet early. 



Kunguy mist, fog. 
Kungu manga, a nutmeg. 
Kunguniy a bug. 

KungurUi a crow, a bird a little 
larger than a rook, black, with 
a white patch on the shoulders 
and round the neck : it feeds on 
carrion. 
Kung*uta ku-y to shake ofi; to shake 

out 
Kwig*ulo, plor. makung*utOy a sort 
of basket used as a sieve or 
. strainer. 

Kuniy firewood. The singular, 
ukuniy means one piece of fire- 
wood. 
Kunia Xeu-, to scrape or scratch 

with, or for. 
Kunia ku-y to raise the eyebrows in 

contempt. 
Kuniitay telling me to come. 
Kunja ku-y to fold, to wrap up, to 
furl. 
Knkunja uzi, to wind thread. 
Kujikunjay to flinch, to sbriok. 
Kukunja uto or Ktikunja vipajiy 
to frown, to knit the brows. 
Kunjana ku-, to fold together, to 

dwindle, to wrinkle. 
Kunjamana ku-, 

Uso unakunjamana, his face is 
sad, sour, and frowning. 
Kunjia ku-, to fold for, to wrap up 

for, to crease. 
Kunjika ku-y to become folded or 

doubled up, to be creased. 
Kunjua ku-y to unfold. 
Kukunjua miguuy to stretch one*s 
legs. 
Kunjuka ku-, to become unfolded, 

to spread over. 
Kunjuliwa ku-, to be open and un- 
folded. 



522 



KUN 



Kunraihi, don't be offended, excuse 

me, pardbn me. 
Kunu alamUf be it known. 
Kvnya hu-^ to ease oneself. 8ee 

Nya. 
KvmytUa ku-^ to draw together. 

Kujikunyataf to draw oneself to- 

ge^er, to shrink. 
Kunyua IcU' or KunytUa hu-f to 

touch secretly (with a scratching | 

motion) by way of signal or of 

calling attention privately, to 

make a scratch on the skin. 
Kupcia, See Mahupacu 
Kitpe, a tick, a cattle tick. 
Kupua ku; to shake something off 

one's dress, oat of one*s hand, 

&c. 
Kura, the lot. 

Kupiga kuray to cast lots. a 
Kuru, a sphere, a ball. 
Kurvhia &«-, to come near to. 

Nalikuruhia^ &c., had a good 

mind to, &c. 
Kurumbizi, a small yellow bird, 

very inquisitive : they say if he 

sees a man and woman talking 

together, he cries, *^ Miu anasema 

na mume** 
Kusa kuy to make to grow. 
Kuisanya ku-t to collect, gather, as- 
semble. 
Kusanyana ku-f to gather together. 
Kusanyiha ku-, to be gathered^ to 

assemUe. 
KusJwtOy on the left 

Mkono wa kushaio, the left hand. 
JBCiiM, the southerly winds which 
blow from May till October. 

Kusini, in the direction of the 

- Kusi, southerly. 
Kusudiy plur. makustidii purpose^ 

design. 



Kuiudia kU', to purpose^ to intend. 

Kuta, plur. of Ukuta, walhL 

Kuta ku-y to meet with, to see> to 

find, to come iipon. 
Kutana ku-, to come together^ to 

meet, to assemble. 
Kutanika fctt-, to become assemV>led. 
KutanMha ku-^ to bring together, to 

assemble. 
KutUy rust 
Kutuka 2ett-, to be startled, to be 

suddenly Mghtened. 
Kutusha ku-t to startle» to alarm 

suddenly, 
-/ftttt, great, chief, noble. Kuu refers 
more to figurative, kubwa to 
physical greatness. It makes 
kuH with nouns like nyuaaibct. 

Ana makuuy he is vain. 
Kuume, Bee -ume. 

MkoM iDa kuumej the right hand. 

Kuurneni, on the male side. 
Kuvuli, 

Mkono wa kwmlU the right hancL 
KutoOf to be, to become (?> 8ee 

Wa. 
Kuwadi, also Kaieadi, a procuress 

{Mtu anaytwatoTtgotha iBatu). 
KuvfUiy twice over, in two way& 
-kuza, large, full grown. 
Kuza ku'y to make bigger. 
Kuza, to selL See Uecu 
Kuziy an earthen water bottle larger 

than a guduvoia^ with a handle 

or handles and a narrow nefdu 
Kuzikanif a funeral. 
Kuzimu, in the graven under the 

earth. 
Kw; See Ku-, 
Kwa, with, as a» instranent, 

through, to a person, to or at 

the place where any oae bves; 
' for, on account ot 



KWA 



KWB 



823 



Kwa *ngi (?), generally. 
Kwa^ of, after verb* in the infinir 

tive used as nouns, and after the 

case in -ni, 
Kwcui ku', to strike the £oot^ to 

stumble. 
Kwajei how? 
Kwdkey to him, with him, to or at 

his or her house; his, her, or 

it% after a verb in the Infinitive 

used as a substantive, or the 

case in -ni, 
Kwdko, to thee or with thee, to or 

at thy place, your, thy, of thee 

or you, after verbs in the infini- 

tive used as a noun, and after the 

case in -ni, 
KwaUf a partridge (?). 
Kwama ku-, to become jammed, to 

stick. 
Kwamha, saying (?), if, as if, though, 

Ya kwawJbay that. [that. 

Kuoamisha ku-, to jam, to make to 

stick in a narrow place. 
KwavHua Xcu-, to unjam, to free, to 

oleac. 
Kwangu^ to or at my house, to or 

with me, my, of me, after the 

infinitives of verbs used as sub* 

stantivesy and after the case in 

-nt* 
KvoangtM ku^ to scrape up, to scrape 

one's shoos, &o^ 
Kwani foor, because, wherefore, for 

why. 
Kwanua hu-, to split down, to tear 

down, to break. 
Kwanjfuka ku-, to be i^Ht down 

like the boughs and branches of 

a tree, which some one has been 

trying to dimb by them. 
Kijoanzat beginning, at first, for- 
merly. 



Ta kwanza^ first, th0 first. 

Ngoja kwanxa, wait a bit 
Kimo, plur. makvmo, a siumble, a 

stumbling-block. 
Kijoaoy to or with th^tt, at or to 

their place; their, of th^n, after 

verbs in the infinitive used as 

nouns, and after the case in -m*. 
Kwwpa^ plur. maktBapa, the arm- 
pit. 

Kvm'pani^ under th^ armpit. The 
people of the Africem coast 
wear their swords by a strap 
over the left shoulder only ; the 
sword hangs under the armpit, 
and is said to be kwapani, 
Kwaruza ku-, to scrape along, to slip 

with a scrape. 
Kwata, or Kwato, a hoof. 

Kupiga kwata^ to strike the hoof, 
to strike with the hoof. 
Kvoatti, a horseshoe (?). 
K/uoayo^ a stumbling-block. 
Kwaza ku-, to make to stumble. 

Kukvxiza mend, to jar the teeth 
like grit in food. 
Ktoea ku', to ascend, go up, olinib. 
Kwdh true, the truth. 

Ya ktoeli, true. 
Kvjdu = Kweu, 

Kwema, good, well, it is well there. 
K^toetiM, the seed of a gourd, ^vwy 

rich in oil. 
Kufenda, to go^ See Enda^ going. 
Kwenda, perhaps. 
Kwenu, with you, to or at your 

place, your, of you, after vetbs in 

the tnfinitivo used as nouns or 

after the ease in *nt. 
Kwenyt, till, unce, up to the time of, 

from the time of. 
Kwepa ku'j to start out of the way. 
Kioeta ku', to raise. 



324 



KWK 



LAD 



KwetUf to or with us, to or at our 

place, ODr, of ns, after a verb in 

the iDfinitiTO used as a nouB, and 

after the case in -ni. 
Kweu, dear. 
Kweupe^ white. See •eupe, 

Kuna Icweupe, grey dawn. 
Kweta ku'j to make to go up, to drag 

np a boat out of the water. 
Ktoeza ku-^ to bid up an article at 
an auction. 

Kuktoezwa, to have things made 
dear to one bj others bidding 
them up. 
KwibcL See Iba ^ stealing, to 

steal. 
Ktoibanat lobbing one another. 
Kwxkvje, hiccup. 

Kvnkwe ya huUaj sobs. 
KwiiJM. See Lha kw, ending, to 

end. 
KioOf which. 



L is pronounced as in English. 

L is not dibtinguished from r 
In African languages of the same 
family as Swahili. The distinction 
becomes important in Swahili on 
account of the Arabic words which 
have been incorporated into it 
Thus— 

Mahali, means a place, but 
Mcihari a dowry. 

Waredi means a rose, but Waledi 
a youth. Slaves, howeyer, fre- 
quently confound even these. 

'When r can be used for I, it has a 
light smooth sound, as in English. 

There is a latent { sound between 
every two consecutiYe vowels in 
Swahili and at the beginning of 



some verbs, which appears in their 
derivatives and in other African 
languages : thus the common pas- 
sive of kufungua is kufunguHtca. 

So far is this disposition t^ drop 
'an I carried, that even kuUta^ to 
bring, is in old Swahili eta. It is 
characteristic of the Merima dialect 
to retain these Ts. 

L and t» are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged. 

IHango, a door, isr vulgarly pro- 
nounced Mwango. 

U/cUmet a kingdom, may be 
written Ufaume, 

In these oases, however, both 
forms are probably contractions 
from Mulango and Ufalume. 

L becomes d after n, and is some- 
times confounded with d in inexact 
pronunciation. 

Ndume = Mume or Nvme, male. 

L- or H-, the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by 
words in the singular, of the 
class which make their plural 
in vna-. 

La, no. 

La hi-f to eat, to consume, to wear 
away, to take a piece in chess, &c. 
The ftu-, bears the accent and is 
retained in the usual tenses. The 
passive of kula is kuiivoa, 

Laabu Xnc-, to play, to sport with. 

Laana, plur. mdUmna, a curse. 

Laani ku-, to curse» to damn. 

LaanUha ku-, to bring a ourse upon. 

Labeka = Lebeka. 

Ldbudaj perhaps. 

Xodu, sweet cakes composed of trea- 
ole» pepper, and flour or semsem 
seed, made up into ballf. 



LAO 



LET 



325 



Ltjghat, a Tascal. Also Bagai, 
Laikfi, plur. malaika, one of the 

hairs of the hand or arm. 
Lainiy smooth, soft. 
Lainisha hu-, to make smooth or 

soft. 
Laiti! Wonld that! Oh thatl 

expressing regret at something 

past. 
Lake or LaJcwe, his, hers, its. See 
Laki hu-^ to go to meet [-ake, 

Ldkinif but, however. 
Lahki, a himdred thousand, a lao. 
Lako^ thy. See ako, 
Lala hU', to sleep, to lie down. 

Nyumba tmelala inohiy the house 
is fallen flat on the ground. 
Lalama ku-^ to confess, to cry for 

mercy ; used of extorted confes- 
sions. 
LcUamika ku-, to he made to cry 

out, to be quite beaten, to shout, 

to scream. 
Lalika ku-, to be slept upon. 
Laltka ku- = Alika ku-, to inform, 

announce to. 
Lami, pitch or tar. 
Lana ku-, to eat one another. 
Landa kw, to be equal with. 
LangUy my. See -angu. 
Jaw, their. See -oo. 
Lcumu ku'f to blame. Also Lau- 

mu, 
Lapa ^ctt-, or Jtapa ku-, to be ra- 

Tenously hungry. 
Launif sort, species, form. 
Laumu ku; to blame. 
Latva kU'^ to come from (Mer.). 
Lawana Xm-, to blame, to scold. 
Laza Xm-, to lay down, to lay at its 
length. 

Kujilcua, to lie down. 
Lazimy of necessity. 



Lazima, surety, bail, necessity. 

Lazimisha ku-, to compel. 

iMzimu kU't to be obligatory upon. 

'ley his, hers, or its. 

Lea ku'y to bring up. 
Amelewa,vema, he is well bred. 

Lebekoy the humble manner of re- 
plying when called, often short- 
ened into Ebbey or even Bee, 

Legea ku-y &c., &c. See Begea Xru-, 
&c., &o. 

Lekea kur^ to be opposite to, to tend 
to. 

Lekeza ku-, to put opposite to. 
KuUkeza hunduki, to level a gun 
at. 

Lekezana ku-, to agree, come to ati 
agreement. 

Lelamy by auction. 

Lelimamay a dance to the mue'c 
made by beating buffalo horns. 

Lema or Demo, a kind of fish-trap. 

LevMMy 'disfigurement. 
Mwenyi lemaa, disfigured by dis^ 



Lembuka ku-, to be weak, limp. 
Lemea ku-y to oppress, to lie heavy 

upon, to overburden. 
Lengelengey plur. mcUengelengey a 

blister. 
Lenuy your. See -enu, 
Lenyi. See -enyi, 

Bakuli lenyi mayayiy a basin with 
eggs in it 
LeOf to-day. 
Leppey drowsiness, dozes, snatches 

of sleep. 
Leeoy a handkerchief. 

Leso ya kufutia kamati^ a pocket- 
handkerchief. 
Leta kthy to cause to arrive at the 

place where the speaker is, to 

bring, to send, to fetch. 



326 



LET 



LIN 



Letea hu-, to bring or Bend to or for 
a person. 
Kuietewa^ to have brought or sent 
to one. 
LetUy our. See -efm» 
Levuka hu-, to get lober. 
Levjfa k%^'f to intoxicate. 
K^jilevyaJ to make oneadf in- 
toxicated) to get drank. 
Le9y€Uevya kth, to be giddy. 
Letjoa hu-, to become drunk. 
Lewalewa X;u-, to swing or sway 

about like a drunken man. 
Lit it is. 

Xt- or l-y the prefix proper to pro- 
nouns and verbs governed by a 
singular noun of the class wliieh 
makes ita plural in mo-. 
-K-, 1. The objective prefix repre- 
senting a singular noun of tbe 
class which makes its plural in 
ma-, governed by the verb to 
which it is prefixed. 

2. -li'f or -oZt-, the sign of that 
. past tense which denotes an 

action complete in past time. 

3. -li- sometime» represents the 
substantive verb, as in cUiye^ he 
who is ; nikaZi, and I am j oZi, 
he is, or he being. 

Lia hU't to breed (M.). 
Lia hu; to eat for, &c. 
Chumha cha kuUfi, a room to eat 

in. 
Mkono vja kulia, right hand, being 
the only one ever used to eat 
with. 
Lia ku', to cry, to weep, to cry out; 
applied to the eriee of animals 
generally. Also, to give a 
sound. 
Kulia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 
Inalia toazi^ it sounda hdkw.. 



Libati, clothes. 

Liehoj whethCT it be, though. 

LihamUi «older. 

Lthani, a cloth of a particular 

Lijamu, a horse's bit. v [pattern. 

Lika kU'i to be eaten, to becoue 

worn away, to be eatable. 
Likiza ku-, to dismiss, to give leave 

to go, to release. 
Liko, plur. malikd, a landing-place. 
LiUa kU', to weep for, to cry about 
Lima ku-, to cultivate, to hoe. 
Lima, the feast made by the bride- 
groom on the first day of the 

wedding. 
Limaa, plur. mdlimao, a lemon. 
Limaiia ku-, to delay, to loiter (A.). 
Limbika ku-, to leave till it i» fit» to 

wait for fruit till it is ripe, or for 

water till it is collected in the 

dipping hole, to put aside till it 

is fit. 
Limbuka ku-, to taste the first of a 

new crop. 
Limbusha ku-^ to bring to be tasted. 
Limiza ku-, to make to hoe, &o. 
Linalokuja, which is coming. 
Linda ku-, to guard, to watch, to 
keep. 

Kuiindu ndege^ to scare birds &on& 
com, &c. 
Lindif plur. malindi, a pit, a deep 

place. 
LindOj a watching place. 
Linga ku-, to swing the head round 

in dancing. 
Linga ^u-, to make to match, or to 

be level. 
Lingana ku-, to -match, to be level 

with or like one another. 
Lingana ku-, to call, to invite (A.). 
Linganisha krir, to make to match» 

to compare together. 



LIN 



327 



Lint f When f 

Linyi = Lenyi, ^ 

Idpa ku-y to pay (a debt). 

L^pia ku'f to pay (a person). 

Lipiza ku; to cause to be paid. 
KviUiptza^ to take one's due, . to 

repay oneself. 
Kujilipiza kcucui^ to avenge one- 
self, to take one's reyenge. 

lAtani, a pieoe of cloth put in 
behind an opening, a flap to 
obviate the effect of gaping at the 
fastening, a tongue. See Kanzu, 

Lisha kv-y to feed. 

lAshUha ku-, to cause to be fed, to 
cause people to give one food. 

Livoa ku-, to be eaten, to be worn 
away, to bo consumed. 

Lttra, a fragrant wood from Mada- 
gascar, which is ground up and 
used as a cosmetic, and as an 
application to cure prickly heat ; 
Madagascar sandal wood. 

LiwaJi, plur. maliwali, for Al Wali, 

Liza ka-y to sell to. [a governor. 

Liza ku-y to make to weep. 

Lizana ku-y to make one another 
weep, to cry together. 

4(9, fliy, your. 

Lo, "lo-y or -loy which, representing 
a singular noun of the class 
wliich makes its plural in ma. 
Jjo lokey whatsoever. 
Hakufanya lo loUy he has done 
nothing at all (neno under- 
stood). 

Loa kvr^ W get wet with rain, &o. 

Loga ku-y to bewitch, to practise 
magic (Mer.). 

Lo m Loo ! HuHo I An exclamation 
of surprise; the number of o*s 
increases in proportion to the 
amount of surprise. 



LolBy all. See -ote. 

Lo ht^y whatsoevw. 
Loziy an almond. 
Luangoy a kind of bird. 
Xtt5a, a leech. 
Lughay languages 
Luluy a pearl. 

Lumha ku-y to make a speech. 
LumMka ku-, to gather little by 

little, to pick up »nall pieces one 

by one. 
Lumhtoiy a oham6leon (?). 
Luththay flavour, savour. 
Luvuy sandal wood(?). 

M. 

JWis pronounced as in English. 

M before h generally represents 
an n. Mb stands sometimes for 
n&,as nyuniba mhaya, for nyumba 
n-haya ; sometimes it represents nw 
or nvy as mbingu for n-imngu. 

M is frequently either followed 
by w or u, or else has a sort of semi- 
vowel power, as if preceded by a 
half-suppressed u. 

The natives of Zanzibar very 
rarely say mu; they change it into 
um or rather *m. Even Mwenyiezi 
MaungUy Almighty God, becomes 
*Mnyezimngn. 

It is important to write 'm, and 
not m only, where it represents mu 
if a & or w follow, because otherwise 
the m might be supposed to coalesce 
with them. If any other consonants 
follow, it is immaterial, for m must 
then always stand for mtc, and be 
capable of being pronounced as a 
separate syllable. 

Any verb may be turned into a 
substantive by prefixing *m or mw 



328 



M- 



to mean one who does, &c., followed 
immediaiely by the object of the 
verb or the thing done. The last 
letter is sometimes changed into i 
and if Ji is added to the substantive 
it gets the sense of one who habit- 
ually does what the verb signifies. 

M', 'm, TOtt-, or mW', sign of the 
second person plural prefixed to 
verbs. 

M', 'm, mu, or mw-, the singular 
prefix of those nouns which 
make their plural in tro-, if they 
denote animate beings, or in tnt-, 
if they do not 

3f-, 'til-, ma-, or m«N, the prefix 
proper for adjectives agreeing 
with a singular substantive de- 

. noting an animate being, or with 
any substantive begmning with 
mthf 'w-, mw', or tt-. 

-m-, -'m-, or -mic-, the objective 
prefix referring to a singular 
substantive denoting an animate 
being. 

If-, mtt-, or mw; the prefix proper to 
pronouns governed by the case in 
-nt*, when it denotes within or in- 

' side of. 

Ma-f the sign of the plural prefixed 
to substantives (and to adjec- 
tives agreeing with them) 
which have either no prefix 
in the singular or begin with J- 

All words intended to denote 
something specially great of 
its kind make their plural in 
ma-. 

Foreign words denoting a person, 
or an office, make their plural 
in mo-. In the vulgar dialect 



MAA 

of Zanzibar nearly all foreign 
words are made plural by pre- 
fixing ma-. 
Many plural nouns in mar must be 
translated as though they were 
singulars, the true singular 
being used only to denote some 
one exceptionally large or im- 
portant instance. 
When followed by an % or e, the a 
of ma coalesces with it and 
forms a long e sound. 
-ma-. See -m«-* 
Maaddmf while, during th^ time, 

when. 
Maadin =s Madini. 
Maadin ya hinyvm, what riaee 
into the mouth without inter- 
nal cause, water-brash. 
Maafikano, bargain, estimate, es- 

teem. 
MaaganOf contract, agreement, 

covenant. 
Mac^izo, commission, direction, re» 

commendation. 
Maahuli, diet, food. 
IfaoZtfwi, fixed, recognizable = Tcili" 

chotarnbulikana, 
Maana, meaning, reascm, cause, 
sake. 
Kutia maananiy to remember, 
think about. 
Maandasi, biscuits, cakes, &o., also 

pastry, preserves. 
ilfaa»(2t^, writing, place forputtin^^ 
out food, the act of spreading; a 
meal, a ^lescription, thinga writ- 
ten. 
Maandiahh things which are writ- 
ten, put outy set in order, Ac 
MaangukOf ruin, fall, ruins. 
Maa^mzi, judgment 
Maarifa, knowledge. 



HAA 



MAH 



329 



Maamft nnderstood, I understdnd. 
MaoM, rebellion. 
Mctazaly while. 
Macusimo, a loan. 
Mabaya, bad. See haya, 
Mabdkiay the remnant, what is or 

was left 
Mabichty raw. See -bichi. 
Mabitn, heaps, piles of sticks and 

rubbish. See BiiJbi-, 
MahovUj rotten. See -ovu, 
Machache, few. See -chache, 
Mache^Xt a litter, a palanquin. 
MaehfzOf a game, games. 
Macho (sing, jicho), eyes. 

Yu machOf he is awake. 

Madho ya watu wawUii or Mazitua 
ya watu loa/mli, dragon's blood. 

Macho ya jua, the sun-rising, 
east. 
McushukiOf hatred, abomination, dis- 
gust 
Machtoa ya jua, the sun-setting, 

west 
Madaha^ a graceful manner. 
Madanganyat deception, trick. 
Jlfa<2araA;a, arrangements, provision. 
MadefUt beard. 
. MadevUf a kind of rice. 
Madi/u, the fibrous envelope of the 

cocoa-nut leaves. 
Madini, metal, a mine. 
Madoadoa, spotted. 
Madogovit a kind of drumming, &o., 

used in exorcisms. 
Maficho, concealment. 
Ma/Uf death, dead things. 

Maji mafuy neap tides. 
Majwi^ a chest complaint causing 

a cough, a cold in the head, a 

stoppage in the nose. 
Ma/undishOf instruction, precept, 

ilireution. 



Mafundo^ cross-beams in a dhow, to 
steady the mast, &o. 

MaftmguUa, unfastening. 
Mafungidia ng'omhey about 8 a.m. 

Maftspi, short. See -fupi, 

MafushOf steam from a pot of ma- 
jani, used as a vapour-bath in 
fever, &c. 

Mafutaj oil, fat. 
MaftUa ya uta, semsem oil. 
Mafxjia ya mbarika, castor oil. 

Mafuuy crazy, cracked. 

Mafyay Monfia. 

Ma/ya (sing.jifya), the three stones 
used to put a pot over the fire 
upon. 
' Magadi, rough soda. 

Magamhay scales of a fish. 

Magandaj peel, husks. 

Magarasa, 8, 9, and 10 in card^^ 
(not used in playing). 

Mageuzi, changes. 

Ma^hojirat remission of sins. 

Maghrebbiy or MagariHy or Ma- 
ngfariW, sunset, the sunset prayers 
of the Mohammedans, the west, 
Morocco. 

Maghrib ayuk, N.W. 

Maghrib akrahf S.W. 

Maghuba, the winding of a stream. 

Mago. See Kago. 

Ma^ongonene, See kanzu, 

Magugu, weeds, undergrowth. 

Magundalo, an instrument of tor- 
ture, in which the victim is sus- 
pended, and weights being at- 
tached to him, he is jerked up 
and down. Used for extracting 
evidence. 

Mahaba, love, fondness. 

Mdhala or Mahaliy place, places. 
Mahali pa^ in place of, instead of. 
Mahali pate, everywhere. 



330 



MA^ 



MAK 



Mdhana (Ar.)« excessive worry. 
Maharaziy a shoemaker's awl. 
Mahari, dowry paid by the husband 

to the wife's relations. 
Mahatij a carpenter's tool used for 

me^king lines to a measure. 
MdhcuMWu, a shawl worn round the 

waist. 
Mahindij Indian com, maize. 
Mdhiri, cleyer, quick. 
Mahoka, devil, evil spirits, madness. 
Maisha, life, continuance. 

Maisha na mUele^ now and for 
ever. 
Maiii = Mayiti, a dead body, a 

corpse. 
^ajahahay dock for ships. 
Majana (?), honeycomb. 
Majani, grass. The Bingula^,jant, 
means a leaf. 

Bangi ya majaniy green. 

Majani ya ptcani, grass wort, 
samphire (?> 
Majar^u or Majeribu, trial, tempta- 
tion. 
MajazOf reward. 
MajengOf building materials. 
Majeribu = Majaribu, 
Majeruhiy wounded. 
Maji, water» liquid, juice, sap. 

Maji majiy wet. 

Kama wo/t, fluently. 

Maji hujaa na kupwat the tides. 

Mc^ji ya pepo, Maji ya baridi, 
Maji matamUj fresh water. 

Maji mafu, neap-tides. 

Maji a hahari, blue, sea^water 
colour. 

Maji a moto, hot water, a large 
yellow kind of ant which makes 
its nest in trees. 
Mc^ibu, an answer. 
Ifaji^io, coming, or mode of coming. 



Majilipa, revenge. 

Majira^ time. 

Mdjira, course of a ship. 

MajonHy grief for a loss. 

Majoriy an elder. 

Majuni, a cake made of opium, &e., 

very intoxicating. 
Majutio, regret, sorrow for some- 
thing done. 
MajutOy regret, repentance. 
Makaa, coal, coals, embers. 

Makaa ya miti, charcoal. 
Makalalao^ cockroaches ; applied in 

derision to ihe Malagazy colony 

in Zanzibar. 
Makdlij fierce. See -loZt. 
MakanadUiy places in the stem of 

native craft, the quarter galleries 

of a dhow. 
Makanit dwelling, dw6lling-plae«. 
Maka^f dwelling, dwelling-place. 
MakaMf scissors. 

Makatazo, prohibition, objections. 
Makatibuy agreement. 
Makavu, dry. See -kavu, 
Makaziy dwelling. 
Makengeza^ squinting, a squint. 
Makiy thickness. 

Nguo ya maki, stout cloth. 
Makimbilio, refuge, place to run to. 
MakindanOy objections. 
Makiniy leisure, quietness. 
Makiriy a thumb-deat in the side of 

a dhow. 
Makosay fault, faults, mistakes, sins. 
Makoza (obscene) testicles. 
Maksaiy a bullock, castrated. 
Makubwa or Mdkuuy great. See 

'kvbwa and -^u«. 
MakvkuUy old. See 'kuk%u, 
Makuliy diet. 

Makulya, food [Tumbatu]. 
Makutnibiy cocoa-nut fibre. 



MAE 



HAK 



831 



Mdkumbi ya popoo, areoft-nut 

hufik. 
Makumki ya iMnm&a, ooooa-dbre 
cleaned for mattrespe?, &o. 

Makumj, tens. 
Makumi matoili^ twenty. 

Makupaat the sheaves at the mast- 
head of a dhow, through which 
the henza leads, 

MahusanyihOf place of assembly, 
assembly. 

Maktuudi\ purpose, design, on pur- 
pose, designedly. 

MakiUano, assemblage. 

MdktUi, leaves of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Makuti ya viungo, leaflets made 

up for thatching. 
Makuti ya kumba, leaves plaited 

for fences. 
Makuti ya pandCf half leaves 
plaited for fences or roofs. 

Makwa^ the notching and shaping 
at the end of a pole to receive 
the wall-plate of a house. 

Malaika (plur. of Laika), the hair 
on the hands and arms. 

Malaika, an angel, angels. A baby 
is often called malaika, 

Malaki or Mdlkif a king. 

Malalo, sleeping-place. 

Malazi, things to lie upon. 

Malazie = Marathie. 

Malele, orchilla weed. 

Malelezi, changes of the mcmsoon, 
time of the easterly and westerly 
winds. 

Malenga, a singer. 

IfaK, goods, property, riches. Pro- 
perly a singular noun making 
no change for the plural, but 
treated sometimes as a plural in 
ma-. 

Mdfidadiy a dandy. 



Midiki ku-9 to begin a building, a' 

boat, or a house. 
Maiimo, master, navigat(»r. In the 

canoes on the Zambezi the steers- 
man is called malimo. 
Malimwengu, business, affairs,^mat- 

ters of this life. 
Malindi, Melinda. 
Malio ya kiko, the bubbling sound 

of the water when a native pipe is 

being smoked. 
Maliza ku-^ to complete, to finish. 
Malki or Malaki, a king. 
Malkiaj a queen. 
Mama, mother. 

Mama wa kamibo, stejmiother. 
Mambaf a crocodile. 
Mamhay the scales of a fish (M.). 
Mambo^ circumstances, affairs, 

things (plur. of Jambo), 
Mamiye (Mer.), his mother. 
Mamlaka, power, authority, domi- 
nion. 
Mamqja, ones, same. 

Mamoja pia, it is all one, I don*t 
care. 
Mana = Mwana. 
Manamizef a name for a hermit 

crab. 
Manane, 

Usiku tea manaite, the dead ti! 
night. 
Manda^ a loaf. 
Mandasiy a pudding. See Maan- 

dasi, 
Manemane, myn*!^ 

MancTiOy language, message, busi- / 
ness, matters, things (plur. of 

Maneno yafumha, dark sayings. 
Maneno ya Kiuny^fa, &o., tha 
language of Zansibar, &o. 
Mangat Arabia. 



332 



HAK 



HAB 



Mangaribi, snnfiet. See Maghrdhi, 

Mangij many. See ^ngi. 

Mangiri or Marikiri, a croes-pieoe 

ai the bows of a dhow for £a8 toning 

the tack of the saU. 
MangOf a round hard black stone 

used to grind with. 
Mang*ung'um, secretly, in fearful 

expectation. 
Mani (obscene), semen. 
Manif a weight, about tbree rattel. 
Mar^'ano, turmeria 

Bangi a manjano, yellow. 
Mankiri, See Mangiri, 
Man6leo(8mg. noleo), the ring where 

the blade of a knife issues from 

the handle. 
Manuka, smell, scent. 
ManukatOy scent, good smells. 
Manyang'amba, flour balls in a 

sweet sauce. 
Manyiga^ a hornet. 
Manyoyaj feathers of a bird, hair of 

a goat. 
Manyunyo, a shower, a sprinkle. 
Mcufmboleza, loud wailing. 
Maomvi, begging. 
Maondit taste. 

MaondoleOy removing, taking away. 
3faonpe2t\ conversation, amusement. 
Maongoy the back. 
Maonji, tasting, trying. 
MaoteOf growth from old nUama 

stools. 
Maotwey Mayotte. 
Mapalilo, hoeing-up time, hoeing 

between the crops. 
MapafMf broad. See '•pana, 
MapatanOf agreement, ccmspiracy. 
Mapemay early. 
Mapendano, mutual affection. 
Mapendeziy pleasing things, the 

being pleased. 



Mapendo^ affection, esteem. . 

Mapenzif liking, affection, pleasure, 
love, things which are loved. 

Mapepfta, a preparation of imma- 
ture rice. 

MapiganOf a fight, a battle. 

MapisuHif silliness, dotage. 

Mapozaf remedy, healing things. 

Ifopoo^a, things which do not serve 
their purpose, fruit which drops 
prematurely. 

MaptdidUf the wilderness. 

MapumbUf testicles, the scrotum. 

MarUf a time, sometimes, at once. 
Mara mqja, once, at once. 
Mara mbUi, twice. 
Mara ya pUif the second time. 
Mara nyingiy often. 
Mara kwa mara, from time to 

time. 
Mara ngapif how many times, 
how often ? 

Maradufuy double. 

MarahabOf thanks, very well, wel- 
come. 

Marakardkay chequered, spotty. 

Maratiiaraslui, a sprinkle, sprink- 
ling. 

Marashiy scents. 

Marashi mawaridi or ya mgomari, 
rose-water. 

Marathiy disease, sickness. 

Marathie, sociable. 
Sina kiburif marathie mimi, I am' 
not above fraternizing. 

Mare/u, long. See ^refu. 

Maregeo, return, reference. 

Marehemuy that has obtained mercy, 
deceased. 

Marejeo, return. 

Mar/ua, a desk, book-rest. 

Marhaha = MarahaJnx,* 

Marhamu, ointment 



MAB 



MAT 



333 



Marigeli, a large pot. 

Marijani^ red coral, imitation ooral, 
gum copal. 
Marijani ya fethalukat the true 
red coral. 

Marikoy iv person of the same age. 

Marika, Merka, a town on the So- 
mauli coast. 

Marikdbu = Marikebu = Mertkebut 
a ship. 

Marindi, the little flap of beads 
worn by a string round the loins 
by native women. 

Marisaa, shot, small shot. 

Marithawaf abundance, plenty of 
space, material, &c. 

MarizahUf a spout. 

Marra = Mara, time, times. 

MarufukUf a forbidden thing, pro- 
hibited. 
Kwpiga marufukUf to give public 
notice against. 

Marungu (M.), biliousness. 

Masahdba, the companions of Mo- 
hammed. 

Masafi, purity. 

MasaibUf calamity. 

Masakasa (Yao), an encampment. 

Matakiniy or Maskini, or Metkini, 
poor, a poor person. 

Masalkheiriy good afternoon. 

Masameho, pardon. 

Masango, wire. 

Masanufiy a kerchief used for throw- 
ing over the shoulders, &c. 

MaaazOy what is left, remainder. 

Mashairi, verses, poetry. 
Shairif one line of verse. 

Mashaka, doubts, difficulty. 

MaBhamba, the country. Plural of 
Shamba, a plantation. 

Mashapo, sediment. 

Maahariki, the east, easterly. 



Jdashe^fidea, rice which Js watery 

and imperfectly cooked. 
MashindanOf a race. 
Mashindo. 

Kwenda kwa matihindOf to trot. 
Mashtaka, accusation. 
Mashua, a boat, boats, a laimch. 
MoMhilr or MoAhukur, remarkable, 

notable. 
MashutumiOf reproaches, revilings. 
Mashutumut reviling. 
Mashuziy breaking wind. 

FaihUi ya punda ni mashuzi = 
You cannot make a silk purse 
out of a sow's ear. 
Ma*ia. 

Kwenda motto, to walk up and 
down. 
Masika, the rainy season, t*.e., March, 

April, and May. 
Masikani, a dwelling. 
Masikini = Masakini, 
MasingiziOy slander. 
Masiwa, the Comoro Islands and 

Madagascar. 
MaMzi, grime, soot, &c., on the 

bottom of cooking pots. 
Maskini = Masakini, 
Masombo, a girdle of cloth. 
MobH = Misriy Egypt. 
Masriify provisions. 
MasuOy giddiness. 

Nina masua, I am giddy. 
MoMiktiOf a whet-stone. 
MasutOy reproaches. 
MaiOy bows and arrows, weapons. 
MatoAijabUt wonders, astonishment. 
MatakalifUyhxAux&BA^ 
MatakOy the seat. 
Matakwa, request, want, desire. 
Matambavu, the side, a man's side. 
Mata*mko, pronunciation, 
Matamu, sweet. See -tomu. 



334 



MAT 



MAY 



McUamvua, fringe. 

Matandikoy bedding, harnefls, ?. hat 

is bpread. 
Matana^ leproflj. 
MatangcLy large mats, sails. 

Kukaa viatangay to keep a formal 
mourning, generally for from 
tve to ten days. 

Kuondoa matanga, to put an end 
to the mourning. 

Matanga kati, wind abeam. 
MiUangamano, a crowd. 
MatcUa^ a tangle, an embroilment 

Kutia matata, to tangle. 
JUatayo, reproaches, revilings. 
Mate, spittle. 
Mategemeo, props, a prop, support, 

protection. 
Mateha, spoil, booty, prisoners. 
Matembezif a walk. 
Matengo, the outriggers of a canoe. 
Mateso, afflictions, adversity. 
Mateto, quarrel. 
Malhabahu = Mathbah. 
Mathahuha, a victim, a sacrifice. 
Mathahdbi or Mathhdb, sect, persua- 
sion. 
Mathara, mischief, harm. 
Moithbahf an altar. 
MathehehUy manners, habits, customs, 

= Mathahahi (?). 
Matiloy lift from the after part of a 

yard to the mast-head of a dhow. 
Maiindif half-grown Indian com. 
Matindoy a slaughter-house, a place 

for killing beasts. 
Matiti, 

Kwenda hwa matiti^ to trot. 
Mattaa, the east wind. 

Matlaa ayuk, N.E. 

Matlaa akrab, S.E. 
MaUai = Matlaa, 
MaiOf eyes (M.> 



Matoazif cymbals. 
Matokeo, going-out places. 

Matokeo ya hari^ pores of the 
skin. 
Maiomoko, a custard apple. 
Matubwitubwi, mumps. 
MatukanOf filthy and insulting ex- 
pressions, such as— 

Mvoana kumanyoko, 

Mtoana wa haramu, 

Kaxoakazoa, 

KumanvruL 
MatukiOt accidents, things which 

happen. 
Matumaini, confidence, hope. 
Matumbaioi, fresh coral, cut from 

below high-water mark: it is 

used for roofs and where lightness 

is an object 
MatumbOf the entrails. 
Matupu, bare. See -tupu. 
Maturuma, stififeners put on a door, 

the knees in a dhpw, ribs of a 

boat, &c. 
MatusUf bad and abusive language. 
Matuvumu, accusation,, blame. 
Matia (plur. of Ua), flowers. 
MatUizo, questions, questioning. 
Maumivu^ pain. 

Mawngo, the back, the backbone. 
Mauthwru, unable. 
Mautty death. 
MavaOy dress, dressing. 
Mavaziy dress^ clothes: Plural of 

Vazi, 
Mam, dung, droppings, excrement 

Mavi ya ckwrna, dross. 
Mavilio. See VUio. 
Mavulioy clothes cast off and given 

to another, clothes worn by one 

who is not their owner. 
Mavunda, one who breaks every- 
thing, he has to do with. 



MAV 



MBI 



335 



MavundevundBf broken, scattered 

clouds. 
Mavumi, hum of voices. 
Mavuno, harvest, reaping. 

Mavuno ya nyuki, honeycomb. 
Mavuzi (plur. of Vuzi), the hair of 

the pubes. 
Mawazi^ clear. See wazi, 
Matoe (plur. of Jiw6), stones, stone. 

Ya mawe, of stone. 

Mawe ya husagia^ a hand-mill. 

Mawe, a vulgar ejaculation, rub- 
bish! i 
Matoiliy both. 
Mawimhi (plur. of WiraM), surf, a 

sea. 
Mawindoy game, produce of hunt- 
ing. 
Mayayi, See Yayi. 
Mayitiy a dead body. 
ifa^u^K^a, a green vegetable cooked 

like spinach. 
Mazao, fruit, produce. 
Maziko, burial-place. 
Masdnga ornbo, sleight of hand 

(CJomoro). 
Mazingiwa, a siege. 
Mazingonibtoe, magic, witchcraft. 
Mazishi, burial clothes, furniture, 

&c. 
Maziwoy milk, (plur. of Ziwa) 
breasts, lakes. 

Maziwa mabivu, curdled milk. 

Maziwa ya vaUu toatoilif dragon's 
blood. 
Mazoea, custom. 

McuioezOy habits, customs, practice. 
Mazokay evil spirits. 
Mazu, a kind of banana. 
Mazumgt^mzOf amusement, conver- 
sation. 
Mb<Ui, far ofl^ separate. 

Mbaii mbcUi, distinct, difTereni 



PoteUa mbdli/ Go and be hanged ! 
Tumwulie mhaliyleX us kill him 

out of the way. 
When used with the applied 
forms of verbs, it means that 
the person or thing is by that 
means got rid of, or put out of 
the way. 
Mhango, a bird with a parrot-like 
beak, a person with projecting 
teeth. 
Mbano, a circumcisiag instrument. 
Mbau (plur. of Ubau), planks. 
*MbaUy plur. mibaUf planking, tim- 
bers. 
'Mbaruti, plur. mtbaruti, a weed 
with yellow flowers and thistle- 
like leaves powdered with white. 
Mbasua, giddiness. 
Mbata, a cocoa-nut which has dried 
in the shell so as to rattle, with- 
out being spoilt. 
Mbatif wall-plate. 
Mbavu, ribs, side. 

Mbavuni, alongside. 
Mbawa, wing feathers. See Vbawa. 
Mbayaniy clear, manifest. 
Mbayuwayu, a swallow (A.). 
Mbega, a kind of monkey, black, 
with long white hair on the 
Mbegu, seed, seeds. [shoulders. 
'Mb^a. 
'Mbeja wa hani, young man of 
strength. 
Mbekf before, in front, further on. 
Mbele ya, before, in front of. 
Kuendelea nibele, to go forward. 
Mbelenif in the front. This word 
is used in Zanzibar with an 
obscene sense. 
Mbeyu = Mbegu, seed. 
MbUo, plur. nUbibOf a oaahew-nut 
tree. 

z2 



336 



MBI 



MCH 



Mhiehi^ fresh. See -6tc7*f. 
Mhigilif small tborns, briers. 
Mbili, two. See -wili, 

Mhili mhHiy two by two. 
Wnliicili, the wrist (?). 
Mhinguj plur. of Utoingu, the skies, 

the heavens, heaven. 
MbiOy running, fast 

Kupiga mbiOj to run, to gallop. 
Mhioniba, mother^s sister, aunt. 
Mbirambi zako^ be comforted. A 
Swahili greeting to one who has 
just' lost a relative. 
3f &m, parched Indian com. 
Jtf &ttf, a proclamation, public notice. 
Mhivu, ripe. See -bivu and -toivu. 
Mbizi, 

Kupiga mbizi^ to dive. 
Mbogay vegetables, greens. 

Mhoga mnanacL, a l^ind of mint 
'Mhoga, plur. miboga, a pumpkin 

pluut. 
MlfoleOj manyre. 
Mbonai Why? for what reason? 

Used especially with negatives. 
Mhoni ya jicho, the apple of the 
Mbom, castor-oil plant (?). [eye. 
MboOf the penis. 
Mboto^ a climbing plant yielding a 

superior kind of oil. 
MJhvu, bad, rotten, corrupt See 

•ovu and -bovu, 
Mhu = ImhUy a mosquito. 
Mhiif a butfalo*s horn, which is 

beaten as a musical instrument. 
Mhuja, a swell, dapdy, gracefully. 
Kusema mbuja, to say elegantly. 
MbtUuy a crocodile (?). 
MbungUy ft hurricane (Kishenzi). 
Mbuniy an ostrich. 
Mbuyu, plur. mthuyuy a baobab 
tree, a calabash tree. They are 
generally looked upon as haunted. 



Mbvzif a goat, goats. ^ 
Mbuzi ya kukunia nazi, an, iron 
to scrape cocoa-nut for cooking 
with. 
Mbwa, a dog, dogs. 
Mbwa VM mwittif a jackaJ, 
jackals. 
Mbtoayi, wild, fierccb 
Mhnje, little pebbles, little white 

stones larger than changarawL 
Mbweha^ a fox. 
Mbweu, eructation, belching. 
Mcha, one who fears. 

Mcha Afuten^u, aQod-fearing man. 
Mehafu, filthy. 

Mchago, the pillow end of the bed. 
McTiakachOf footsteps (?). 
Mchana or Mtana^ daylight, day- 
time, day. 
Mchanga or Mtanga, sand. 
Mchaioif plur. wachawi, a wizard. 
Mrhayiy lemon grass. 
Mche, plur. JtfifcAe, a plant, a slip, a 

seedling. 
Mche^ a kind of wood much used in 

Zanzibar. 
Mehekeshaji, plur. wachekesliaji, a 
merry body, one who is alwajs 
laughing. 
Mchele, cleaned grain, especially 

rice. 
Mchdema, watery. 
Mcheshi, a merry fellow, a laugher. 
MchezOy plur. michezo, a game. 
Mcheto wake huyuy it is this man's 
turn to play. 
McM, plur. michi, or Mti, plur. mttt, 
the pestle used to pound or to 
clean corn with. Also a screw 
of paper to put groceries in (?). 
Mchicha, plur. michicha^ a conr(bion 
spinach-like plant used as a 
vegetable. 



MCH 



HEK 



S37 



Mchikichiy plur. michikichi, the 
palm-oU tree. 

MehUizif plur. michUizi, the eaves. 

Mchiro, plur. wachiro, a mangouste. 

MchochorOf passage, an opening be- 
tween. 

Mcihofu = Mchovu, 

Mchongpma, plur. michongoTna, a 
thorny shrub with white flowers 
and a small black edible fruit. 

Mchorochoro, a rapid writer. 

Mchovu, plur. wachovu, weary, lan- 
guid, easily tired, tiring, tire- 
some. 

Mchuniba, a sweetheart, one who 
seeks or is sought by another 
in marriage. 
Mke mchumhat widow (?). 

Mchumbuluru, a kind of fish. 

Mchuriga (or Mtunga\ plur. wa- 
chunga, a herdman, a groom, one 
who has the care of animals. 

Mchungajij a herdsman, shepherd. 

Mchuruzi\ plur. Wouihuruziy one who 
keeps a stall, a trader in a yery 
small way, 

Mchuziy or Mtuzi, curry, gravy, soup. 

Mchwa, white ants. 

Mda or Muda^ a space of time, the 
space, &o, 

Mda, plur. mida (?), a piece of plank 
propped up to support a frame- 
work, &o. = 'munda, 

Mdago, a kind of weed. 

Mdalasiniy cinnamon. 

Mdardhanif an Indian stuff. 

Mdatoari, 
He mdawariy the softer Arabic hy 
the he, 

Mdeli = Mdila. 

MdUa, plur. midila, a coffee-pot. 

Mdomo, plur. midomOf the lip. 
Mdomo. wa ndege^ a bird's beak. 



Mduduy plur. wadudu, an insect. 
MdudUf a whitlow. ^ 

Mdukuoy a push in the cheek. 
MdumUy a mug. 

JIfe-, see Jtfo-. Many words are pro- 
nounced with ma- at'Mombas, 
and with me- at Zanzibar. 
-me-y the sign of the tense which 
denotes an action complete at 
the moment of speaking, an- 
swering to the English tense 
with have. Sometimes it is 
used to denote an action com- 
plete at the time referred to, 
and must then be translated by 
had. 
This tense may often be used 
as a translation of the past 
participle. 
Yu hayi, a/o amehufa f Is he 

alive or dead ? 

Most Swahili verbs denoting a 

state have in their present 

tense the meaning of entering 

that state or becoming, and in 

the -me- tense the meaning of 

having entered or being in it 

In some cases the -me- tense is 

best rendered by another verb. 

Anavaa, he is putting on, amevaa, 

he wears. 
In some dialects the me is pro- 
nounced ma, 
Mea ku-y to grow, to be growable. 
MedUn, tortoiseshell. 
Mega kvr, to break a piece, or gather 
up a lump and put it in one*8 
mouth, to feed oneself out of the 
common dish with one's hand, as 
is usual in Zanzibar. 
Mekameka A;u-, to glitter, to shine. 
Meko (plur. of Jiko), a fireplace. 
Mek(mi, a kitchen, in the kitchen. 



S38 



MEH 



MPU 



Memetuka Teu- (A.), to sparkle. 
Mende^ a cockroach, cockroaches. 

Also a slang term for a rupee. 
Idengi or Mangij many. See -ngi, 
Meno (plur. of Jino), teeth. 
MenomenOf battlements. 
Menya ku-, to shell, to husk, to 
Menya ku-f to beat (Kiyao). [peel. 
Merikebuy a ship, ships. 
Merikehu ya serikali, a ship be- 

loDging to the government. 
Merikehu ya mizinga or manowarif 

a man-of-war. 
Merikehu ya taja,B. merchant ship. 
Merikehu ya milingote mitatu, a 

full -rigged ship. 
Merikehu ya milingote mivnli na 

nu88u, a barque. 
Merikehu ya dohaan or ya moshif 
a steamsiiip. 
Merima, the mainland of Africa, 
especially the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Wamerima, people who live on 

the coast south of Zanzibar. 
Kimerima, the dialect of Swahili 
spoken on the coast south of 
Zanzibar. 
Merimeta kur, to glitter, to shine. 
Meshmaa, a candle, candles. 
Menki or Meski, musk, scent 
Meskiti = Mwkiti, a mosque. 
Metameta, to shine, to glitter. 
Methili or Methali, like, a parable. 
Meza, a table. 
Meza ku', to swallow. 
Mezaiowereh. 

Waraka mezawwereh, forgery. 
Mfaxiy centre piece of a door. 
Mfalme, plur. toafalme^ a king. 
Mfano, plur. mi/ano, a likeness. 
M/ano Ufa maneno, a proverb, a 
parable. 



Mfanyi bicuharay plur. wafanyf, a 

man who does business, a trader, 

a merchant. 

Mfariji, plur. wafariji, a comforter. 

Mfathili, plur. wafathilif one who 

does kindnesses. 
Mfelejiy a water channel. 
Mfilisika, a bankrupt. 
Mfinangi, plur. wafinangiy a potter. 
Mfinemy plur. mifineMi, a jack fruit 

tree. 
Jtf/tt, plur. tra/u, a dead person, 
itf/ua, plur. wafuoy a smith, a 
worker in metaL 
Mfua ehumay a blacksmith. 
M/unfethay &c., a silversmith, &c 
M/uasi, plur. wafuasi, a follower, a 

retainer, a hanger-on. 
Mfvkoj plur. mifukoy a bag, a 

pocket. 
Mfuma^ plur. wafuma^ a weaver. 
Mfumhatiy plur. mi/um&ait, the side- 
pieces of a bedstead. 
Mfunguo, a name applied to nine of 
the Arab months. 
M/unguo wa most, is the Arab 

Shamoal. 
M/unguo tea pUij is. the Arab 

Th'U Kaada, 
M/unguo wa tatuy is the Arab 

ThHl Hajj. 
M/unguo wa 'nne^ is the Arab 

Moharram. 
M/unguo wa tano, is the Arab 

8a/r. 
M/unguo wa «tto, is the Arab 

Rahia al aowcU. 
M/unguo wa faba, is the Arab 

Rahia al akhr, 
M/unguo wa nane, is the Arab 

Jemad al oowaL 
M/unguo wa kenda, is the Arab 
Jemad aX aJchr. 



MFU 



Miki 



5oJ 



Mfunguo- wa is often so pro- 
nounced as to sound like 
Fungua. 
The other three months, Bajabt 
Shaahan, and Ramathariy keep 
their Arabic names. 
MfuOf plur. mifuoj a stripe. 

Karatasi ya mifuo, ruled paper. 
Mfupa, plur. mifupa, a bone. 
Mfuto, winning five games out of 

six at cards. 
Mfyozi, an abusive person. 
Mgala, plur. wagala^ a Gulla. 
Mganda^ plur. miganda, a sheaf or 

bundle of rice. 
Mganga, plur. waganga^ a medicine 
man, a doctor, a dealer in white 
magic. 
Mgao, a place near Gape Delgado. < 
Mgaieo, a deal in card-playing. 
Mgenit plur. wageni, a guest, a 

foreigner. 
Mghad, a horse's canter. 

Ktoenda mghad, to canter. ' 
Mgine = Mmngine, another, other. 
MgogorOf aii obstacle in a road, a 
stumbling-block. In slang, a 
nuisance, crush, worry. 
Mgqja or Mngoja, plur. toa^q/a, one 
who waits, a sentinel. 
Mgqja mlango, a door-keeper, a 
port«r. 
Mgontba, plur. migornba, a banana 

tree. 
Mgombfoey bull*s-mouth shell, Cassis 

rubra. 
Mgomvi, plur. wagomvi, a quarrel- 
some personv a brawler. 
Mgotida, a slave's clout. 
MgongOy plur. migongOf the back, 
the backbone. 
Nyumha ya mgongo, a penthouse 
roof. 



Mgonjwa or Mgonjua, pltp. wagon- 

jioa, a sick person, an invalid. 
Mgote = Mlingote, a mast 
Mgunda, cultivated land. 
Mgunya, plur. Wagunyaj AJiAtiye of 

the country between Siwe and 

the Juba. 
Mguruguru, plur. waguruguru^ a 

large kind of burrowing lizard. 
MguUy plur. miguu, the leg from the 
knee downward, the foot. 

Kwenda kwa miguut to walk. 
Mh: See Muh. 
Mhdlhori. See Kanzu, 
Mhimiliy plur. n^ikilimi, a girder, a 

beam, a bearing post, a prop. 
Mhfilu, a large tree lizard. 
Mhumiy plur. toahunzi, a black- 
smith. 
Mi-f plural prefix of substantives, 

and of adjectives agreeing with 

them, which begin in the singular 
' with m-, or 'w-, tni*-, or mw-, and 

do not denote animate beings, 
-mt, an objective suffix denoting 

the first person singular. This 

suffix is poetical, not used in 

Zanzibar. 
Mia, a hundred. 

Miteen, two hundred. 
Mialamu, the ends of a piece of 

doth. 
Miashiri, pieces lying fore and aft 

to receive the stepping of the 
Miayo, yawning, a yawn. [mast 
Miba or Miiba, thorns. 
Mibau, timbers. 
Mifuo, bellows. 
Mihaha, marriage. 
Mikambe, 

Kupiga mikambe, in bathing, to 
duck down and throw over one 
leg, striking the water with it.. 



340 



MIL 



MJU 



Mila, a custom. 
MUaniba. 
Kwenda mUamhat to go round by 
a new road to avoid war or 
some other obetacle, to strike 
out a new way, 
Jdilele, eternity. 

Ya milele, eternal. 
Milkoit jins, which having been 
merely singed, not killed by the 
missiles of the angels, lurk in 
by-places to deceive and harm 
people. 
MHiki = Milki. 
Miliki hu', to reign, to possess. 
I MUM, kingdom, possession, pro- 
perty. 
Milumhe, a speech, an over-long 

speech. 
Mimba, pregnancy. 
Kuwa na mimha or Kuchukua 

mimha^ to be pregnant. 
Kuharibu mimha, to miscarry. 
Mimhara, the pulpit in a mosque. 
Mimit I, me. 

Mimina ku-, to pour, to pour over. 
Miminika ku-, to be poured over, to 

be spilt, to overflow. 
Mingiy many. See -ingi. 
Mingine, others. See -ingine. 
Mini (Ar.), right. 

Mini wa shemali, right and left. 
Minyonoa, a kind of flowering 

acacia. 
Miongoni mwa, in respect of, as to, 

on the part of, from among. 
Miraha, muscles. See Mrdba. 
Mirisaa, shot. 
Miehithari, crooked. 
Misko, Russia. 
Misri, Egypt. 
Miteen, two hundred. 
Miunsi, a whistling. 



Ji/fiust, black. See -eusi. 

Miwa (plur. of Mua% sugar-canes. 

MiwcUi, midribs of & palm-leaf. 

Miwani, spectacles. 

Miyaa, leaves for making mats. 

Miye, me, it is I. 

Mizani, balances, steelyard, scales. 

Mizi, roots (M.). 

Mizizi, roots, rootlets. 

Mja. na maji, one who has come 

. over the sea, a foreigner. Also, 
1^ slave. 

Mjakazi, plur. wajakazi, a w»man 
slave. 

Mjanga, Bembatooka bay in Mada- 
gascar. ^ 

Mjangao, melancholy, silent sorro^. 

Mjanja, plur. wajanja, a cheat, a 
shameless person. 

Mjani^ a widow. 

Mjasiri, plur. wajasiri, a bold ven- 
turesome man. 

Mjassusi, inquisitive. 

Mjeledij a whip. 

Mjemha, a plough (?). 

Mji, plur. mijij a town, a city, a 
village, the middle part of apiece 
of cloth. 

Mjif the uterus. 

Mjiariy plur. mijiari, tiller ropes. 

Mjiguu, plur. mijiguu, large long 



Mjinga, plur. vajinga, a raw new 
comer, a simpleton; applied es- 
pecially to newly arrived slaves, 
ignorant, inexperienced. 

Mjisikafiri, a kind of lizard. 

Mjolh plur. wajoli, a fellow-servant. 

Mjomba, plur. wajomba, uncle. 

Mjugu, 
Mjvtgu nyassa, ground-nuts. 
Mjugu matoe, a hard kind of 
ground-nut. 



Mji; 



MKO 



341 



MJukuUi plur. vHiJukuu, a cousin, a 
grandchild. 

MJumbay plor. tuajumba, an uncle.* 

MjumhakdkcL, a kind of lizard. 

MJumbet J^lui, toajumhey a mes- 
senger. 

Mjumej a weapon-smith. 

Mjumu, studded with brass. 

Jiifiusiy plur. wajusif a lizard. 
MjitH wa kanzu. See Kanzu, 
MJusi kafiri, a rough kind of 

small lizard. 
MjuH salamay a smooth kind of 
small lizard. ^ 

Mjuvi, plur. wajuviy a chattering, 
officious person. 

Mjuzi, plur. toajuziy a person of in- 
formation, one who knows. 

Mkaa, plur. todkaaj one who sits. 
Mkua jikoniy Mr. Sit-ln-the- 

kitchen. 
Mkaa, an astringent wood used 
in medicine. 

MkaJbala^ opposite. 

Mkaibil, future. 

Mkadi, plur. mikadi, the pandanus 
tree; its flowers are valued for 
their smell. 

Kkaidiy obstinate, wilful. See 
'kaidL 

Mkaja, a cloth worn by women, 
giten as a present at the time of 
a wedding. 

Mkaliy fierce. See -ktUl 

Mknmilifut perfect. 

Wcam%hej plur. mikaiMhe, a kind of 
wooden spoon. 

Mkandaa, plur. mikandaay a kind 
of mangrove tree full of a red 
dye much used for roof beams. 

•Mkanju, plur. mikanju, a cashew 
tree (M.). 

Mkaragazo, a strong tobacco. Also, 



manfully, again and again 

(slang). 
Mkarakala^ a medicinal shrub. 
Mkasama (in arithmetic), division. 
Mkasasiy a haoidsome tree, whose 

wood is useless. Hence the 

proverb, 

Uauri wa mkasatit 
Vkipata, majit ban, 

Mkasiri, a tree whose bark is used 

to dye fishing-nets black. 
Mkaiaba, a written agreement. 
MkataUy the stocks. 
Mkatcy plur. mikatej a cake, a loaf. 

Mikate ya mofu, cakes of mtama 
meal, 

Mikate ya kusonga, ya kumiminaf 
&c., cakes of batter, &c, 

Mkate wa tumbako, a cake of 
tobacco. 
Mkazoy nipping, pressing tight. 
Mke, plur. wake, a wife, a female. 

Mke aliofiwa na mumeu)e,& widow. 
Mkebe, a pot to burn incense in, a 

drinking pot. 
Mkeka,. plur. mikeka, a fine kind of 

mat used to sleep upon. 
Mkeo = Mkewo, 

Mkereza, plur. wakereza, a turner. 
Mkewe, his wife. 
Mkewo, your wife. 
Mkia, plur. mikia, a tail. 
MkimMzi, plur. wakimbizi, one who 

runs away. 
Mkindu, plur. mikindu, a kind of 

palm whose leaves are used to 

make fine mats. 
Mkizi, a kind of fish. 
Mkdba, plur. mikoba, a scrip, a 

small bag. 
Mkoche, plur. mikoche, a kind of 

branching palm with an edible 

fruit. 



312 



MKO 



Mkojo, urine. 

MkokOf plur. mihoko, a mangrove 

tree. 
Mkokoto^ plur. mikohatOy the mark 

made by a thing being dragged 

along. 
Mkoma^ plur. mikoma, a large \;tee 

bearing an edible fruit. 
Mkombozi, plur. wakomboziy a 

redeemer. 
Mkondo. 

Mkondo toa maji, a current. 
Mkongojoy plur. mikongqjOy an old 

man's staff for him to lean upon 

as he walks. 
Mkono, plur. mikono, the arm, es- 
pecially from the elbow to the 
fingers ; the hand, a sleeve, a 
projecting handle like that of a 
saucepan, a measure of nearly 
half a yard, a cubit . 

Ta mkonoy handy. 

Chuo cha wkonoy a handbook. 
Mkorofiy ill-omened. 
Mkvbwa, great, the eldest See 

'kubwa, 
Mkuchyo, Magadoxa. 
Mkufuy plur. mikufu, a chain, es- 
pecially of a light ornamental 

kind. 
Mkufunzi, plur. wakufunzi, a 

teacher. 
Mkuke, plur. mikuke, a spear with 

a sharp point and triangular 

blade. 
MkukUf the ke^l of a ship. 
Mkuky a gar-fish. 

MkuUmay plur. wakuUma^ a culti- 
vator, a field labourer.. 
Mkulimanit plur. wakuUmani, an 

interpreter. 
Mkidoy plur. wtfeMfo, a pottle-shaped 

matting bag to strain tui through. 



MLI 

Jf /mmavf , a kind of red wood much 

used in Zanzibar. 
Mkwnnbi (Mgao.), gum-oopal tree. 
Mkunga (?), midwife. 
Mkunguy plur. m&cunguy the ituit 

stalk of the banana. 
Mkungu, plur. mikungUf a kind of 
earthen pot 

Mkungu wa kufuntkia, a pot lid. 

Mkungu wa kulia^ a dish. 
Mkuuy plur. tm^uu, a great man, a 
chief. 

Mkutu toa'osikari, a conmiandiog 
•officer. 

Mkuu wa genziy a guide. 
Mkuza, large, full grown. 
Mkioainha, a kind of thorny shrub. 
MkwaMf plur. tco^u^cwt, a wealthy 

person, rich. 
Mkwe, plur. wakuoe, a father or 

mother-in-law, a son or daughter- 
in-law. t. 
Mkweme, a climbing plant bearing 

a gourd with round flat seeds 

rich in oil. 
Mkwezif a olimber,* one who goes 

up. 
Mlafi, plur. toalafi, a glutttm. 
Mtaloy plur. milcUa, hyphaBue, a 

branching palm. 
Mlamixiy a dark-coloured bird that 

eats insects, and drives away 

other birds, even the crows. 
Mlangot plur. mUango, a door, a 

gate. 
Mlanzay a pole for carrying ^ihings. 
Mlariba^ plar. toalqribaf usurer. 
Mle^ there within. 
Mlevi, plur. walevi, a drunkard. 
Mlezi, plur. walezi, a nurse, one 

who rears children. 
Mlezo, plur. milezo, a broy. 
MlimOf plur. milima, a mountain. 



MLI 



Hon 



343 



Mlingote, plur. mdingote^ a mast. 

MHngote wa kalmi or galmi, the 
small mizen-mast carried by 
large dhows. 
Mlingote wa maji, the bowsprit. 
Mlinzi, plur. walinzi^ a guard. 
Mlishi^ plur. tocUishi, a feeder, a 

shepherd. 
MlUlio, the mouth Shaaban. 
Mlizamu, a waterspout on a house. 
Atlole, the oomb of a cock. 
Mlomo, plur. mUomOf a lip. Also, 

Jtfdomo. 
Mmcja, one, a certain man. See 

-maja, 
*Mna^ there is within. 
Mnadoy plur. minadoj a sale, an 

auction. 
Mnadi, an auctioneer, huckster. 
Mnadi hu-, to sell by auction. 
Mnafiki, plur. toanafiki, a hypocrite. 
Mnaja^ a prophet going to ask a 

thing of God. 
Mnajimu, plur. tiKinq/imtt, an as- 
trologer. 
Mnajuiy plur. vjanajuiy a profane 

person, blasphemer. 
Mnaroy plur. mtnara, a tower, a 

minaret, a beaconl 
Mnazif plur. minazi, a cocoa-nut 

tree. 
Mnena^ one who speaks. 

Mnena kwdi^ one who speaks the 
truth. 
Mfwne^ stout See -ii«fi«. 
Mneni, plur. toaneni, a speaker, an 

eloquent person. 
Mngazidja^ plur. WangazidjOy a 

native of Great Ck>moro. 
Mngvjana, plur. iDan^tAatiOya gentle- 
man, a free and civilized person. 

Ifno, exceedingly, excessively. Jlfiio 



always follows the word qualified 
by it. 

Mnofuj meatiness, fieshiness. 

Mnono, fat. See -nono, 

Mnunuzi, plur. loanuniAzif a buyer, 
a purchaser, a customer. 

Mnyamavu, plur. tcanyamavuj a 
silent person, still, quiet. 

Mnyang*anyit plur. wanyang*anyit a 
robber, one who steals with vio- 
lence. 

Mn^yOt a tickling, itching, a creep- 
ing sensation. 
. Mnyxriri, plur. .minyiriri, the arms 
of the cuttle-fish. 

Mnyonge, plur. wanyonge^ an insig- 
nificant, mean person. 

MfiyororOypixa. minyororot or mnyoo, 
plur. minyooy a chain. 

Jtfnytra, plur. wanywa, a drinker, 
one who drinks. 

Jfo, -WM), or -mo'y the particle de- 
noting place inside something 
Mumo humo, there inside, [else. 

Moalli, Mohilla. 

Jtfo/a, small round cakes of mtama 
meal. 

MohuLla, a fixed time, a term. Also 
MuhuUa, 

Moja, plur. mamoja^ one, same. 
Mamoja pia, it is all one. 

•mcja, one. 
JbTo/a 7nq;a, one by one. 

Moja baada wa mqja, alternately. 

Mtu mmqja, a certain man. 

Moja wapot any one. 

Mola, Lord. Used of God. 

Momoy a kind of poisonous snake. 

Mombe^^ Bombay. 

Moria, Mauritius. 
Kutoka Moriiy to score twenty- 
nine or more in a game at 
cards. 



344 



MOB 



MBA 



Kioenda MorU, to mark less than 
twenty-nine in a game at cards. 
MororOj soft. See -ororo. 
Moshi, plur. mioshi^ smoke. 
Mosi, one (in counting). 

Ya mo9iy first. 
Moskitiy a mosque, the ace of spades. 
Mote^ all. See -ote, 
Moto, plur. mioto, fire, a fire, heat. 

Ya moto, hoi 

Kupata moto^ to get hot. 
Moyo^ plur. mioyo or nyoyo, heart, 
mind, will, self. 

Ya moyo, willingly, heartily. 
Mpagaziy plur. toapagazif a caravan 

porter. 
Mpaji, plur. wapaji, a giver, a 

liberal person. 
Mpaka, plur. mipaka, a boundary, 

Mpdka mmoja^ adjacent, [limit. 
Mpaka, until, as far as. 

Tutaxsheka mpaka hulia, we shall 
laugh till we cry. 
Mpamhif plur. wapambi^ a person 

dressed up with oruaments. 
Mpanzi, a sower. 
Mpapayiy plur. mipapayi, a papaw 

tree. 
Mparamuzif plur. miparamuzi, a 

sort of tree said to be unolimb- 

able. ' 
MpatanisM, plur. wapatantshi, a 

peacemaker, one who brings about 

an agreement. * 

MpatOf interlaced work, lattice. 
Mpeekwa, plur. wapeekwa^ a person 

sent, a missionary, = Mpelekwa, 
Mpehuzif plur. wapelmzi, one who 

scratches like a hen, an inquisi- 
tive person. 
Mpeleleziy plur. wapeUlezi, a spy. 
Mpenzi, plur. wapenzi, a person 

who is loved, a favourite. 



Mpera, plur. mipera, a guava tree. 

'Mpia^ new. See -pya. 

Mpiga ravdiy plur. wapiga, a for- 
tune-teller, one who prognosti- 
cates by diagrams. Formerly 
they did so by throwing sand, 
whence the name. ^ 

Mptko, plur. mipikoj a pole to carry 
burdens on. 
Kuchukua mpikonit io carry on 
a pole over the shoulder. 

Mpingo, ebony. 

Mpiniy plur. mipini, a haft, a 
handle. 

Mpiray india-rubber, an india-rub- 
ber ball. 

Mpishi^ plur. wapishi, a cook. 

Mpofu, plur. wapofuj the eland. 

Mpotevu, plur. toapotevUf a wasteful 
person. 

Mpotoe, plur. tBapotoe^ perverse, 
wilful, good-for-nothing. 

Mpumbafu, plur. wapumbafuy a fool. 

Mpungay rice, either growing or 
while yet in the husk. 

Mpungati, plur. mipungati^ a kind 
of cactus. 

Mpuzif plur. voapuziy a silly chat- 
terer. 

Mptoa, the sea-beach (M.). 

Mpweke, plur. mtpu^eZDe, a shor 
thick stick, a bludgeon. 

Mpya, new. See -p^a. 

Mraba, plur. fntro&o, muscles. 
Jtfifii wa miraha tninTte, a very 
strong man. 

Mrabha, square. 

Mradiy preferably (?). 

itframmo, the rolling of a ship. 

Mrashi, plur. mirashi, a long-neeked 
bottle, often of silver, used to 
sprinkle scent ffom; a woman's 
name. 



MBIS 



MSH 



845 



Mremo, pluir. toaremo, a Portuguese. 

Also Mrenu. 
Mrenaha^ the thorn-apple plant. 
Mrenu, plur. Warenu, a Portuguese. 
Mrithi, plur. tjoarithif an heir, an 

inheritor. 
Mrubaf plur. tntntba, a leech. 
Mrunguray people who rob and com- 
mit violence at night. 
MruttUUf sulphate of copper, blue- 
Msaada, help. [stone. 

Msafara^ plur. misafara, a caravan. 
Msafirij plur. wasaflri, a traveller, 

one on a journey. 
MsahafUj plur. misahafv^ a koran, 
a saered book. 

Msdhafu wa Sheitanij a butterfly. 
Msdhau, plur. wctsdhauy one who 

forgets, a forgetful person. 
Msaji, teak. 
Msala. 8ee MubclUu 
Msalc^a, across. 
Msalitif a betrayer of seerets. 
Msamehe, plur. wcuamehej forgiving. 
Msangao, astonishment. 
Msapata, a kind of dance. 
Mmscl, sandpaper, a shrub with 

leaves like sandpaper. 
Msayara, kind, gentle. 
Msazo^ remainder. 
Msdehiskat plur. wasdehishaf a 

peacemaker. 
Msemaji, plur. uoasemaji, a talker, 

an eloquent person. 
Msemi, plur. toasemit a talker, a 
- speaker. 
MdetOj a sort of food, a mixture of 

mtama and chooko, 
Msewe, plur. misewef a sort of 

oafitanet tied to the leg. 
Mshabaha, similar. 
Jkr««^a^ra,plur. mts^o^ra, monthly 

pay, wages.. 



Msliahijdy small pieces of meat 
cooked on a skewer. i, 

MshaJe or Mshare, plur. mishalej an 
arrow. 

Msharika, plur. ti^osAan'^o, a 
partner. 

Mshayi — Mchayi. 

Mtheheri or Mshehiriy plur. TTas^e- 
heri, a native < of Sheher in 

. • Arabia, many of whom are settled 
in Zanzibar. The butchers and 
coarse mat makers are almost all 
Sheher men. 

Mshikif one who holds. 
Mshihi shihio, the steersman. 

Mehindani, plur. washindanif ob- 
stinate, resisting. 

Mnhindio, woof. 

Mshindo (obscene), coitus. 

Mtfhipa, plur. mishipa, a blood- 
vessel, a nerve, any disease affect- 
ing these, hydrocele. 

Mshipavuy plur. waskipavu, obsti- 
nate. 

Mahipi, plur, mishipt, a net, a girdle. 

Mshom't plur. washoni, a tailor, a 
sempster. 
Mahoni viatu, a shoemaker. 

Mi^hono, plur. mishono, a seam. 

Mshtaka, plur. mishtaka, an accusa- 
tion, a charge before a judge. 

Mshtaki, a" prosecutor. 

Mshuko, coming down, coming away 
from performing one's devo- 
tions. 
Mshuko wa magartbi, about a 
quarter of an hour after sunset 
Mshuko wa aJaifiri kaedriy about 
5 P.M. 

Mshuko wa esha, about an hour 
after sunset, or from 7 till 
8 p.m. 
Mehumaa = Meshmaa. 



346 



H8I 



MTA 



Msiba, pint, mistba, a calamity, a 
grief, mourning. 

MMfUt a flatterer. 

Msifu^mnot plur. vfa8ifu*mno, an 
excessive praiser, a flatterer. 

Mifijana, a l^helor (?). 

Msimamizi, plur. wanmamizi, an 
overlooker, a steward, the head 
man over a plantation, who is 
nearly always a free man, often 
an Arab. 

Meinjiy plur. misinjif foundations, 
trench for laying foundations. 

Msinzif plur. misinzit a sort of man- 
grove tree. 

Msio, a piece of stone to rub Uwa 
on. 

Msiot a fated thing, what will de- 
stroy or afiect a person. See 
Mzio, 

Msiri, plur. imiiri, a confidential 
person, one trusted with secrets. 

Msitani [Pemba] = Barazani, 

Msiiu, a forest. 
MsUu wa miti, a thick wood. 

Mtomari, plur. tnuomariy a nail, an 
iron nail. See Marcuhi. 

MsondQ, a very tall drum, beaten <m 
special occasions. 

Msanyo, a whistling. 

Mstadh plur. wastadi, a skilful 
workman, a good hand. 

MddhamUi or Mstahimili^ plur. voa- 
BtafUmilit ft patient, enduring, 
long-suffering person. 

Mstaki, plur. voagtakU a prosecutor» 

3f«ton»tf, a shoe; a piece of wood 
fixed to the keel, with a hole to 
receive the heel of the mast. 

Iftftort, plur. mtitort, a line, a line 
ruled. 
Kupiga fMtari, to draw a JoM* 

MdtofeUf a custard apple. 



Msuahi^ plur. mimaki, a tooth stick, 
a little stick of the zambarau 
tree, used as a tooth-brush. It 
is prepared by chewing the end 
until it becomes a mere bunch of 
fibres. 
M»ufiy plur. tnuuflf a tree bearing a 
pod of soft cotton, Eriodendron 
anfractuosum. 
Msukani, plur. nniiukani, a rudder. 
Msukano, See Keke. 
Msuluhttoa, a peacemaker. 
Msumari = Msomari. 
Msumeno, plur. miaumeno, a saw. 
Msumkule^ the name of Liongo's 

sword. 
Msunebarif fir tree, deal. 
Msuruahi, plur. mieurudki^ the 
wooden button which is grasped 
between the toes to hold on the 
wooden clogs commonly worn by 
women and in the house. 
MmzOf the handle of a millstone. 
Mstoeni = Msueni, cholera. 
Mta or Mtda, plur. m«to, a district, 
a quarter of a town. 
The mita of Zanzibar, starting 
from the western point and 
going round the outside first, 
and then into the middle, 
are : Shangani, Baghani, Gtere- 
zani, Forthani, Mita ya pwani, 
Kiponda, Mbuyuni, Malindi, 
Funguni, Jungiani, Eokoni, 
Mkunazini, ELibokoni, Eidu- 
tanl, Mzambarauni,' Kijvka- 
kuni, Vuga, Mnazimoja, Mji 
mpya, Mtakuja, Jumea, Soko la 
Mahogo, Kajificheiil, Mfuuni, 
Migomboni, Tiuyani, Sham, 
Hurumzi, Kutani, Hwavi. All 
these are on the peninsula, 
?(hioh joins the mainland only 



MTA 



MTO 



347 



fit Mnazi moja. Funguoi is 
on the point where the creek 
enters, which almost surrounds 
the town. , Crossing the creek 
by the bridge, there are the 
following mita : — Ng'ambo, 
Mchanganl, Giilioni, Kwa 
Buki, Vikokotoni, Kisimani 
kwa kema, Mchinjani, Mwem- 
bemjugu, Kikwajuui, Mkadini» 
and then Mnazi moja again. 
Mtaala = Mtala. 
Mtahari, credible. 
Mtai, a scratch, a slight superficial 
cut. 
Kupiga mtai^ to scratch. 
Mtahnbo, plur. mitaimbOf an iron 

bar, a crowbar. 
Mtajiriy plur. watajiriy a merchant, 
a rich man. More correctly 
Tajiri. 
Mtakaso, the rustling of new or 
clean clothes. 
Kupiga mtakaso, to rustle. 
Mt&iH^ = Mtaala, practice, study. 
MtcUi, plur. mitaliy bangles, anklets. 
Mtama, millet, Caffre corn. 
Mtama mtindi, half-grown stalks 

of mtama. 
Miama tete, fully formed but not 
yet ripe. 
Mtamha^ plur. mitambay a young she- 
animal which has not yet borne. 
Mtamho, plur. mitamho, a spring, a 

trap with a spring, a machine. 
MtanashcUiy a swell, dandy. 
Mtandij a loom. 
Mtando, the warp in weaving. 
Mtam\ plur. watanij one who belongs 

to a, kindred tribe or race. 
MlcumOf plur. wcUcunoa, a devout 

person. 
MtatamUf shrewd, wise. 



Mtatago, a tree or beam thrown 
across a stream. 

Mfego, plur. mitego, a trap. 

Mtendajif plur. watendaji, an active 
person. 

Mtende, plur. mitende, a date palm. 

Mtepcj plur. mitepe, a kind of dhow 
or native craft belonging chiefly 
to Lamoo and the coast near it. 
Mitepe are sharp at the bows 
and stem, with a head shaped 
to Imitate a camel's head, orna- 
mented with painting and tassels 
and little streamers. They carry 
one large square mat sail, and 
have always a white streamer or 
pennatit at the mast-head : their 
planking is sewn together, and 
they are built broad and shallow. 

Mtesij an adversary, a quarrelsome 
litigious person. 

Mtesteahi, comic. 

Mteule, plur. wateule, chosen, select. 

Mthamini, ^ surety. 

Mthtdimu, a cheat, a thief. 

Mti, plur. miti, a tree, pole, wood. 

Mti kati, a tall post set in tlie 

ground between a prisoner's 

- legs, so that when his feet are 

fettered together he can only 

move in a circle round the post. 

Miishamba, a charm of any kind. 

Mti, scrofulous and gangrenous 
sores. 

Mtibtty a darling, a term of endear- 
ment. 

Mtii, plur. toatii, obedieni 

Miima, heart, chest (old Swahili 
and Eiyao). 

Mtindi, buttermilk. 

Mtindoy size, form, shape, pattern. 

Mtiniy plur. mitiniy a fig tree. 

Mto, plur. nUto, a river, a sticoui. 



348 



MTO 



Mto uoa Icono, a branchiDg riTer, a 
delta. 
MtOt plur. mitOf a pillow, a cusEion. 
Mtoimoe^ a kind of wood of which 

the best hakoras are made. 
Mtofaa, plur. mito/da, an apple- 
like fruit. 
Mtoki, a swelling of the glands at 
the bend of the thigh followed 
by fever. 
Mtomo, firmness, good building. 
Jkftomondo,plur. mitomondo^ihe Bar- 
ringtonia ; its fruit is exported to 
India. 
Mtondo, the day after the day after 
to-morrow. 
Miondo goo, the day after that. 
MtondoOt plur. mitindoo, Callo- 
phyllum inophyllum ; oil is made 
from its eeeds. 
M'ongozi, plur. watongozi, a man 
who dresses himself up to allure 
women. 
Mtoro, plur. watoro, a runaway. 
MtotOf plur. watofo, a child. Used 
also generally of anything 
small of its kind, when men- 
tioned in connection with 
something larger to which it is 
attached; e.g. young shoots, 
small boats, &o. 
Mtoto wa waiu, a child of some- 
body, having relations, a woman 
of respectable family as dis- 
tinguished from one of slave 
parentage, a woman therefore 
who has somewhere to go if she 
leaves her husband, or he her. 
Mtoto wa mezoy a drawer of a 
table. 
Mtovuy without manners, shameless. 
Mlu^ plur. watu, a person, a man, 
somebody, anybody. 



MUA 

Hakuna mtUf th^ is nobody. 
Mtu gani i of what tribe^ 
Mtu wa $erkali, a man in goyem- 
ment employ. 

MtuUnga, plur. mtttdinga^ the col- 
lar bone. 

MtulivUf plur. watulivuy a quiet 
man. 

Mtumainiy plur. watumaini, san- 
guine, confident. 

Mtumba, plur. mitumha, a bale of 
cloth made up for a' caravan. 

Mtunibuizi, plur. watumhuizi^ a spy, 
an inquisitive person (A.). 

Mtumhwit plur. mitumbwiy a canoe 
hollowed out from the trunk of 
a tree, distinguished from a 
galawa by having no outriggers, 
and being generally of larger 
size. 

Mtume^ plur. mitume, an apostle, a 
prophet. Applied especially to 
Mohammed as a translation of 
his title, Apostle of God. 

Mtumke^ plur. watuwake^ a woman, 
a wife. 

Mtumishif plur. wcUumUhi, a ser- 
vant 

MtumwOy plur. watumtoa, a slave, a 
servant. 

Mtunduy mischievous, perverse, 
troublesome. 

Mtungi, plur. mttungi, a water-jar. 

Mtupa^ plur. mitupa^ euphorbia. 

MtupUf bare. See -tupu. 

MttUUf plur. mitutu (Ar.), a mul- 
berry tree. 

Mtuzi, curry, gravy (M.). Also 
Mchuzi, 

Mtwango^ plur. mitwango^ a pestle 
for pounding and cleaning com, 

Mu', See Jlf-. 

Muoy plur. miwa, a sugar-cane^ 



HUB 



•M U S 



340 



Muhaiharifuy extravagant. 

Muda or Mda, a space of time, term. 
Muda wa, the space of. 

Mitdu ku: 

Kujimuduy to gain a little strength 
after illness. 

Muhadimu, j^lur, wdhadimu, a ser- 
vant, one of the original inhabi- 
tants of Zanzibar. • These todha- 
dimu pay two dollars a year for 
each household to the Munyi 
mkuuy of which Seyed Majid now 
(1870) takes one; they also work 
for him. They all live in vil- 
lages in the country, and speak a 
language of which there are at 
least two dialects, materially 
different from the Swahili of the 
town. 

Mtiharahit, plur. vjdhardfmy mis- 
chievous, destructive. 

Muhartbivuj plur. wahaHbtvu, a de- 
structive person, one who ruins 
himself, destroys his own chances. 

Muhdruma, a kind of silk handker- 
chief, worn instead of a turban. 

MuMndi, plur. Wahindiy a native 
of India, especially an Indian 
Mussulman, of whom there are 
two chief sects settled in Zanzi- 
bar, the Ehojas and Bohras. 

Muhindi, plur. mihindi, the Indian 
com plant Also MahindU 

MuhogOy cassava, manioc. 

MvMasari, an abridgment, a sum- 
mtoy. 

MiihtdlcL, time, a fixed period. 

Muhurif a seaL 

Mujiza, plur. miujiza^ a wonderful 
thing, a miracle. Also Mioujiza, 

Mult or Mutioy clever, knowing. 

Midika hvr^ to show a light, to 
gleam. 



MulMf a kingdom. 

Mumet male. See -ume. 

Mumimi, Azrael, the angel of death. 

Mumunye, plur. mamumunye, a kii^ 
of gourd resembling a vegetable 
marrow. It often grows of such 
a shape that its hard rind, when 
ripe, can be used for bottles, 
ladles, and spoons. 

Mumyanif a mummy. Mummy is 
still esteemed as a medicament. 

Munda, plur. miunda, a piece of 
plank to serve as cap to a post 
See also Mda. 

Mundu, plur. miundu, a bill, a 
small hatchet. 

Munyi, a chief, a sheykb. The 
Munyi mkuu is esteemed the true 
Sultan of the Swahili, at least in 
the island of Zanzibar and the 
parts adjacent. He is descended 
from an ancient P^ian family, 
the heiress of which married, 
some generations since, an Arab 
from Yemen. The title is now 
(1874) in abeyance. His chief 
residence is at Dunga, near ihe 
centre of the island. 

Mu>om6y plur. miomo,.the moustache, 
the lip. 

MusalOy plur. miscda, an oval mat 
used to perform the Mohammedan 
devotions upon, 

MusarnQf pardon. 

Mitsimi, the northerly winds, which 
blow in December, January, and 
February. The musimi is some- 
times reckoned to extend till 
June. 

Musivna = Mvsimi, 

Mustarehe, enjoyment 

Mustarifu, with a competency, 
neither rich nor poor. 

2 A 



350 



MUT 



HWA 



Mutaabir, credible. 

Mutia^ obedience. 

Muuajf, plur. wauc^ji, a mmderer, 

a slayer. 
Muuguziy plur. wauguzi, a niUBe, 

one who nurses sick people. 
MuumUhi, plur. waumuhi, a cupper. 
Muundi wa mguu (A.), the shin. 
Muungu, Gk)d, plur. miungu. The 
Swahili rarely use Muungu or 
*Mungu alone. They almost 
always say Mwenyiezi *Mungu, 
Mcukini ya Muungu, a poor free 
person. 
Mutimoy a place where offerings are 
made to some spirit supposed to 
haunt there. Baobab trees are 
generally supposed to be haunted 
Mviy grey hairs. [by spirits. 

Mviliy the shade of a tree. 
Mvinje, Gassiorinus. 
MvinyOf strong wine, spirits, wine. 
MviringOi round, roundness. 
Mvita, Mombas. 
MvivUf idle. See -vivu, 
Mvua, rain, rains. 
Mvua ya mtpaka, the rain which 
falls about August 
Mvuje, assafoetida. 
Mvukej vapour, steam. 
MvukutOy plur. miffuhutOy a lever. 
Mvularui, plur. wavulana, a young 
man whose beard is just begin- 
ning to grow. 
Mvuley the lesser rains, about 

October or November. 
MvfdifUf in the shade. 
MvumOf plur. mtvtimo, the bc^rassus 

palm. 
Mvumilivu, plur. wavumUiifUj 

patient, long-suffering. 
Mvwno, a rubber, six games won by 
one side (in cards). 



Mmndii, at Mvunja, plur. wavunda, 
a breaker, a destroyer, one who 
ruins. 
Mvungu, the hollow of a tree, a 
hollow tree. 
Mvungu wa kitanda, the space 
under a bedstead. 
Mvuviy plur. toavwfi, a fisherman. 
Mw: See Jf-. 
Mway of. 

MujoOy plur. vtiwaot strips of the 

leaf of a tree called mkoma (?), 

used to make eoarse mats and 

baskets. 

Mvjafa ku-y to forgive. 

Mvjofaka, a conspiracy, an agree- 

rneni, a bajrgain. 
Mwaga hi'^ to pour away, to empty 

out, to spill. 
Mwagia ^u-, to pour upon, to empty 

out for. 
Mwajuifuniy a self flatterer. 
Mwajuj^ plur. midka, a jFear. The 
year commonly uaed in Zanzi- 
bar is the Arab year of twelve 
lunar months. There is also 
the Persian yev of 365 days, 
beginning with the Nairuzy 
called in Swahili the 8%ku a 
mioaka. From this day the year 
is reckoned in decactes^ each 
decade being called a munrngo. 
The year is called froip the day 
of the week on which it com- 
menoes : Mujaka Juma, Mwaka 
aJhamisi, &c. 
MuH^kajanOt last year. 
Mwaka juzi, the year before last. 
Mwaka kwa fi^iBoka, yearly. 
MicaJce, his, hers, its. See -oAe. 
MwdkOy thy. See -o^. 
Mioeli, Bt^ MwawkmvHdu 
] Mioali, plur. miwali, a sortef pslm 



MWA 



MWE 



S5i 



with very long and atrong leaf 

■talks, which are used for doors, 

ladders^ and other purposes. 
Mioalimu, plnr. wacdimu^ a teacher. 
Mvoamale, treatment, mode of treat- 
ing. 
Mwambay plur. miamha^ a rock. 
Mwaniba, plur. miamhaj the wall 

plate in a mud and stud house. 
Mwamua^ plur. waamua, a judge. 
Mwamua, husband's brother. 
Mwamuti, plur. waamuzi, a judge. 
Mwana, the mistress <^ the house, 

a matron. It is p<:^ite in "Zanzi- 

hai to speak of one^s own mother 

as mwana. 
MwanUy plur. fmmna, a son, a child. 

Mwanangu, my child. 

Mwanao, your child. 

Mwanawe, his or her cliild. 

Mwanetu, our child. 
Mwaria Adamu, a child of Adam, 

t.6.,.a hjimau being. 
Mwana maji, a seaman. 
Mwana maua^ a sprite represented 

as a white woman with an ugly 

black husband. 
Mwana mhe, plur. vfoatM wake or 

waanaakcy a woman. 
Mwana take wa kiungwana, a lady. 
MuBcma invme, plur. tmana waume 
or toaanaume, a man. 

Mwana mvoalU a young woman 

whose breasts are not yet flat. 

tened, one who has not yet left 

her father's house. 

Mwanamizi, a soldier crab. 

Mwaihdikaji, plur. waandike^ a 

waiter, a table servant. 
Mwandikot plur. miandikOf a mami- 

soript, handwriting. 
MwandUhi^ plur. waandithi, a 

writer, a olerk, a secretary. 



Mwanga, plur. mianga, light, a 
light, a kind of rice. 

Mwangalizi, plur. waangaltzi, an 
overseer, one who overlooks or 
looks to. 

Mwangaza, plur. miangazaf a light 
hole, the small round holes which 
are often left near the ceilings 
of rooms in Zanzibar. 

Mtoango^ plur. mian^o, a lamp-stand, 
a piece of wood about eijfhteeu 
inches long, from near the bottom 
of which two small pieces project 
at right angles, to hold the com- 
mon clay lamp of the country. 
The mwango is generally hung 
against a wall. 

Mwango = Mlungo. 

*Mioango, plur. miwangoy a kind of 

Mtoangu, my. See -angu. [shrub. 

Mwangwi, echo. 

Mwdni, seaweed. 

'Mwanzit plur. miwanzt, a bamboo. 
Miwanzi ya puoj the nostrils (?). 

MwanzOf plur. mianzot beginning. 

Muoao, a worry, bother. 

Mtoapuzay a simpleton. 

Mwashit plur. waashi, a mason. 

Mwathiniy one who calls to prayer 
at the mosque, a muezzin. Also 
Mueihthin. 

MwavuU, plur. miavuU, an um- 
brella. 

Mwawazi, the Disposer, a title of 
God. 

Mwaya fct»- = Mioaga ku-, to pour 
away. 

*Mvodiy plur. waweliy a sick person. 

Mwema, good. See -ema, 

Mwembamhay thin. See -ewbamba, 

Mwenibey plur. miemhey a mango tree. 

Mioendanguuy a great and irre- 
parable loss. 



35a 



MWB 



MWI 



Mtoendo, going, gait, journey. 
Mwenendo, going on, behaviour. 
Mwengcy plur. mienge^ a bundle of 

straw, &c., used to carry a light. 
Mwenyeji, plur. wenyetjit a ho3t, a 
person who has a home in the 
place. 
Mwenyetoe, plur. toenyewe, the owner, 
self, myself, thyself, himself, 
&o. 
Mbau za mwenyewe, some one 
else's planks. 
Mwenyi, having, possessing. See 
-enyi, 
Mwenyi ezi Muungu, Almighty 

God. 
Mwenyi chongo, a one-eyed per- 
son. 
Mwenyi incMt the lord of the 

country. 
Mwenyi hichaay a lunatic. 
Mwenyi kuhutvhu, a preacher. 
Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Mwenyi malij a rich man. 
MwenzangUf plur. wenzangu^ my 

companion. 
Mwenzi, plur. wenziy a companion. 
Mwere, a kind of com or seed like 
linseed, growing on a close spike 
like a bulrush flower. 
MwerevUf plur. werevu, a shrewd 

person, a man of the world. 
Mwewe, a hawk, a kite, a kind of 

fish. 
Mweya Tcu-^ to steal. 
*Mwezat plur. waweza, able, having 
power over. 
Mweza tnwenyewe, one's own 
master. 
Mwezi, the moon. 
Mwezit plur. mieziy a month. The 
months in Zanzibar begin on 
the day on which the moon is 



first seen, unless the old month 
has already had thirty days ; if 
80, the day which would have 
been the 3l8t, is the Ist of the 
new month. 
Mwezi mpungufu, a month of less 

than thirty days. 
Mwezi rmoandamu or mwangamu, 
a month of thirty full days. / 
Mwezi ngapi f what is the day of 

the month ? 
Mvjezi wa sita, the 6th day of the 
month. 
MwibcP, plur. miiba, a thorn. 
Mwibajif plur. webajiy an habitual 

thief, a thievish person. 
Mwigo, a sort of large dove with red 
bill, white neck, and black body. 
It cries Kooo I Then one answers, 
''Mujigor* Koooi--''Niagulie! " 
Kooo I — " Kwema nendako f " 
Kooo I — then one may go on. If it 
answers not, it is a bad omen. 
MmhOf plur. miihOf a spoon, a 
mason's trowel. Also a measure, 
direction, prohibition, especial- 
ly of a medical practitioner. 
Kushika mwiko, to live by rule, to 
live abstemiously. 
Mwiliy plur. miiliy the body. 
Mwimo, plur. miimo^ side piece of 

a door frame. 
^Mmnda, plur. wawinda^ a hunter. 
Mmngajini, a common plant whose 
leaves are said, when rubbed in, 
to cure the aching of the limbs in 
fever ; a decoction of the roots is 
said to be useful in dysentery. 
Mwingiy much, full. 
Mwingi wa maneno, full of 
words. 
Mwinyi — Mioenyi^ having, with. 
See -enyi. 



MWI 



MZO 



353 



JtTwUhOf plur. miisJiOf end, conclu- 

SlOD. 

Muoithi (Patta) = Mwivi, 
MxjoitOy calling, summons. 
MmtUf forest. 

Ya mvntUf wild. 

Mbwa wa nvwitu, jackals. 

Mtoivif plur. wevi, a thief. 
*MmvUy jiur. wamvu, a jealous 

person. 
Mwizi (A.) = Mwivi. 
Mujoga, plur. waogay one who fears, 

a coward. 
Mwokosi, plur. toaohoHy on6 who 

picks up anything. 
Mwohozif plur. waokozi, one who 

saves, a saviour. 
Mwomhajif plur. waomhaji, a beg- 
gar. 
Mwomheziy plur. vxwmbezit an inter- 



Mtffomo ^ Mdomo, 
Mwongo, plur. miongo, a decade of 
ten days, used in reckoning the 
nautical or Swahili year, from 
the «t^tt a mtoa^. 
Mtoongo mioangapij in what de- 
cade is it? 
*MwongOy plur. wawongor a liar, a 
false person. 
Simekmjoa * mtoongo ? am I not a 
liar? 
Mwongofu, plur. vjoongofu, a con- 
vert, a proselyte. 
Mwujizat plur. miujiza, a miracle. 
Jlfzoa, plur. toaisaa, a parent. 

Mzaahibit a great-grandmother. 
Jlfza5t&u, plur. mizabibu, a vine. 
Mzdha, sport, ridicule, derision. 
Kumfanytzia mzaha, to deride 
him. 
Mzaliay plur. wazcdia, a native, a 
slave bom in the country. 



Mzaliahaf plur. trazaZ/«/ia^ 'a mid- 
wife. 
Mzaramu, a pool of water. 
Mzaziy plur. wazazi, a parent, fruitful. 

iSi mzazi, barren. 
ilfze6, plur. toazee, an old person, an 

elder. 
Mzeinbe, plur. fr(i2;<»?i5«, a careless 

person. 
Mzige, a locust 
Mzigo, plur. mizigo, a l^urden, a 

load. 
Mzima, an extinguisher, one who 

puts out. 
Jfztma, plur. wazima, a living or 
healthy person. 

Mtu mzimaf a grown person. 
Mzimu, See Zimm^ Muzimo, 

Kuzimu. 
MzingcL, plur. mizinga^ a hollow 
cylinder, a hollowed piece of 
wood used as a beehive, a can- 
non. 

Beale ya mzinga, a pillar dollar. 
Mzingi or Mzinji, plur. mizingij 

foundations, trench for laying in 

ihe foundation. Also Msinji. 
MzingUe mtoambijij a puzzle, a 

labyrinth. 
MzingOt the circumference, brink. 

Mzingo woj around. 
Jlf2eo,thatwhich would be deleterious 

to any one ; each person is said to 

have his special mzio — of one it is 

cuttle-fish, of another, red fish, 

and 80 on. Also Msio. 
Mzishi, plur. wazishi, a burier, one 
, who will see to one's funeral, a 

special friend. 
MzOf sixty pishi. 
Mzofafay on tiptoe. 
Mzoga, plur. mizoga^ a dead body, a 
carcase. 



354 



MZO 



N 



MzMMLti. See TAairoM = Zomari, 

Mzungu, plur. mizungu, a strange 
and startling thing. 

MzungUf plur. WdzungUf a Euro- 
pean, one who wears European 
clothes. 

Mzungu wa piUy queen in cards. 

Mzungu wa tatu, knave in cards. 

Mzungu voa 'nne, king in cards. 

Mzungukoy plur. mizungukOy a wan* 
dering sft>out. 

Mzushi, a heretic, an innovator. 

Mzuzi, plur. wcLxuzi, a tale-bearer, 
one who reports malioiously or 
untruly the word of others. 

Mzuzu, plur. wazuzUf a simpleton. 

Mzvoeoy used to. 



^is pronounced as in English. 

An % sound is generally connected 
with an initial n. It someUmes 
precedes more or less distinctly, 
and may be written in or *n, making 
the n a distinct syllable. Some- 
times the n flows into the following 
letter, so that the % sound is alto- 
gether lost. Very often it follows 
it as in the common syllable ni or 
ny. It is characteristic of the Zan- 
zibar dialect to make the initial i 
sound distinct Thus^ tncA», a coun- 
try, is at Mombas 'nU, 

Ni is often contracted into *n or 
n, and Where n would be dropped 
ni sometimes is so, as in the first 
person of the future tense, niiapenda 
or *ntap€nda or tapenda. 

N cannot be placed before 5, ch^ 
f,h,l,p,ry8,t,v^otw. 

Before h, w, and perhaps v, it be- 
comes m, and w changes into &. 



Before k, p, and perhaps <, it is . 
dropped, and the consonant 
gets an -explosive sound. 

Before I, r, and perhaps t, the n 
remains, but the other conso- 
nant becomes a d. 

Before o^ j^ m, n, and s, it is 
merely dropped. 

N can stand before d, g, j^ y, 
and 2. 

^before ^ is in two oases at least 
ccmtracted into h, 

Hapenda = NikapendcL. 

Hipenda c= Nikipenda, 

.There is a sound in Swahili which 
is treated as a simple consonant, 
which does not occur in European 
langunges as an initial^ sound. It 
is very nearly the same with the 
final ng in English, in such words 
as loving, going, &o. The sounds of 
n and g seem both audible, but so 
blended that neither of them can be 
carried «m to the following voweL 
It is here written ng\ to distingpiish 
it from the common sound ng^ in 
which the g passes on to the folio w« 
ing voweL There is some little 
difference in the way in which dif- 
ferent per8(ms pronounce it ; it has 
sometimes more of a gn sound, and 
might be so written if it be under- 
stood that the two letters are so 
fuBed together that neither ean be 
heard as if it stood alone. * it has 
been sometimeB written ^, which is 
either a mistake or very misleading. 
That the sound really is ng, may be 
proved by the fact that such words 
as begin with it are treated as words 
beginning with n, and that when 
other prefixes aie applied they are 



N- 



N- 



S55 



treated as if the root began with g* 
It is not, however, a very common 
sound in Swahlli. 

Tbei^ is anothjer sound com- 
pounded of n and t, which is very 
fairly represented by the Spanish ^, 
or by ni in such English words as 
companion, &c. It is pronounced 
perhaps in Swahili with a slightly 
broader and more nasal sound-. It 
is here written ny, to distinguish it 
from the common syllable ni, in 
which the t* has a vowel sound. 

The ny sound .in the dialect of 
Zanzibar sometimes represents an n 
in more northern Swahili, as in 

KUnwa or kdnywa^ to drink. 

The change from » to ny has in 
many verbs the effect of giving a 
causative meaning, as in hupona, to 
get well, ^teponyd, to make well, to 
save. 

JV-, or m-, the sign of the first per- 

' son singular of verbs, I. 

-n-, or -nt-, the objective prefix 

proper to denote the first person, 

me. 
N- (see ny-). 

1. A prefix frequently occurring 
in substantives Which do not 

^ change to form the plural. If 
followed by d, gf, J, or 2, it is 
pronounced with them and does 
not form a distinct syllable. 
Before other consonants it forms 
a distinct syllable, and may be 
written *n- or sometimes in-. 

2. The plural prefix of substan- 
ilveswhichbegininthe singular 
with U-, followed by a conso- 
nant. The u is dropped and n 
prefixed before d, g, j, and z. 



Before 6, and perhaps «, the n 
changes into 1», before w the mo 
Income mb. Before I or f the 
ril or nr become nd. Before k, 
p, and t, the n.is dropped and 
the other consonant gets an ex- 
plosive or aspirated sound, and 
may be written k% p\ and f ; 
before cJi, /, 1», n, and «, the n is 
merely dropped. Where, how- 
ever, dropping the u- would 
leave the wwrd a monosyllable, * 
the U' is retained, and ny pre- 
fixed. 
N- (see ny-). The prefix proper to 
adjectives agreeing with sub- 
stantives of the class which docs 
not change to form its plural 
of whichever number, or with 
plural substantives which make 
their singular in u-. Where the 
simple form of the adjective 
begins with a vowel, ny- is pre- 
fixed, except -emcLf good, which 
m^es njema or ngtma. The 
changes before a consonant are 
the same at those given just 
above for the plural nouns in u-, 
Nywmha rribaya, not nbayii. 

fi dituihe^ not nckache» 

„ ndojo. 

„ fupi, not nfupi, 

„ ngema, 

„ njema* 

„ kubwa, not nkvhtM, 

^ nujjOf not nmoja. 

,1 nane, not nnane, * 

„ p(ma, not npatf^a, 

„ 'mpya, not npya brpya. 

„ nde/u, not nrefu. 

„ tatiif not ntalu, 

„ mbiliy not moili or npili» 

It nzuri. 



356 



NA 



NAN 



No, and, also, vitli ; by, of the agent 
of a passiye, and with, of the 
sharer in the action of a reci- 
procal verb. 

Na when joined with a pronoun 
commonly forms one word with 
it. 

Nami, and I, or with me. 

Nawe, and thoo, or with thee. 

Nao, nayOf nacho, nahj and or 
with them, it, &o., &o., &a. 

^a joined with the verb kutoa, to 
be, or with the personal prefix 
only, constitutes the verb to 
have. The object is frequently 
joined with the na^ — ana, or 
anazo, anacho, &c., &c, he has. 

Alieho nac^t which he has. 

Alichokutoa rujuihoy which he had. 

Atakaehokutoa nacho, which he 
will have. 

AtaJcuwa na^oho, he will have it. 

The verb kuwa na is used some- 
times iu the sense of being, as 
Falikuwa na mtu, there was a 
man. 

Hahunat there is not. 

iCuna, there is. 

Zinazo, they are. 
-na-i the sign of the present tense 
of a continuing action. 

Anahwenda, he is going. 

Anasemat he is saying. 

This tense has sometimes the 
effect of a present participle. 

Akamvxma anakuja, and he saw 
him coming. 

K.6.— At Mombas the -na- tense 
is used as a past tense. At 
Zanzibar it is the most usual 
present. 
Na or *Nna = Nina, I have. 
Naam or Na*avfii yes. 



Ncibihi^Tia kwy to exhort. 

Nahiit a prophet. 

Nadi kuy to proclaim^ to make a 
bid for a thing, to sell by auction. 
8ee Mnadi, 

Nddira^ rare. 

NafakOy com, com used as money. 
Mtama^ or millet, was formerly 
used in Zanzibar as small 
change; it was superseded by 
the introduction of pice from 
India about the year 1845. 

Na/asif space, room, time, oppor- 
tunity. 

NaJmsJia ku-y to give space, to make 
space. 

Naf8% or Nafusi^ self, soul, breatb. 

Na/uu, profitable. 

NaJiau, spelling, grammar. 

Nahma ku, to revenge. 

Nahotha ya nuyi, water-tank. 

Naij a sort of anvil fixed in a forked 
piece of wood. 

Najisi = NejjiSy profane. 

Nakhotha or Nahozay captain of a 
vessel, master mariner. 

Nakili ^u-, to copy, to transcribe. 

Nakishij Nakah^ or Nakshiy carving. 
Kukata nahshy to carve, to orna- 
ment with carving. 

Nakishiwa ^u, to be carved or in- 
laid. 

Nahl, a copy. 

NakOy and it was there. 

Ndkudiy cash, ready money. 

Nama ku- = Inama ku-, to bend 
down, to bow the head. 

Namii and I, or with me. 

Na*mna or JVamttno, sort, pattern. 

Namua kth (Mer.), to take out of a 
trap, to extricate. 

Nana or Na^ana, mint. 

Nana^ mistress (N.). 



NAN 



NDI 



357 



Nanazi, plur. mananazi, a pine- 
Nane, eight. [apple. 

-wane, eight. 

Ta nane, eighth. 
Nanga, an anchor. 

Kuiia nanga, to anchor. 
Nangonangoy a worm (?). 
Nanif Who? 

NanigwanzuUij a kind of lizard. 
Niw, and they or with them, and it 

or with it. 
Naoza = Ndkhoiha, a captain. 
Napo^ and there, and here. 
Nasa Jcu', to catch in a trap. 
Nasi hu; to warn. 
NasibUj luck, fortune. 

Kwa nasibu, by chance, perhaps. 
Nasibu kuy to appoint. 
Nasthahu; to 'Suggest. 
Ndsihi ku-, to entreat, to beseech. 
Nastahiba, I see it better, prefer. 
NcLBur^ an abscess. 
N(Ua hu-t to be adheslye, to stick. 
Nathari, choice. 
NcUhirif a look, a glance, a vow. 

Kuweka nathirit to vow. 

Ktumdoa nathirit to perform a 
vow. 
Naihiri ku-y to glance. 
NcUoa, a blemish (?). 
Naulif freight. 
Nawa ku-j to wash oneself. 

Kunaioa mikonOf to wsush one's 
hands. 
Nazdr, quarrel. n 

Nazi, a cocoa-nut, a fully ripe nut. 

Nazi kavu, copra, cocoa-nuts dried 
fit for pressing. 
Naziri = NaiMri. 
Naziyana kur, to quarrel. 
'NefMy the point, the end, tip, a 

strand in cordage. 
Nchi. See Iwhi, 



Ndaa (M.), hunger, = Njaa, 
Ndama, a calf, the young of a 

domestic animal. 
Ndani, within, inside. 
Ndani ya, inside of. 
Kwa ndani, inner, secret. 
Ndani kwa ndani, secretly. 
Ndaroho. 
Kusema cha ndarobo, to speak a 
secret language. 
Ndefu = Ndevu, the beard. Sing. 

udevu, one hair of the beard. 
Ndefu, long. See -refu, 
Ndege, a bird, birds, an omen. To 
see a woman with a load is lucky, 
and would be called ndege njema. 
To see a man by himself carrying 
nothing is unlucky, and is ndege 
mbaya, 
Ndere. 

Unga wa ndere, a magic poison. 
Ndewe, a hole pierced in the lobe of 

the ear; 
Ndezi, a kind of animal. 
Ndi', a prefix used with the short 
form of the pronoun to express, 
it is this, this is the one, I am 
he, you are he, &c. 
I, Ndimi, 
Thou, Ndiwe, 
He or she, Ndiye» 
It, Ndio, ndiyo, ndicho, ndilo, 

ndipo, ndiko, ndimo. 
We, Ndist 
You, Ndinyi, 

They, Ndio, ndiyo, ndivyo, ndizo. 
Ndiyo yalio, that is just it, that 
is how matters stood. 
Ndia (M.) = NJia. 
Ndimi, tongues. See Ulimi. 
Ndio, yes. 

Ndiwa (M.) or Njiwa, a pigeon. 
Ndizif bananas, plantains. 



358 



NDI 



NG'A 



Ndizi Bungala^ a thick iweet 
kind of banana. 

Ndizi mjenga, a long kind of 
banana used in cooking. 

Ndizi mtusa^ a large zidged kind 
of banana. 
Ndoa^ ikarriage. 
Ndonya, a lip-ring, worn by the 

Nyassa. 
Ndoo and Ndooni (M.) = NJoo and 

Njoonif come. 
Ndoo, a pail, a bucket. 
NdotOy a dream. 
Niiovu, an elephant. 
Ndugu, a brother or sister,» cousin, 
a relation. 

Ndugu TcunyonycL^ a foster brother, 
Ndui^ small-pox. [&c. 

Ndulif savage, given to slaying, a 

man wholly without patience. 
Ndume, male, from -lunte or -ume, 
Ndusi, a box. 
Nebii = Nahiij a prophet. 
Neemu, grace, favour. 
Neemeeha ku-^ to enrich. 
Nefsi = Nafsi = Nafmiy self. 
Negeaha ku-, to charge with, to at- 
tribute falsely to. 

Akamnegesha micivi, and he 
called him a thief. 
NejjiSf or Nejiai, or Najiaif profSetne^ 

blasphemous. 
Nellif a pipe, a water-pipe. 
NembOj tribal marks. 
Nena ku-t to speak, to name, to 

mention. 
Nenana ku-^ to talk against one 

another, to quarreL 
-nenef thick, stout, fat, whole, com- 
plete, plump, sleek. 
Nenea ku-f to talk to, of, at, for, or 

against, to blame, to scold, to re- 
commend. 



Nenepa hu-9 to grow fat, used es- 
pecially of persons. 
Neno^ plur. maneno, a word, a thing. 

Stkufanya neno^ I have done no- 
thing. 
Nenyekea &tt-, to be humble, to con- 
descend. 
"nenyeketm, humble, condescending. 
Nepa ku-f to sag, to dip in the 

middle as a long rope does. 

Neu]^ or Nyeupe^ white. See -eupe. 

Neusi or Nyeun, black. See -eusi. 

-nga- or -nge-^ the prefix of the 

present conditional tense. 

ni-nge-kuioa, I should be. 
Ngaduy land crabs. 
^ngawa, though. 

Ng*aa Jcu- = Ng^ara ku-, to shine. 
•ngali-, the prefix of the past con- 
ditional. 

ni-ngali-kataoy I should have re- 
fused. 
Ngamoy the hold of a ship. 
Ng^ambOf a hawkshead turtle, from 

which tortoiseshell is procured. 
Ng*ambOf the other side of a river 

or creek. 
Ngamia or Ngamiya^ a cameL 
Ng*anda, a handful. 
Nganoy a tale, a £ftble. 
NganOy wheat 

Amekvla nganOy he has been dis- 
graced; that is, having been 
as if in paradise, he has now 
to eat Vie food of ordinary 
mortals. 
Ngao, a shield or buckler ; they are 

circular and very smalL 
Ngarck, the young oob of Indian 

com. 
Ng*ara Acu-, or Ng*ala, or Ng^cu^ to 

shine, to glitter, to be transpareat, 

to be clear. 



KQA 



NGU 



359 



NgarihOf a oiroumcisor. 

ITgariza Jcu-, to fix the eyea, to glare. 

Ameninffariza maeko, he glared 
at ma 
Ngatoa, a civet cat (?)• 

The ngawa is a larger animal 
than the /uTtgro. 
Ng*aza hu-, to make to shine, or to 

be briUiatot. 
Ngazi, a ladder. 
Ngazidja, Qieat Comoro^ 
*Agre, a scorpioa. 

«n^«-, sign of the conditional pre- 
sent, would. 

Yangedwnu, they woold still con- 
tinue. 
Ngedere, a Amall black monkey. 
NgemOj good. See ^ema, 
Ngeu, ruddle used by carpenters to 

mark out their woi^ ^ 

-ngi or -ingi, many, much. 
NgUiza. See Ingiliza» 
•ngine, other, different 

Wangine — toanginei some — other. 
I^g*oa kthf to pull up, td root up, to 

pull out 
Ngo€iy lust. 

Kfdia ngoa, to weep for jealousy. 

Kutimia ngoa ydktoet to satisfy 
his desires. 
Ng'ofUf the roe of a flsh. 
Ngoja ftu-, to wait, to wait foe, 
Ngcje^ Angoxa. 

Ngqjea ku-, io wait upon, to watch. 
Ng*dka hu-, to be rooted up. 

Moyo unaning*oha, 1 Was startled 
out of my wits, 
NgcHe, roye^r 

Ngoma, a drum, a musical perform- 
ance generally. 
Ng*(nnbe or Onombet an ox, a oow, a 
bull, cattle. 

Ng'amhe ndume, a bolL 



Ngome, a fort. 

Ng'onda ku-, to cure or dry fish, &c. 

Ng*onga, 

Ana ng^onga (A.)^ he is inclined 
to vomit. 
Ng'ong'e^ the strips of leaf or fibre 

used for sewing matting, and for 

tying. 
Ng*ong*Oj the thick edge of a strip 

of matting. 
NgonOf the share of her husband's 

company which is due to eacli 

wife. 
Ngovi = Ngozt, bkin. 
Ngosiy skin, hide, leather. 
Nguchiro, a mangouste. Also, a 

sort of bird = Mchiro, 
Ngumi or Nyamgumif a whale. 
Ngumi. 

Kupiga ngtmif tu strike with the 
fist. 
Ngumut hard. See -gumu, 
NguOf calico, cotton cloth, clothes. 

Nguo ya meza, a table-cloth. 

Nguo ya mahii stout doth. 

Kutenda nguo, to stretch the 
threads for weaving. 
Nguri, a shoemaker's tool sliaped 

like a skittle. 
Nguru, a kind of fitdi. 
Nguruma ku-, to roar, to thunder. 
Ngurumoy a roar, distant rolling 

thunder. 
Nguruvu, a kind of jackal with a 

bushy tail. 
NguTuvse or Ngvuwe, a pig, swine. 
Nguruzi, a plug. 
Nguue = Ngurutoe, a pig. 
Nguue, red paint. 
Nguva, a kind of fish. 
Nguvu, strength, power, authority. 

Kwa nguvu, by or with strength, 
by force, strongly, rankly. 



360 



i^Gi; 



KJI 



NguzOy a pillar, pillats. f 

'-ngvjana, free, civilized. 

Ngtoe. See Ugwe, 

Ngwcy an allotment or apace for cul- 
tivation. 

Ngwena, a crocodile, a seal. 

Ngunro, a large kind of ant 

Ni, I am, was, is. 
Ni is used to express is or was, for 
all persons and both numbers. 

Ni (M.), by, with ihe agent of a 
passive verb. 

Ni; W-, or JV-, I, the sign of the 
first person singular. Before the 
'ta- of the future it sometimes 
disappears. 

-ni' or -n-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first person singular. 

-nt, added to substantives, forms a 
sort of locative case, signifying 
in, at, into, to, from, from out 
of, near, by. 

1. When followed by pronoufts, 
&c., beginning with *m or mw, 
this case implies within, inside 
of, or the coming or going to 
or from the inside of the thing 
named. 

2. When followed by pronouns, 
Ac, beginning with p, it signi- 
fies nearness to, or situation at, 
by, before, near. 

3. When followed by pronouns, 
&<i.y in kto, it denotes going or 
coming to or from, or at, from, 
and in, in a vague sense, or of 
things £eur off. 

-wt, added to verbs in the impera- 
tive forms the second person 
plural. It is sometimes suffixed 
to common phrases, as kuaherini, 
good-bye, and twendezetuniy let us 
go, and is explained as a short 



form for enyi^ or nyie^ you! you 

there ! > 
-nt, enclitic form for niniy what ? 
-m, enclitic for nyi as an objective 
flufflx(N.). 

Nawaaninaniy I tell you. 
Nia, mind, intentioD, what one has 

in one's mind. 
Nia hti, to have in one's mind, to 

think to do. t 

Nikaao, which I inhabit. 
Nikaliy and I am or was. 

Nikali nikienda, and I am going. 
Nil, blue (for washing). 
Nikwata, the little wall lizard. 
NUi, I being. 

NUi kali ya kuioa Juu yoke, I 
being on his back. 
Nina, I have. 
Nina, mother (N.). 
Ninga, a kind of green bird some- 
thing like a dove, a woman's 

name. 
NingHnin ku-, to swing. 
NingHniza ku-, to set ,8winging. 
Ninif What! 

Kwa ninif or Ya nini f why ? what 
for? 
Ninyir ye, you. 

Ninyi nyote^ all of you, dJl to- 
gether. 
Nipey give me. See Pa ku-* 
Niray yoke. 
NisJui, starch (?). 
NJaay hunger, famine. 
*Nje, outside, forth. 

*Nje ya, outside of, 

Kioa *nje, outwardly, on the out- 
side. 
Njema, good, very well. See -cwa. 
^'id or Ndia, a way, a path, a road, 
means. 

Njia panda, crpss roads. 



NJX 



NY- 



361 



^'tW, a Mud of animaL * 

JQiwa, a pigeoD, pigeons. 
Njitoa manga, tame pigeons. 
Njiwa ya mwitu, a wild pigeon. 

Njombo, a fish barred with black and 
yellow. 

Njoo, come. 

Njooni, come ye. 

NJozi, an apparition, vision. 

NJuga, a dog-bell, a small bell 
worn as an ornament. 

Njugu, ground nnts. 
Njugu nyasMy soft ground-nuts. 
Njugu mawe, hard ground-nuts. 

Njumu, inlaid with silver, inlaying 
work. See Mjumu, 

NJuuja = Njuga. 

Ntuwhaa, where I am livipg, which 
I am inhabiting. 

-'fine, four. 

Ya *nne, fourth. v 

Noa kuy to whet, to sharpen on a 
stone. 

Nokery a servant. 

Nokoa, the second head man at a 
plantation, generally a slave. 

Noleo, plur. manoleo, the metal ring 
round the haft where a knife is 
set into its handle. 

i^ona hu-y to get fat, applied espe- 
cially to animals. 

Nong^ona ku-, to whisper, to mur- 
mur. 

Nong*oneza ku-, to whisper to. 

Nong'iynezana ku-, to whisper to- 
gether. 

-nona, fat. 

Nonoa ku- (?> 

NoondOy or Nondo, a moth. 

Nshi (A.), eyebrow. 

Nso, the kidneys. 

'NtOy wax, bees'-wax. 

*2iti = Inohif land, country, earth. 



Nuele or Nwele = Nyele^ hair. 
Nuia kU', to have in one's mind, to 

intend. 
Nuka ku', to give out a smell, to 
stink. 
Tumhako ya kunuka, snuff. 
Nukato, plur. manukatOf a good 

smell, a scent. 
NuMza ku-y to smell out like a dog. 
Nuktay a point, a vowel point. 
Nuna ku-y to sulk. 
Nunduy a hump, a bullock's hump. 
Nunguy a porcupine. 
Nungu [Pemba], a cocoa-nut. 
Nung'unCka ku-y to .murmur, to 

grumble. 
Nunua ku-y to buy. 
Nunidia ku-, to buy for. 
Nunuliwa ku-y to have bought 
for one. 
Nura ku'f to say the words of an 

oath. 
NurUj light. 
Nu8a ku-y to smell. 

Tumbako ya kunusay snuff. 
Nu88y or Nu8u, or Nussuy half. 
Nuiuru ku-y to help. 
Nioa ku- or Nytca ku-y to drink, to 

absorb. 
Nweleoy plur. maniodeOy pores of 

the diin. 
Nwewa ku-y to be absorbed, to be 

drunk. 
Ny-y a common prefix to substan- 
tives which do not change to 
form the plural, where the root 
begins with a vowel. 
Substantives in u- or w- followed 
by a vowel make their plural 
by substituting ny- for the -u. 
Dissyllables in u- make their 
plural by merely prefixing ny-. 
Ny-y the prefix proper to adjectifes. 



362 



NYA 



NYE 



agieeiDg with substaniives of 
eiiher number of the chiBs 
which do not chatige to fcnrm 
their plural, or with the plural 
of substantives in u-, when the 
,root of the adjective begins 
with a vowel, except -«?n«, 
good, which makes njema or 
ngemcL 
Nya A:tf-, to fall (of rain) ; the ku' 
bears the accent, and is re- 
tained in the usual tenses. 
Mvua indkunyn, the rain is fil- 
ing (Zanzibar). 
Mvua yanyay rainfalls (M.). 
Nyaa, nails of the fingers (N.). 
Nyaka A;w-, to catch. 
Nydkua leu-, to snatch. . 

Nyala, sheaths. See Ala, 
Nyaliot cross pieces put in the 
bottom of a pot to prevent the 
meat touching the bottom and 
burning. 
Nyama, flesh, meat, an animal, 
animals, beasts, cattle. 
Nyama mbtoayi, savage beasts. 
Nyamaa hu-, to continue sil^it, not 

to speak, to acquiesce» 
-nyamavu, silent 

Nyamaza hu', to become silent, to 
leave off talking, to cease (of 
pain). 
Nyamgumi, a whala 
Nyanana, gentle. See -anana, 
-■nyangdlika, a sort of a. 
Kii» hinytmgdWea, a sort of a 

thing. 
Mnyangdli'ka garni f What sort 
ofamanisit? 
Nyang'anya hu-, to rob, to take by 
^ foroe. 

Nyangari, large (spider) sh^Ia. 
Hyanij an ape, apes. 



J^anya^ a small red fruit used as a 
vegetable, &o. 

Nyanya ya hizungu, ft sort of 
small tomato. 
Nyadyasa ku-, to profane, contemn. 
Nyara, booty. 
Nyoiiy grass, reeds. 
Nyati, a buffalo, buffaloes. 
Nyatia hth, to creep up to, to stalk 

(an animal, &o.). 
Nyauka ku-, to dry up, to wither, 

to shriveL 
Nyawe, his mother (Bf .). 
Nyayo, plur. of uayo. 
Nyea &m-, to cause to itch, to itch. 

Imeninyea, I itch. 
Ny^ua ku-, to devour like a beast 

of prey. 
Nyegi, 

Kuwa na nyegi, to be in heat 
NyekundHy red. See -ekundu, 
Nyele, or Nude, or Nwele, tiie hair, 
sing, unyele, one hair. 

Nyde za kipilij^li, woolly hair. 

Nyele za einga, straight hair. 
Nyemhamha, thin. See -embaniba. 
Nyemelea ku-f to go quietly and 

seeretly up to a thing in order 

to seize it. 
Nyemiy a great dance. 
Nyenya ku-, to talk a person into 

telling something. 
Nyenyekea ku-, to be humble. 
NyenzOf rollers, anything to make 

things move. 
Nyepesi, light See^-epesi 
Nyetiha ku-y to cause to fall. 

Kunyeska mvua^ to cause it to 
rain. 
Nyeta feu-, to be teasing, id-eondt- 

tioned, never satisfied. 
Nyeupe, white. See -eupe, 
Nyevaiy black. S^e •^ensj. 



-NYB 



NYW 



863 



•nyevu, damp. 

Nyie or Enyie, yon there, I say; 

used in calling people at a di&- 

tanoe. 
Nyika, wilderness, out grass (A.). 
Nyima Ten-, to reftise to, to withhold 

from, not to give to.^ 
Nyiminyvmi^ into little bits. 
Nyingii many, much. See -ingi. 
Nying^Mf other» «noth^. Bee 

•ngine, 
Nyin^inia Jbi-, to sway, swing. 

Also N^inick. 
Nyinyi, you. 
Nyinyoro, a bulbous plant which 

throws up a large head of red 

flowers. 
Nyoci, plur. manyoct, a feather, = 

Nyoya, 
Nyoa ku', to shave. 
Nyoi (?), a locust. 
Nyoka, a snake, a serpent, snakes. 
Nyoha hu-t to be straight, to be 

stretched out 
Kyonda, temptation, trial. 
Nyondo^ a moth. Also Noondo, 
NyongOj the hip. 

Nyonga ya sarara (A.X the loins. 
Nyanga Xcu-, to twist, to strangle. 
yy(mgany(mga ku-^ to go from side 

%o side, to wriggle. 
'nyonge, mean, insigmfleant, vile. 
Nyongo, bile. 
Nyong'anyeya A;«-, to be weary, 

languid, to get daek and power- 
less. 
Nyonya ku-, to suck. 
Nyonyedia kvr, to suekle. 
Nyonyo. 

Mc^uta ya nyenyo, castor oil (?}. 
Nyonyoa A;t«-, to phiok a^Urd, to 

pull out feathers. ^ 

yyonycka as Nyonyoa^ 



Nyony&kL ku-^ to make to smart. 
NyororOf soft See -ororo. 
Nyosha ku-^ to stretch, to straighten, 
to extend. 

Kujinyosha, to lie down, to take 
a nap. 
Nyota, a star, stars, point of the 

compass. 
Nyote^Mt agreeing with ninyi^ you. 

See -ote, 
NyoycL, plur. manyoya, feather. 
NyoyOf hearts. See Moyo. 
NyuOi, plur. of tio, a courtyard, en- 
closure. 
Nyuk% a bee, bees. 

Asali ya nyuki, honey. 
Nyukna hu-, to tweak, to pinch 

sharply. 
Nyumttf at the back, afterwards. 

Nyuma ya, behind, after. 

Nyumaye, after it, afterwards. 

Kurudi nyuma, to go back. 
Nyttmba^ a house, houses. 
Nyuf/ibo, the wildebeest, catoblepas 

gorgon. 
Nyumbu, a mule, mules. 
Nyundo, a hammer, hammers. 
Nyuni, a bird, birds (M.). 
Nyungo, plur. of Ungo. 
Nyungu, a cooking pot 
Nyungunyungu, sores in the leg, 

said to be caused by the biting of 

worms bearing the same name. 
Nyunyiza ku-, to sprinkle, to 

sprinkle upon. 
Nyunyvntka ku-, to murmur (?). 
Nyushi, the eyebrow. 
Nytua kii' or Nwa kii-, to drink, 

suck up, absorb. The ku- bears 

the accent and is retained In the 

usual tenses. ^ 

Nywea ku; to get very thin, to 

waste away. 



364 



NYW 



ONE 



Nywetka hu-, to give to driok. 
Nzi^ plur. manzi, a fly. Also Inzi. 
Nzigey a locust 
Nzigunzigu, a butterfly. 
Nzima, sound. See -ztmo, 
NzitOf heavy. See -zito. 
Nzurif fine. See -zuri. 



is pronounced a little more like 
aw than is usual in English. 

U before o sometimes becomes a 
Wf but very often disappears, as: 
Koga for kuoga, to bathe. This 
word and Isom^ others in o are 
sometimes incorrectly conjugated 
as if begbining in ho. 

-o or -0-, sign of the relative, re* 
ferring to substantives in the 
singular which make their plural 
in mi', or to singular substantives 
in «-. 

-o, the short form of woo, they or 
theiQ. 

Oa ku', to marry, used of the bride- 
groom. Passive, kuolewa, 

Oana kU', to intermarry, to marry 
one another. 

Oavxt kU', to become married (of 
the mau). 

0(tza ku-f to marry. 

Oga ku; to bathe, frequently pro- 
nounced koga. 

Ogofisha ku-, to frighten, make 
afraid, to menace, to threaten. 

Ogofya ku-, to frighten. 

Ogoka ku-, to swim, to swim about. 

Ogopa ku', to fear, to be afraid. 

Oka ku', to bake, to cook by fire 

* only. 

Okoa kw, to save, to take away» 



Okoha ku-, to become saved, to 
Okota kthf to pick up, [escape, 
Ole, woe. 

Ole fjoangu, wenu, &o., woe unto 
me, unto you, &c. 
Olewa ku-, to marry or to be mar- 
ried, used of the bride. 
Oleza ku-, to make like, to follow a 

pattern. 
Omba k%h, to pray to, to beg o^ to 

beseech. 
Omb€a ku-, to intercede for, to beg 

on behalf of^ to pray for. 
Omboleea ku-^ to wail. 
Omo, the head o£ a ship. 

Fepo za omo, head winds (?). 
Ona kU', to see, to perceive, to feeL 

Kuona kiu, to feel thirst. 

Kujtona, to think oneself to 
afilBct to be. 

Naona, I think sow 
Onana ku-, to meet. 
Onda ku- (M.> = Onja kw-y to taste, 

to try. 
Ondo, pluf. maondo (A.), the knee. 
Ondoa ku-, to take away. 
Ondoka ku-, to go away, to get up, 
to arise. 

Ondoka mbele yangu, depart fron^ 
me. 

Kuondoka kaiika tUimwengu huu^ 

to depart out of this world. 

Ondokea ku-, to rise to, or out of 

respect to. 
OndokeUa kw, to arise and depart 

from. 
Ondolea ku-, to remove, to take 
away (rom. 

Kuondolea huzuni, to cheer, 
Qndoi^ ku-, to make to go away, 

take a'^ay, abolish. 
Onea ku-, to see for, to anticipate 

for, to bullj) to oppress. 



ONE 

Onehana ku-, to become visible, to 

appear, to be to be seen. 
Ongea ku-^ to spend time, to waste 

time in talking. 
Ongeza ku-, to make greater, add to. 

Kuongeza urefu, to lengthen, 
Ongezeka ku-, to increase. 
Ongoa ku-, to convert, to lead 

aright. 
Ongofya ku-, to deceive by promises. 
Ongoka ku-^ to be converted, to be 

led aright, to be healed. 
Ongokewa ku-f to prosper. 
Ongonga ku-, to feel nansea. 
Ongoza ku-, to drive, to lead. 
Ongua ku-, to hatch. 
OngvUwa ku-, to be hatched. 
Onguza ku-, to scorch, to scald. 
Onja ku-, to taste, try, examine. 
Onya ku-, to warn, to make to see. 
Onyesha ku-, to show. 
Ojpoa ku-, to take out, to fish np. 
Opolea ku-^ to fish up with, for, by, 

&C. 

Orfa, or Orofa, or Ghorofa, an upper 

room, 
-ororo, soft, smooth. It makes /ororo, 

with nouns like^ kasha, and 

nyororo with nouns like nyurriba. 
Osha ku-, to wash. 
Osheka ku-, to have been washed. 
Osia, learning of old times. 
Ota ku-, to dream (kvlota, Mer.). 
Ota ku-, to grow. 

-ote or ofe, eM, every one, the 
whole. It varies like the pos- 
sessive pronouns. 

Merikebu zote, all the ships. 

Merikehu yote, the whole ship. 

Twende sole, let us go together. 

Twende wote, let us both go. 

Lo lote, cho chote, &c., whatsoever* 
Otea ku-, to lie in wait for. 



PA 



365 



-ovu or -bovu, rotten, bad, corrupt, 
wicked. It makeB mbovu with 
nonns like nyumha, 

Ovyo, trash, any sort of thing. 

Owama ku-, to be steeped. 

Owamuha ku-, to steep. 

Oza kth, to rot, to spoil, go bad. 
Also, to marry (^f the parents). 



P is pronounced as in English. 

P, at the beginning of a word, has 
frequently an aspirated or rather 
an explosive sound, such as Irish- 
men sometimes give it. This is 
very marked in the name of the 
island of Femba or F*emba. F*epo, 
the plural of upepo, wind, has a 
very strong explosive sound given 
to the first p, but in upepo both p's 
are smooth, like an ordinary Eng- 
lish p. It is probable that this 
explosive sound represents a sup- 
pressed n. 

P followed by a y sound some- 
times becomes/; kuogopa, to fear, 
kuogofya, to frighten; kuapa, to 
swear, kuafya, to make to swear. 

Ta- or P-, the prefix proper to ad- 
jectives, pronouns, and verbs 
of both numbers governed by 
mdhali, place or places. 

The prefix proper to pronouns 
following the case in -nt, when 
It denotes nearness, at, by, near. 

The prefix pa- is often applied to 
a verb in the sense of the 
English there, 

Palina or palihwvDa no, there was. 
Hapana, there is not. 
2 b 



PA 



PAK 



It is not quite so indefinite as hth» 

Pa hit', to present with, to give to. 
The ku bears the accent ; hvpa 
cannot be nsed without a person 
as its object, and the objective 
prefix bears the accent. AH- 
kilpa, he giave you; aK'mpa, he 
gave him. The pasnye is ku- 
paioa or kupevHif and means, to 
have given to one, to receive. 

Paa, a gazelle, a small kind of 
antelope. 

Paa, plur. mapaa, a thatched roof. 
Nyumha ya mapaa'manne, a roof 
of four slopes. 

Paa ku-y to ascend, to go up. 

faa ku't to scrape. 
'^ Kupaa samaki, to scrape the 
scales off a fish. 
Kupcui sandarusif to clean gum 

copal. 
Kupaa motOj to take fire and 
carry it on a potsherd, &o. 

Paanda, a trumpet. ' 

PaangCt a horsefly, a gadfly. 

PaangOf plur. mapaangOf a cave, 
a den. 

Paaza ku-, to make to rise. 
Kupaaza pumzi, to draw in the 
breath. 

Paaza ku-, to grind coarsely, not to 
make fine meal. 

Pacha, a twin. 
Kuzaliwa pacha, to be born twins. 
Pacha ya nje, a child of which 
its mother was pregnant while 
suckling a previous child. 

Pachika ku-, to put an arrow on 
the string, to stick a knife in 
one's girdle, &c. 

Padiri or Padre, plur. mapadiri, 
a padr^, a priest, a^ clergyman. 

Pafu, lungs. 



Paga ku^, to strike hard, to harpoon 

a whale. 
Po/gaa ku-, to^arry on the shoulders, 
to possess (of an evil spirit). 

Amepagawa na pepo, he is pos- 
sessed <^ an evil spirit 
Pagaza ku-, to make to bear, applied 

to an evil spirit causing a man to 

fall sick. 
Pa^ua ku-, to take off, strip off (as 

boughs and leaves). 
PahaU, in the plaoe, at the place. 
Paja, plur. mapaja, the thigh. 
Paje, red mtama [Pemba]. 
Paji la ftso, the forehead. 
Paka, a cat, cats. 
Paka ku-, to rub in, to smear on. 
Pakaa fcu-.= Paka ku-, 
Pakacha, plur. mapdkacha, a basket 

made by plaiting together part 

of a cocoa-nut leaf. 
Pakacha, plur. fnapakaeha, people 

who prowl about at night to do 

mischief. 
Pakana ku-, to border upon. 
Pakanya, rue. 

Pakasa ku- (Mer.), to twist rope. 
Pakata ku-, to hold a child on the 

lap or in front 
Pake, his, hers, or its, after mdhali, 

or the case in -m* signifying 

nearness. See -ake, 
Pdkia ku-, to load a ship, to be 

loaded with, to cany as cargo, 

to have on board. 
Pakicha ku-, 

Kupakicha mt^un, to cross the legs 
in sitting; reckoned improper 
in Zanzibar. 
Pakilia ku-, to embark for, to put 

on board for. 
PaJiiza fcu-, to stow on bOard ship, 

&0. 



PAK 

Taho, thjj your, after mahali^ or 
the case in -ni denoting nearness. 
See-aAro. 
Pdkua Icu; to take out of the pot, 

to dish, to lade out. 
Pakuna ku, to scratch. 
Paktttokea, a place to go out at, an 

outlet. 
Palcy there, that place, of things 

not very far oflf. 
Paiepale, just there, at that very 

spot. 
PoZta ku-^ to hoe. 
Kupalia motOj to pick up for, and 

take live .embers to a person. 
Kupcdiwa na mate or mo/t, to 
choke with spittle or with 
what one is drinking, so as to 
send it into one's nose, ears, 
&c. 
Palikuwa na, there was or there 

yere. 
PaiUia hu-y to hoe* up, to draw the 
earth up round growing crops, to 
hoe between crops. 
PalUiza ku-, to cause to be hoed. 
Paliza ku't to lift up the voice. 
PalUj plur. mapaZUf little cakes of 

sugar, bhang, and opium. 
Pambay cotton. 

Pamha ku-, to adorn, to deck out, 
furnish. 
Kupamba merikebuy to dress a 

ship. 
Ku*mpamba mayitty to put cotton 
in ears, mouth, &c of a dead 
person before burying him. 
Pambaja ku-, to embrace. 
Pambana ku-, to meet in a narrow 
place where two cannot go 
abreast; applied to ships it 
means, to go alongside, to get 
foul of one another. 



PAN 



867 



Pamhanisha ku-, to bring together, 

to compare. 
Pamhanua ku-, to distinguish, to 

separate, to discriminate. 
PamhanuUa ku-, to describe by 

distinguishing. 
Pambanya ku-, or Pamhanyiza ku-, 

to overbear by loud talking:, &c. 
Pambauka or Pambazuka ku-, to 

become light in the morning. 
Pambazua kw, to speak plainly. 
Pamhehj in front. 

Pambo, plur. mapambo, adornment, 
dressing. 
Pambo la n^um5a, house furniture. 
Pamqja, in one place, together. 

Pamoja na^ together with, with. 
Pana, there is or are, was or were. 
-pana, broad, wide. It makes pana 

with nouns like nyumba. 
Pana ku-, to make mutual gifts. 
Panapana, flat, level, even. 
Panapo, where there is, are, was or 

were. 
Panchayat, five head men (Hind.), 

governing council. 
Parida (M.) = Panja. 
Panda, a bifurcation, as where a 
road divides into two, where 
two streams join, where the 
bough of a tree forks. 
Njia panda, cross roads, or where 
three ways meet; there is a 
superstitious custom of empty- 
ing rubbish and dirt at such 
places. 
Panda ku-^ to mount, to get up, 
ascend, ride, to go on board, to 
go ashore (of a ship). 
Panda ku-, to set aside. 
Panda ku-, to plant, to sow. 
Pandana ku-, to lie across Cue 
another. 

2b2 



368 



PAN 



PAS 



Pande mhili^ on both sides. See 

Upande, 
Fandithok kur, to make to go up, to 

hoist, to raise. 
Panga ku-f to rent, to hire a bouse. 
Panga ku-, to put in a line, to set 

in order. 
PangOf plur. of upanga, 
Pangana ku-, to be in rows. 
PanginCf another place, other places. 
See -ngine. 

PanginepOf elsewhere. 
PangWha ku-^ to let a house to. 
Panguha ku-, to make people sit in 

rows or in order. 
Pangu, my. See -angu, 
Pangusa ku-f to wipe. 
Panja, the forelock. 

Mapanja, the recedins: of the 
hair on each side of the fore- 
lock. > 
Panua ku-, to widen^ to make 

broad. 
Panulia ku-^ to widen for, to set 

wide apart. 
Panuka ku-f to become broad, to 

widen. 
Panya^ a rat, rats. 
Panyamavut a quiet place, a calm 

spot. See -nyamavu. 
Paza ku-, to set up, to raise. 

Kupanza mtamho loa bunduki, to 
cock a gun. 
Panzi, a grasshopper, a kind of 

fish. 
Panzi ya nazi, brown rind of the 

cocoa-nut kemeL 
Poo, their. See ao. 
Poo, clubs (in cards). 
P*apa, a shark. 
Papa hapa, just here. 
Papa ku-j to transude, to allow 

transudation. 



Papasa ku-t to touch gently, to 

stroke, to feel, to grope. 
Papasi, ticks, especially those found 

in native huts. 
Papatika ku-, to flutter like a bird. ^ 
Papatua ku-, to shell, to husk. 
Papayij plur. mapap&yi, papawa, a 

common kind of fruit. 
Papayuka ku-^ to be delirious, to 

wander. 
Papayuza ku-, to make delirious. 
Papia ku-, to eat all one can get, to 

eat without bounds. 
Papua ku; to tear. 
Papura ku-, to claw, to scratch 

deeply. 
Papuri^ thin c&kes fiuYoured with 

asafoetida. 
Papurika ku-, to be lacerated. 
Papuriana ku-, to pick holes in one 

another's reputation. 
Para, a scraping, sliding. 
Para, plur. tnapara, cakes of sem- 

sem. 
Parafujo, a screw. 
Paraga kur, to climb a tree. 
Parahara, a large kind of autelope. 
Parapara ku-, to paw the ground 

like a horse. 
Paruga ku-, to be rough and grat- 
ing. 
Paruza ku-, to grate, to graze, to be 

harsh and rough, to strike a 

match. 
Paruzana ku-, to graze (as of two 

boats, &c.). 
Pasa ku-, or Pasha ku-, to come to 
concern, to become a duty. 

Imekupasaje i What have you 
to do with it ? 

Imenipasa, I ought. 
Pasha ku-, to lend money to. to 
give privately or beforehand. 



PAS 



PEL 



369 



Kupasha moto, to warm up, to 
set before the fire. 
JP(Miy a clothes-iron. 

Kupiga pasi^ to iron. 
Fanpo, without, where there is not. 
Pasiwef without there being. 
Fasua hu-, to cleave, to split, to 

rend. 
Pasuka Ajm-, to become rent, to 

burst, to crack, to be split. 
Pasukapasuka ku-^ to be split up, 

rent to pieces. 
PaUij a drawn game at cards where 

each side marks sixty. 
Pata ku-, to get, to reach, to suflTer, 
to find an opportunity, to suc- 
ceed in doing, to happen ta 

Kapata is often used with other 

verbs where we use may or 

might : 

Apate kuja, that he may come. 

• Kisu chapatoy the knife is sharp. 

Kisu hcLkipatiy the knife is blunt. 

KUiehompataj what happened to 
him. 

Ckapataje f What is it Worth? 

Kupata hasara, to lose. 
Pata ku, to make a lattice, as by 

weaving sticks or canework. 
Patana ku-^ to agree, to come to an 

agreement. 
PatanUha ku-, to bring to an agree- 
ment. 
PaUuii a chisel. 
Paihiwa ku-t to be bom. 
Pali, a coloured kind of stuff. 
P(Uia kU', to get for. 
Patiala, a great cheat, a thorough 

rogue. 
Paiikana ku-, to be procurable, to 

begot. 
PatUiza ku-, to visit upon, to re- 
member against. 



Paio, plur. mapato, what is got, 

gettings, income, proceeds. 
Patta, a hinge. 
Patwa ku'y to be eclipsed. 
Properly, to be got, referring to 
the superstition that a huge 
snake has seized the moon or 
sun. 
Pau (plur. of Vpau\ the purlins 
of a roof, the small sticks tied 
horizontally to fasten the thatch 
to. Also, rafters (?). 
Payoy plur. mapayo, one who can- 
not keep a secret. 
Payuka ku-, to blab, to talk without 

thinking. 
Payuza ku-, to make over-talkative. 
Tembo limempayuza, the palm 
wine has made his tongue go. 
Pazia, plur. mapazia, a curtain. 
Pea^ a rhinoceros. 
Pea ku-, to sweep (M.). 
Pea ku-, to grow to full size, to get 
its growth, to become such that 
there is nothing more to do, to 
reach its limit. 
Pekecha ku-, to bore a hole, to get 
fire by twirling a stick, to trouble 
people by tales and tale- bearing. 
Peketeka ku-, to scorn, to have no 

fear about one. 
Pekee, onliness. 

Wa pekee, only. 
Peke yangu, Ac, by myself, I alone. 
Peke is never used in Zanzibar 
without a possessive pronoun 
following it, and signifies that 
the person or thing is alone, or 
that it is the only one. 
Pekeyetu, by ourselves, or wo 
alone. 
Pekua ku; to scratch like a hen. 
Pele, plur. of upele, the itch. 



870 



PEli 



PET 



FeUha ftu-, to cause to arrive at a 
place distant from tbe perbou 
speaking, to send, to tal^e, to con- 
duct 
Pdekea ku-f to send, take, or conduct 

to a person. ' 
Pddeza kw-y to spy out, to look 

curiously into. 
P*embe, horn, comer, ivory, 
Pemhe ya nyoka^ a small white 
horn, esteemed to be a great 
medicine. 
^ Kuwa na pembe pembe^ to have 
corners, to be angular, to be all 
corners.^ 
Pemheni, in the comer. 
Pevnbe za mwdkaf the four seasons, 
points of the world. 
PemheOj a swing. 
Pembeleza ku-, to beseech. 
Pembeza ku-^ to rock, to lull. 
Penda fc«-, to like, to love, to wish, 

to approve, to chogse, to prefer. 
Pendekeza kur, to make pleasing. 
Kvjipendekezay to ingratiate one- 
self with, to flatter. 
Pendelea ftu-, to favour. 
PendeleOf plur. mapendeleo, a favour. 
Pendeleza ku-, to make another love 

one. 
Pendeza kitr^ to please, to become 

pleasing. 
Pendezewa ku-f to be pleased, to be 

glad. 
Pendo, love. 

Pendo la malt, the love of riches. 
Pengi, many places. See -ingi, 
Pengo, a notch, a place where a 
triangular bit is broken out. 
Ana pengoy he has lost a front 
tooth. 
Penu, your. See -enu. 
Penya ku-, to penetrate. 



Penye$ha ' ku-^ to pierce, to put 

through, to cause to penetrate. 
Penyi, having (of place), where is 
or was. 

Penyi mtende, where the date tree 
Pepa ku', to stagger» [was. 

Pepea ku-, to fan. 
Pepeo, plur. mapepeo, a fan, a screw 

prop^ler. 
Peperuka ku-, to be blown away. 
Peperusba ku-, to blow away. 
Pepesa ku-, to wink. 
Pepesuka ku-, to totter. 
Pepeta ku-, to sift, to toss in a flat 

basket, so as to separate the chaff 

and the grain. 
Pepetua ku-, to force open. 
Pepo, a spirit, a sprite, an evil 
spirit. 

Pepo mbayai an evil spint. 

Peponi^ paradise, in paradise. 

Pepo (plur. of upepoy, much wind. 

Pepo za chamchela, a whirlwind. 

Maji ya pepo, fresh water. 
Pepua ku'y to sift apart the whole 

ftom the broken grains. 
Pera, plur. mapera,& guava. 
Pesoy plur. pesa or mapesa, pice, the 

Anglo-Indian quarter anna, the 

only small coin in Zanzibar; 

sometimes a dollar is worth 140, 

sometimes only U2. 
Pesa ku- (M.) = Pepeaa hu', 
Peta ku-, to bend round, to make 

into a ring. 
Peta ku- = P^eta feu-. 
Petana ku-, to bend round, to be 

bent in a circle. 
Pete, plur. pete or mapete, a ring. 

Pete ya maaikio, an earring. 
Petemana ku-, to be bent round. 
Peto, plur. mapete,& bundle, a tiling 

carried» a large matting bag. 



PET 



Pia 



371 



Petti; am^ See-eitf. 
'pevu, fall gyown. 
Pevua Jcu-, to make full growQ, 
Kujipevua, to thiok oneself a 
man. 
Pevuka ku', to become full grown, 

to reach its full size. 
Pewa ku'f to get from some (Hue, to 

be presented with, to xeceiye. 
Peziy plur. inapezi, a fin. 
'jpi subjoined to the personal sign 
makes the interrogative which ? 
Bee Apt, 
Nitawezapi ? How can I P 
'pia or -jjya, new. 
Pia, all, the whole, entirely. 

Pta 2^) completely, utterly. 
Pta, a top, a humming-top. 
Piga ku-, to strike, to beat, to flap. 
Kupiga na inchi, to strike on the 

ground. 
Kupiga is used of many actions in 
which the idea of striking does 
not always seran to be implied. 
Kupiga homba^ to pump. 

„ hunduki, hastola^ &c., to 
fire a gun, a pistol, &o. 
,, chapay to print. 
^ fdUihiy to prognosticate 

by the stars. 
K fundoy to tie a knot, 
„ kdde^ to ^out 
^ kengeky to ring a bell. 
^ kHemba, to wind a cloth 
round the head so as to 
make a turban. 
„ kiowe, to scream. 
^ kofiy to box the ears, to 

slap. 
M fcttra» to oast lots. 
„ makofiy to clap the hands. 
„ fnagoie, to kneel. 
^ mbincUff to whistle. 



Kupiga in5io, to run, to gallop. 
„ mbiziy to dive. 
„ miaoy misonoy ot miunziy 
to make a whistling 
noise. 
» mikambe^ An bathing, to 
duck under water and 
fling over one leg. 
Kupiga mizinga ya salaamUy to 
fii-e a salute. 
,« msiari, to rule a line. 
M ndakasoy to rustle like 

new clothes. 
„ mtrnke, to smoke meat, 
„ nyiayo, to gape. [&c 
„ pa$i, to iron. 
„ pembey to gore. 
y, pigoy to strike a blow. 
yy pua, to snort 
„ ramli, to prognosticate 

by diagrams. 
J, randa, to plane. 
„ teke, to kick. 
„ umemcy to lighten, to 

flash. 
u uwinddy to draw the ends 
of the loin doth be- 
tween the legs and 
tuck them in. 
„ youjCy to cry for help. 
M zomariy kinandoy &c., to 
play upon the flageo- 
let, guitar, &o. 
Pigana ku-y to fight 

Kupigana kwa mbavuy to wrestle. 
Pigani^ ku-y to make .to fight, to 

set on. 
Piganishana ku-, to set on to fight 
, together. 

Pigilia ku-y to beat as the stone 
roofs are beaten. Small wooden 
rammers are used, and a great 
number of pec^le are engaged for 



872 



i>ia 



POF 



about three days, with mnaio and 

BODgs ; the object of this beating 

is to prevent the roof cracking as 

it dries» and to consolidate it 

while moist. 
Pigiza Tcu-, to make to beat. 

Kupigiza tanga, to go so close to 
the wind that the sail flaps. 
PigOf plur. mapigOf * blow. 
Pika ku; to cook. 
Pikia ku', to cook for. 

Kupikiway to have cooked for one. 
PU<w, pillaw, an Indian dish. 
Pili, a large kind of snake. 
Pibi, two (in counting). 

Ta pill, the second. 

Ta pili yoke, the next. 

Yule wa piU, the other. 

Mara ya pili, a second time, again. 
Philipili hohoj red pepper. 
Pilipili mangay common pepper. 
Pimat plur. mapima, a fathom. 
Pima ku-j to measure, to weigh. 
' Kupima maji, to sound. 
Pinda ku-, to bend. 

Kupinda na mguu^ talipes. 
Pindana hu-, to bend together. 
Pihdi, plur. mapindi, a twisting, a 

wriggle, cramp. 
Pindiy if, when (?), although. 
Pindo, plur. mapindo, the longer 

edge of a cloth, selvedge. 
Pindua ku-^ to turn over, to upset. 

Kupindua kwa damaliniy to wear 
ship. 

Kupindua kwa goahinif to tack. 
Pinduka ku-, to be turned over, to 

be upset. 
Pinga ku-, to hinder, to block the 
way, to lay a wager. 

Kupinga chombo kwa shikio, to 
turn a dhow on one side by 
means of the rudder. 



Pingamiziy a meddler, one who in- 
terferes to spoil a bargain, or to 

give trouble. 
Pingia ku-y to fasten a door, &c., by 

means of a bar. 
PingUi, 

Pingili ya mua^ the piece of a 
sugar-cane which lies between 
two knots. 
Pingo, plur. mapingoy a bar. 
PingUy fetters, consisting generally 

of two rings and a bar. 
Piniy plur. mapiniy a haft, a hilt. 
Pipa, plur. mapipay a barrel, tub, 

cask, pipe. 
Pipyay new. See -pya. 
Pirikana ku-y to be strong and well 

knit. 
Pisha ku-y to make to pass, espe- 
cially without thtending to do so, 

let pass, make way for. 
Pishana ku-y to pass while going 

opposite ways. 
Pishiy a weight of about 6 lbs. = 4 

vibaba, 
PishOy cautery, marks of cautery. 
Pisi, parched maize. 
Pisi = Fisi, 

Pistoa ku-y to become silly, to dote. 
Pita kuy to pass, surpass, excel. 
Pitisha ku^y to make to pass, to 

pass. 
Poy -poy or -po-y a particle signifying 
where, or when^ while, as, if. 

Po potCy everywhere; wherever. 
Poa ku', to becom'e cool, to become 
Podoy a quiver. ■ [well. 

Po/uy plur. mapofuy Scum, bubble,^ 

froth. 
Pofua ku-y to spoil the eyes, to make 

blind. 
Pofuka ku-y to have the eyes spoilt, 

to become bliiid» v 



POG 



POT 



S73 



Pogo, on one side. 

Kwenda pogo, to go oncsidedly, 
not straight. 
Pointa, the wrist-stitching of a 

coat. 
PoJca hi', to take suddenly and 
violently, to rob. 

Kupohway to be robbed. 
Pokea ku^, to receive, to take from 

some one else. 
PoJeelea hu-, to receive for or on 

account of another. 
Pokezana &»-, to go on with by 

turns. 
Pokezanya ku-, to shift a burden or 

work from one to another as each 

gets tired. 
Poko^ya ku-, to snatch away, to 

extort. 
Pole, a little, slightly. 

Amengtia pole, he is not very well. 
PolepoU, gently, moderately.quietly. 
Pomhe, native beer. 
Pomboo, a porpofae. 
Pomoka ku-, to Ml in, to cave in. 

See Bomoka. 
Pomosha kvr* to cause to fall in. 
PoTta A:m-,' to get well, to become 

safe. 
Panda ku-, to pound, to beat up, to 

<Tush. 
P<mdeka ku-, to be crushed. 
Pandekana kvh, to crush and bruise 

one another, as mtama stalks do 

after much rain and wind. 
Pond, a kind of fish said to be 
nearly always asleep. 

And usingizi kama pono, he is 
never awake. 
Ponoa ku-, to strip off. 
Ponya ku^, to make well, to cure, 
to save. 
Jiponye / Look out t 



Ponyesfia ku-, to cause to be made 

well, to cure. / 

Ponyoka ku-, to slip off, slip out of 

one's hands. 
Ponza ku-, to put in danger. 
Poopoo, a bullet, a musket ball. 
Pooza, plur. mapooza, a thing which 

never comes to perfection. 
Pooza kU', to become useless, to 
wither and drop. 

Mwenyi kupooza, a paralytic. 
Poozesha ku-, to paralyze. 
Popo, a bat. 
Popoo, the areca nut, commonly 

chewed with betel-leaf, lime, and 

tobacco. 
Popotoa ku-, to wring, twist, strain, 

distort. 
Popotoka ku-, to be distorted. 
Pora, a youtog cockerel not yet old 

enough to crow. 
Poroa ku', to cool, to get thin or 

watery. 
Poromoka ku-, to slip down a steep 

place. Also Boromoka, ' 
Posa ku-, to ask in marriage. 
Posha ku-, to give rations to. 
Posha, rations. 
Po8o, a demand in marriage. 
Posoro, an interpreter, a middle- 
man. 
Pole, all, of time oj place. See 

-ote, *^ 

Potea ku-, to become lost, to get lost, 
to perish, to become lost to. 

Klsu kimenipotea, I have lost my 
knife. 
Potelea ku-, to perish. 

Potelea mhali, go and be hangetl. 
Poteza ku-, to cause to be lost, to 

cause to perish. 
Poioa ku-, to go crooked, to turn 
aside. SeeJipotoa. 



374 



POT 



PUN 



'potoe, obstinate, good for nothing. 

Potoka ku', to become crooked, to 
be turned and twisted. 

PovUf scum, skimmingSy bubble, 
froth. 

Povuka ku- = Pofuka ku-, to be- 
come blind. 

Poza ku-, to cure, to cool by lading 
up and pouring back again. 

Puaj the nose, the apex of an arch. 
Mioanzi wa ptuij the division 
between the nostrils, the nos- 
tril. 

Pua,B\eeU 

Pua ku-, to shell beans, p^as, Sao, 

Pugi, a very small kind of dove. 

PvQ.ua kvr, 
Kujipujua, to ca^t off all shame. 

Pukuia ku-, to rub the grains off a 
cob of Indian corn, to make to 
lall off, to shake fruit from a tree, 
to throw coins among a crowd, 
&c. 

PukvJte, 

Pukute ya wali, rice so cooked 
that the grains are dry and 
separate. 

Pukutika ku-, to shed, to drop like 
leaves in autumn» 

Pultka ku-, to hear, to attend to 
(A.). 

PuUkana ku-, to hear one another. 

Puliza ku-, to puff or blow with the 
mouth. Also, to let go an anchor, 
to let down a bucket into a welL 

Puliki, a spangle, spangles. 

Pululu, plur. mapuhdu, wilderness, 
waste country. 

Puluni or Pululuni, in the wilder- 
ness. 

Puma ku-, to throb. 

Pumha, plur. mapumha, a clod, a 
lump. 



Pumbaa fcu-, to be sluggish about, 
Pumbazika ku-, to become a fool. 
Pumho or pumhu, the scrotum. 
Mapumibu, or koko za pumbu, or 
tnayayi ya pumbo, testicles. 
Pumu, an asthma, the lungs. 
Pumua kth, to breathe. 
Pumtizi, breath. 
Kupa^za pumuzi, to draw in the 

breath, to inspire. 
Kushu^ia pumuzi, to breathe out, 
to expire. 
Pumei = pumuzi. 
Pumzika ku-, to rest, to breath cme- 

self. 
Pumzikio, plur. mapumzikio, a rest- 
ing-place. 
Puna ku-, to peel, scrape, sora^ off. 
Punda, a donkey, donkeys, 

Punda milia, a zebra. 
Punde, a little more. 

Mrefu punde, a little longer. 

Punga (sing. Upunga\ the flower 

and very first stage of the ooooa- 

nut. 

Punga ku-, to swing, to sway, to 

wave. Swaying the arms in 

walking is though^ to give 

elegance to a woman's carria^^ 

Kupunga pepo, to esxpel an evil 

spirit by music, dancing, &c. 
Kukunga u^pepo, to be fanned l^ 
the wind, to beat the lun. 
Pungia ku-, to Y&ve to, to beokon 
to. 
Kupungia nguo, to w»ve a oloth 
up and down by way of beckon- 
ing to some one to c(»ne. 
P'ungu, a kind of -fish, a large bird 

of prey. 
Pwigua ktk^ to diminish, waste, 

wear away. 
Punguani, a^defeot (lif .}i 



PUN 



BAH 



375 



Pungiika &tt*, to become^ Bmaller, to 

-fall short. 
^nnguza ku-y to dimmish, to make 
' less, to lessen. 

Kwpun^uea tanga^ to reef a sail. 
Punja kur, to swindle, to sell a 

little for the price of a large 

quantity. 
Punje, grains of com. 
Puo, nojisense. 
Pifpa, eagerness, excessive rapidity. 

Kula hwa pupa, to eat so vora- 
ciously that one's companions 
get little or none. 
Puputika ku-f to fall in a shower. 
Pura ku-j to beat out com. 
Puruka ku-, to fly off. 
Purukusha ku-, 

Kujipurukusha, to refuse to 
attend to, to make Ught of a 
Puta ku-j to beat. [matter. 

Putika ku'j to be well beaten. 
Putugali, a fowl [Pemba]. 
Puwo, nonsense. 
Puza ku', to talk nonsense, to 

chatter. 
Puzia ku-y to breathe, to blow with 

the mouth. 
Puzika l:u', to talk nonsense, to be 

detained gossiping. 
Pwa kury to ebb, to bec(Hne dry. 
Pwaga ku- = Kupwaya. 
Pvoai /ctt-, to be loose, to waggle 

about See Ptoaya, 
Pwanh the shore, on the beach, 

near the shore. 
Pwaya ku-, to give a final cleaning 

to rice by repounding it. 
Pwaya ku-, to bo loose (of clothes). 
Pwayika ku- to be quite clear of 

husks, dirt, and (}ust. 
Ptcaza ku-i to cook muhogo cut up 

into small pieces. 



Pwea ku-, to be dry. 

8auU imenipwea, I am hoarse. 
Pwekee, only, alone (A.). 
Pteeleka ku-, to be dried up, to be 

left high and dry. 
Pwewa ku-s to become or be left 
dry. 

Kupwewa na sauli, to become 
hoarse. 
Pweza^ a outtle-fish. 
-pya, new, fresh. It makes 'mpya 

with nouns like nyumba ; jipya, 

with nouns like kasha ; oxidpipya, 

with nouns of place. 



B is pronounced as in English. 

The Arabic B is much stronger 
and more grating than the English, 
more so perhaps than even the 
Scotch and Irish r. In Arabic words 
it is correct to give the r this strong 
sound, but in Swahili mouths it 
is generally smoothed down to- 
wards that indeterminate African 
sound which is frequently written 
as an I, The Swahili, however, 
often prefer to write and pronounce 
it as a smooth English r. (See L.) 

Badi, a crack of thunder, crashing 
thunder, thunder near at hand. 

Badu — BadL 

Baff, the wall at the back of a re- 
cess. 

Bafiki, plur. rafiki or marafiki, a 
friend. 

Baha, peace, joy, ease, pleasure. 

Bahani, a pledge, a mortgage. 

Bahisi = Bakhisi, 

Bahman, a chart, a map. 



376 



BAI 



BIS 



Bat IcU't to put morsels of food into 
a person's month as a mark of 
honour or affection. 

Bajahuy the seventh month of the 
Arab year. It is esteemed a 
sacred month because Moham- 
med's journey to Jerusalem is 
Faid to haye taken place on the 
27th of it. 

Rakhisij or Eahisi, cheap. 

Rakhisisha ku-, to make cheap, to 
undervalue. 

Bakibisha ku-, to put together, to 
set up and put in order. 

BahSbyueOy the compositicm of a 
word. 

Bamathani, the month of fastinp^. 

Bamba, plur. maramha^ a piece of 
Madagascar grass cloth. 

Bamha ku-, to lick. 

Bamha, a chisel-shaped knife used 
by shoemakers. 

Barnlij sand (Ar.). 
Kupiga rarrUi, to divine by dia- 
grams. 

Bammuy sadness. 
, Barida, a plane. 

Kupiga randa, to plane. 

Banda ku-y to dance for joy. 

Bangiy colour, paint. 

Barua ku-, to rend, to tear. 

Bas il malif chief possession. 

Bashia ku-, to sprinkle. 

Basij head, cape. 

Bdtaba, wet 

Bdtely or ratUt a weight of about a 
pound. \ 

Ba/Oiiy satisfied, content, gracious, 
approving, approval, blessing. 
Kuwa raihiy to be satisfied, to be 

content with. 
Ntioie rathif forgive me, excuse 
me. 



Kunrathty don't be offended. 
Bathiana ftu-, to consent, assent 
Baiibu kit', to arrange. 
Bam = Bdtel. 
BauH ku-y to trim a sail. 
Bayiay a subject, subjects. 

Bayiat al Ingrez, British subjects. 
Be or Bet, the ace in cards. 
Bea or Beale, a dollar. 

Beale ya thaliabUy an American 
gold 20-dollar piece. 

Bedle Fransa or ya Kifransay a 
French 5-franc piece. 

Beale ya S?iam oxFetha ya Sham^ 
black dollars. 
-refuy long. It makes ndefu with 

nouns like nyumba. 
Begea ku- = Bejea kur. 
Begea ku- or Legea ku-, to be loose, 

slack, relaxed, feeble. 
Begesha ku- or Begeza ku-, to loosen, 

to relax. 
Behani = Bdhani. 

Kuvoeka rehaniy to pawn. 
Behemoy mercy. 

Behemu ku-, to have mercy upon. 
Bet = Be. 

Bejea ku-, to go back, return, refef . 
Bejeza ku-, to make to go back, to 

repay. 
Bekahisha ku-, to put on the top of. 
Bekehu ku-y to ride. 
-remo, Portuguese. 
Bihani, a scented herb, sweet basil. 
„ ya kipata, with notched 

leaves. 
„ ya kiajjemiy with long 
straight leaves. 
Binga ku' = KtUinga, to sway to 

the tune of a song (only the chief 

men may do this). 
BUasiy lead. Also Lisasi, 

Bisasi ya hunduki, a bullet. 



\/ 



BUimu Jew, to ^lake a first bid 

when anything is offered ifor sale. 
mthi hu-, to inherit (fth- as in thing). 
Rithia leu- (-th- as in this), to be 

contented with, to acquiesce in. 
Hithika hu-, to satisfy, to content. 
Hiza, a door chain. 
Bizikij necessaries, idl that a man 

has need of. 
BobOy a quarter, a quarter of a 
dollar. 

Robo Ingrezoyi an English sove- 
reign. 
Robota, a packet or parcel of goods. 
Roda, sheave of a pulley. 
Rofya, 

Kupiga rofya, to fillip. 
Roho; soul, spirit, breath, life. 
Roho, greediness, the throat. 
Rtibani, a pilot, a guide. 
Riidi kur, to return, to go back, to 

correct, to keep in order. 
Rtidiana Jcu-, to object to. 
Rudiha hu-, to be made to return, to 

be kept in order, to be capable of 

being kept in order. 
Rudisha hu-, to make to return, to 
. give back, to send back. 
Rvdufya Icur, to double. 
Rufuff the shelf in a recess. 
Euhusa = Ruksa, leave. 
RvJiusa ku' = Rukhitsu ktt-, to give 
Ruka ku-f to fly, to leap. [leave. 
Rukaruka ku-, to hop. 
Rukia ku-y to fly or leap with, &c. 
Uuksa^ or Rukusa^ or Rukhusa, leave, 
permission, liberty. 

Kupa ruksa, to give leave, to set 
at liberty, to dismiss. 

Ruksa, you can go. 
RyJchuau ku- or Ruhusu ku-, to give 

leave, to permit, to allow, to dis- 



S 



377 



Rukhuihu ku-, to run, 

Rukuja ku-, 
Kurukwa na akili, to lose one's 
senses, to be stunned. 

Rungu, a club, a mace. 

Rupia, a rupee. 

Rupta = Rdbota, a bale. 

RusaH = Risasi, lead. 

Rusha ku-, to make to fly, to throw 
up or off, to throw a rider, to 
splash about. 

Rushia ku-, to throw upon, to splash. 

Rushwa, a bribe. 

Rutvba, dampness. 

Rutubika ku-, to be damp. 

Rutubisha ku-, to make damp. 

Rwvoasa, a pattern from which any- 
thing is to be made. 

Ruzuku ku-, to supply with needful 
things, especially of God provid- 
ing for His creatures. 



S. 

8 is pronounced as in several, or 
like the 88 in German. 

8h i^ pronounced as in English, 
or like 8ch in German. 

8 and 8h are distinct in Arabic 
and are generally distinguished in 
good Swahili. There are, however^ 
many words in which they are used 
indifferently; and in common talk 
the 8h seems to be rather the more 
common. Many natives seem un- 
conscious of any difference between 
them. 

8 is used for the Arabic iha by 
persons who cannot pronounce (h. 

In the Pemba dialect 8h is often 
used for ch. 

Mashungwa = Machungwa, 



^78 



SAA 



SAK 



San^ hour, clock, watch. 

Saa ngapii what o'dock is it? 
According to Arab reckoning 
the day begins at sunset. Mid- 
night is usiku saa ya sita ; four 
A.M. «aa a kumi ; six am. saa 
a thenashara ; noon, sa^ a siia. 
Saa! You 1 I say ! You now ! 

Njoo saa t Come along, do I 
Saa ku; to remain over, to be left. 
Saala, plur. vMLsaalaf a question. 
SaaTida, a shroud, a winding-sheet. 
Saba^ or Saha'aj seren. 

Ya saha, seventh. 
Sahaa, a stay (in a dhow), ■ 
SahabUy cause, reason. 

Kwa sahabu ya, because of, be- 
cause. 
^ahaini, seventy, = Sahioini. 
Sabatashara, seventeen. 
Sabuni, soap. 
Sabuni fcw-, to bid, to be in treaty, 

to buy. 
Saburit patience. 
Saburi ku-, to wait. 
Sabwini, seventy. 
Sadaka, an offering, an alms, an act 

of charity, anything done for the 

love of Gk)d. 
Sadiki ku-, to believe. 
Safari, a journey, a voyage, used for 
"time" or "turn." 

Safari Mi, this time. 
Safft serene. 
Safli pure, clean. 
Safi ku', to clean. 
Safidi ku', to clear up, to make 

smooth and neat. 
Safihi, rudeness 
Safika ku; to be purified.^ 
Safina (Ar.), a vessel. 
Sufiri ku- to travel, to set out on a 

journey, sail, start. 



Safirisha hur, to make to travel, to 

see any one off. 
Saflsha ku-, to make pure or clean.. 
Safu, a row, rows, a line. 

Safu za kaida, regular rows. 
Safura, biliousness, gall, a com- 
plaint in which people take to 

eating earth. 
Sa^a ku-, to grind. 

Kusagwa na gari, to be run over 
by a cart 
Sagai, a spear, a javelin. 
Sagia ku-, to grind with or for. 

Mawe ya kusagia, millstones, a 
mill, ia handmill. Two loose 
stones are often used, the tipper 
one is called mwana, and the 
lower mama. 
Sahani, a dish. 

Sahari, checked stuff for turbans. 
Sahau ku- or SaJiao ku-, to £orget, to 

make a mistake. 
Safiauliwa ku-, to be forgotten. 
Sahib, sir. 
Sahibu, a Mend. 
Sahili, 

KvUa sahili, to sign. 
Sdkihi, correct, right. 
Sahihi ku-f to be correct, to be 

right. 
Sahihisha ku-, to correct. 
Saili ku-, to ask, to question. 
Sailia ku-, to ask on behalf of. 
Saka ku-f to hunt 
Sdkafu, a chunammed floor, a floor 

or roof of stone, covered with. 

a mixture of lime and sand, and 

beaten for about three days with 

small wooden rammers. 
Sakama ku', to become jammed, to 
Sakani, a rudder. [stick fast. 

Saki ku-, to come close to, to. toueh, 

to come home. 



S AK 



SBL 



379 



Sdkifu hu-y to make a churkmrned 

floor or roof. 
£!aZa, prayer, the prescribed Moham- 
medan form of devotion includ- 
ing the proper gestures. 
Salaama = Saldma. 
Salaam, or Salaamu, or Satamu, 
compliments, safety, peace. 
Kupiga mizinga ya salamu, to 
fire a salute. 
Salahisha ku-, or SdehUha, or SvHu- 

hisha, to make to be at peace. 
SaUda, the meat near the backbone, 

the undercut of meat. 
SaJaTna, safe, safety. 
Salt ku', to use the regular Moham- 
medan deyotions, to say one's 
prayers. 
Salia ku-f to be left, to remain. 
Salimu kn-, to salute. 
Salimia ku-, to satute, to send com- 
pliments to. 
SoMti ku-f to betray secrets. 
Saluda, a sweetmeat made of saf&on, 

sugar, and starch. 
Sama ku-, to choke, to be choked. 
Samadi^ manure. 
Samakij a fish, fish. 
Samani, tools, instruments, ma- 
chine. 
Samawati, the heavens. 
Samawi, blue, sky colour. 
Samhuaa^ a little paSty. 
Samehe ku-, to forgfive, to pass over. 
Samiri ku-, to load a gun. 
Sa'mli, ghee^ clarified butter. 
Sana, very, jnuch. It is used to 
intendfy any action. 
S&ma Sana, spei^k loud. 
Vuta tana, pull hard. 
SanamaM, senna. 

Sanamu, an image, a likeness, a 
statue, a picture, an idol. 



Sandale, sandal wood. 
Sandarusi, gum copal, gum amini. 
Sanduku, a chest, a box. 
Saniki ku-, to make excuse. 
Sapa ku-, to tout for customers. 
Sarafu, a small coin. 
Sarifa or Sarf, exchange, rate of 
exchange. 
Sarifa gani ya niji Bosa f What 
is the current rate of exchange ? 
Sarifu ku-, to use words well and 

correctly. 
Sdruf, grammar. 

Sarufu, a small gold plate with a 
devout inscription, worn on the 
forehead as an ornament. 
Sasa, now. 

Sasa hivi, directly, at onee. 
Saiarajijiy chess. 
SautU voice, sound, noise. 
Saxioa, equal, right, just 
KUukisichokvka9avoa'Miye,90iQ»- 
tiiing un^«)rthy of him. 
J^wanisha ku-, to make alike, 

equal, even, &c. 
Sawasauja, like, alike, even, all the 

same,,leve1, smooth, equal. 
Sawawa, peas (Yao.). 
Sawazisha ku-, to make equal or 

alike. 
-sayara, gentle, quiet, long-suflfering. 
Sayidia ku-, to help. 
Sa^Ui ku- = Saili ku-, 
Saza ku-, to leave over, to make 

to remain. 
Sazia ku-, to leave for. 
Sebabu = Sahabu, cause, reason. 
Sebtda or Sebule, reception room, 

parlour. 
SefiuH, a poultice. 
Sehemu, part, share, dividend. 
Sekeneko, syphilis. 
Sdaha, a weapon. 



380 



SEL 



8HA 



Kupa seldha, to arm. 
Selehisha ku^ = Suluhuha, to make 

to be at peace, to me<iiate be- 
tween. 
Selimu ku- or SUlim ku-^ to capitu- 
late. 
Sema ku-, to say, to talk, to speak. 

Sema tana, speak out. 
Semadari, a bedstead, specially of 

the Indian pattera, 
Semhuse, much less. 
Semea ku-, to say about 

Kusemea puani, to talk through 
the nose. 
Semeji = ShemegL 
Sena, a kind of rice. 
Sengenya kt^, to make secret signs of 

contempt about some one who is 
Senturi, a- musical box. [present. 
Sera, a rampart. 

Serkali or Serikali, the court, the 
government. 

Mtu vja serihalii a man in go- 
vernment employ. 
Sermalaf a carpenter. 
Serujif an Arab saddle. 
Sesemiy blackwood. 
Seta ku-f to crush. 
Setaseta ku-, to crush up, to break 

into fragments. 
Seti, the seven in cards. 
Setinka, &o. See Stiriica, &a 
Stttini, sixty. 
SettiHy a^ iron (?). 
Settiri kvr, or Setiri, or Sitirif to 

cover, to conceal, to hide, to atoue 

for. 
Seuze, much less, much more. Also 

Semhuse. 
Seyedia, lordly, belonging to the 

Seyed. 
Seyedina (Ar.), our lord, your ma- 

^ejity. 



SezOf an adze. 

Shadbanij the eighth month of the 

Arab year. 
Shaba, copper, brass. 
Shabaha, aim. 

Kutwaa shabahOf to take aim. 
Shabaha, like. 
\Nyafna thahaha mbvoa, an animal 
like a dog. 
Shabbu, alum. 
Shabuka, a snare. 
Shadda, a tassel. See Kanzu, 
Shall, a chess king. 
Shaha, the heart of the cocoa-nut 

tree. 
Shdhada, the Mohammedan confes* 

sion of faith. Also UsJwhada, 
Shahamu, fat 
Shahaioa (obscene), «emen. 
Shahidi, plur. mashahidi, a witness, 

a martyr. 
Shatbu (Ar,), an old person. 

Shaibu lajuzi, exceedingly old, 
Shairi, a line of poetry. 

plur. mashairiy verses, a poem. 
Shaka, a bush. 

Shaka, plur. maahaka, a doubt 
Shake, 

Kuingia na shake ya ^uZta, to sob. 
Shalt, a shawl. 
Sham, Syria, Damascus. 

Fetha ya Sham, German dollars. 
Shamba, plur. mashamba, a plfinta- 

tipn, a farm, a piece of land in 

the country. 
Shambulia ku-, to attack. 
Shamua ku-, to sneeze. Also 8hvr 

fnuo. 
Shanga, a town near Helinda, long 
Shanga, [since ruined. 

Mwana shanga, a northerly wind, 
not so strong or persistent as 
the regular kaskaxL 



SHA 



SHI 



381 



Shangaa 7cu- or Sangaa hu', to be 

astonished, to stand and stare, to 

stop short. 
Shangaza hu-, to astound, to as- 
tonish. 
Shangazh]^Vax,ma8hangazi,eLn aunt. 
Shangilia ku-t to make rejoicings 

for, to go to meet with music and 

shouting, to be glad about 
Shangvjif triumph, shouting and 

joy, an ornament of gold worn by 

women between the shoulders. 
ShanijQ, startling, unexpected event. 
ShanuUf plur. mashanuu, a comb, a 

large coarse wooden comb. 
SharbUy a moustache. 
Shari, evil, the opposite of Heri, 
Sharia = Sheria. 
Shariki hu-, to share, to be partners 

in. 
Sharikia ku-, to share with, to be in 

partnership with. 
Sharikiana ku-y to be parUiers, to 

share together. 
Sharti, or Sharutiy or Shuruti, or 
Shuti, a contract, of obligation, 
of necessity, must. Also, the 
downhaul of a dhow-sail, a 
truss. 

Kufanya shartij to bind oneself. 
Shatoruma, shawl for the waist. 
Shaukoy love, exceeding fondness, 

strong desire, will. 
Shauri; plur. mashaurif advice, 
counsel, plan. 

Kufanya shauri, to consult to- 
gether. 

Kupa shauri, to advise. 
8haun = TawL 
Shawisht hvr, to persuade, to coax 

over. 
Shayiri, barley. 
Shekena, cargo. 



Sheitani, Satan, the devil, a devil, 
excessively clever. 

Shekt, a black veil. 

Shelahela, as it stands, in a lot, with 
all defects. 

Shelele ku-, to run a seam. 

Shelle, plur. mashelle, a shell. 

Shema (Ar.), bees-wax. 

Shemdli (Ar.), the left, the north 
(because to the left of a person 
looking east) ; the Persian Gulf, 
Arabs (because to the north of 
Muscat) ; mist (because it comes 
on in the Persian Gulf with a 
northerly wind). 

Shemhea, a kind of curved knife. 

Shemegi, a brother or sister-in- 
law. 

Sfiena (Ar.), orchilla weed. 

Sheria^ law. 

Sheriz, glue. 

Shetani, plur. mashetani = Sheitani. 

Shetri, the poop of a dhow. 

Shiba ku; to have had enough to 
eat, to be full, to be satisfied. 

Shibiri or Shibri, a span. 

Shibisha ku-, to fill with food, to 
satisfy with food. 

Shidda, difSculty, distress. 

Shika ku-, to lay hold of, to hold 
fast, to keep, to determine. 
Kushika njia, to take one's way, 

to set out. 
'Shika lako, mind your own busi- 
ness. 
Shika ras He, steer for that point. 

Shikamana ku-, to cleave together. 

Shikana ku-, to clasp, to grapple, to 
stick together. 

Shikio, a rudder, a thing to lay hold 
of. See Sikio. 

SJiikiza ku-, to prop up. 

ShUamu, the stem leading to the 
20 



382 



SHI 



SHU 



Y mouthpiece in a native pipe. 

See ktko, 
Shimo, plur. mashimo, a pit, an ex- 
cavation, a large hole. 
Shinaj plur. mashinaj a stump, a 

trunk, a main root. 
Shinda fcu-, to overcome, to conquer, 
to Btaj, to continue at. 

Maji yathindci, it is half full of 
water. 

Amekwenda shinda, he is gone 
out for the day. 

Akashindxi kazif and he went on 
at his work. 
Shtndana leu-, to dispute, strive 

with, race. 
Shindania 1cu-j to het, to oppose, to 

object to. 
Shindano, plur. mashindano, a race. 

See Sindano, 
ShiTidika hj^-, or Sindiha, io shut, to 
put to, to press in a mill. 

Kwhindika mafuta ya nazi, to 
grind cocoa-nuts into oil. 
ShindVcia Tiu-, to show any one out, 

to escort a person on his way^ 

See Sindikiza. 
Shindilia ku- to press, to load a gun. 
Shindo, a shock. 
Shingarif a consort, a dhow sailing 

in company with another. 
Shingari ku-, to sail in company (of 

dhows). 
Shingo, plur. mashingo, the neck. 
Shinikizo or Sinikizo, a press. 
Shirazi, Shiraz, from Shiraz. Per- 
sian work is generally called 

thirazi, 
ShUhwa ku', to be weaned. 
Shitumu kw, to insult. See Shu- 

tumu, 
Shoga, a friend ; used only by wo- 

foen iiji speaking of or to, one an- 1 



othe^ In Zanzibar they rarely 
employ any other word. At 
Lamoo shoga means a catamite. 

Shogi, panniers, a large matting bag 
with the opening across the 
middle, so as to form two bags 
when laid across a donkey's back. 

Shoi = Shogi, 

Shoka, plur. mcuhpka, an axe. 
Shoka la hapa, an adze. 
Shoka la tUs, an axe (Mer.). 
Shoka la pioa, an adze (Mer.). 

Shokt, an ear of com, a head of 

Shona ku't to sew. [grass. 

Shonea kvr, to mend for, to sew for, 
with, &c. 

Shonuka ku-^ to become unsewn. 

Shote. 
Kwenda shote, to go with a rush. 

Shoto, 

Wa kushoto, left. 

Ana shoto, he is left-handed. 

Shtaki ku-, to prosecute, to charge, 
to accuse, 

iSbfua fcti-, to startle, to tickle. See 
Stvsha. 

Shtuka ku-, to be startled, to start. 

Shtta ku-, to launch. Pass, kushu- 
litoa, 

Shuba, the elders of a town. 

Shvhaka, plur. ma^ubaka, a recess 
in a wall. 

Shudu, what is left when the oil has 
been ground put of semsem seed. 

Shughuli, biisiness, affairs, occupa- 
tion, engagj^ent. 

ShughvXika ku-, to be occupied, to 
be worried. 

Shughulisha ku-, to occupy, to dis- 
tinct attention, to interrupt 

Shuhuda^ testimony. 

Shuhudia ku-, to bear witness aboutf 
for, or against. 



SHU 



-SIP 



383 



Shuhudu leu-, to bear witness. 

Shuhuti. 
Shuhuti ya JctUoUa chant, a small 
piece of wood used by shoe- 
makers in cutting strips of 
coloured leather. 

Shujaa, plur. mashujaa, a hero, a 
brave man. 

Skuka, a sheet. 

Shuka Tcvr, to descend, go down, 
come down, be let down, to land 
from a ship. 

Shiike, the flower of Indian com, 

Shukrani, gratitude. 

ShvJcu ku-, to suspect. 

Shukuru, thanks. 

Shukuru kit-, to thank. This word 
is very rarely used in Zanzibar, 
except in relation to God; and 
kushukuru Muungu means almost 
always, to take comfort, to leave 
off mourning, or to become re- 
signed. 

Shuliwa ku-, to be launched. 

Shumtui ku*, to sneeze. 

Shmnvi, salt [Pemba]. See Chumvi. 

Shunga A;»-, to drive away, to scare. 

Shungi, a crest, long hair (?). 
Shimgi mbUi, a way of dressing 
the hair in two masses. 

Shupatu, plur. mashupatu, a narrow 
strip of matting. The broader are 
sewn together to make flqpr mats, 
the narrower are interlaced to 
make the native couch or bed- 
stead. 

Shupaza, spades (in cards).. 

Shurcty saltpetre. 

Shuruti = Bharii, of necessity. 

Shurutiza ku-^ to compel, to force. 
Aliehuru^izwa ndani, he was 
pushed in. 

Shtuha kthf to let down, to make to 



descend, to land goods from a 
ship. 
Kushusha pu^mzi, to breathe out, 
an expiration. 
Shuti or Shuuti = Sharti, of neces- 
Shutumiwa ku-, to be reviled, [sity. 
Shutumu kvr, to revile. 
Shwali or Shwari, a calm. 
Si^ not. 
Si vema, not well. 
8i uza, sell not. 
Sif is or are not. 
Mimi si sultani, I am not a sultan ; 

or, Am I not a sultan ? 
8i yeye, it is not he or him. 
Si-, the opposite of ndi-, expressing, 
This is not it. Is not this it ? 
Simi, Sisisi, 

Siwe, Sinyi, 

Stt^e, Sio, sivyo» mjo, 

Sio, siyo, silo, Sizo, simo. 
Sicho, sipo, siko. 
Si; sign of the first person negative. 
Sikuhali, I do not consent 
Sikukvbali, I did not consent. 
Sitakuhali, 1 shall not consent 
In the present tense the final 
letter of verbs in -a becomes -*. 
Sioni, I do not see. 
-si' inserted between the personal 
^prefix and the verb, is the sign 
of the negative imperative or 
subjunctive, the final letter of 
verbs in -a becoming an -e, 
Nisione, that I may not see, let 
me not see, or without my 
seeing. 
-«-, sign of the negative in ex- 
pressing relation. 
Asio, he who is or was not, or 
who will not be. Also Asiye, 
'Sijpo-, sign of the tense expressing ^ 
not being, 

2o2 



384 



SI A 



SIK 



A8ipo(ma, he not seeing, if he 
does not see, though he does 
not see, without his seeing, 
when he sees not. 

8ia hu-t to give a sentence, to pro- 
nounce as with authority, to de- 
clare. 

Siafu, a large reddish brown ant, 
that travels in great numbers 
and bites fiercely. 

Siiagit cream, butter. 

Sibu 1cu-y to ^et, to succeed. See 
/Su6tt. 

Si/a, praise, character, charaoter- 
istio. 

Sifara, a kind of rice. 

Sifu hu-, to praise. Pass. Icmifiwa. 
Kujisifuy to magnify oneself, to 

boast. 
Kusifu^mnOf i!o ^overpraise, to 
flatter. 

Sifule (a term of reproach), a med- 
dlesome fool. 

Sifuruj a cypher, a figure of nought. 

Sigizia Jcu-, to tack (in needlework). 

S^i ku-y to entreat. 

Sijafu, the cuff, the hem. See 
Kanzu, 

Sijambo, I am well. The invariable 
answer to hu jamhof how are 
you ? 
Si jambo punde, I am a little 
better. 

Sikamo or SiJcamoo, for Nashika 
mguuj the salutation of a slave 
to a master. 

SikU vinegar. 

Sikia ku-f to hear, to obey, to under- 
stand. 

Sikilia kvr, to listen to, to attend to. 

SikUiana ku-, to be heard, to be 
audible. 

SikUiza kit-, to listen, to listen to. 



SikUizana ku-, to hear one another. 

Sikio or Shikio, plur. moMkio^ the 
ear. 

Sikitika ku-, to be sorry. 

Sikiiikia ku-, to be sorry for, to pity. 

Sikitiko, plur. moHkitikot sonow, 
grief. 

Sikitisha kvr, to make sorry. 

Sikiza ku-, to make to hear, under- 
stand, &c. 

Sikizana ku-y to be mutually intel- 
ligible, to make one another hear. 

Siku, a day of twenty-four hours, 
from sunset to sunset, days. 
.Siku kuri, a great day, a feast. 
The two great feasts are the 
three days at the end of the 
Bamathan, when every one 
makes presents, and three days 
after the tenth of Thil hajj or 
Mfunguo wa tatu, when every 
one ought to slaughter some 
animal, and feast the poor. 
Siku a mwaka (see Mwango^ 
Kigunzi), the Nairuz, about the 
23rd of August, the beginning 
of the Swahili and nautical 
year. The old custom is for 
every one, but especially the 
women, to bathe in the sea 
in the night or morning : then 
they cook a great mess of grain 
and pulse, which is eaten about 
noon by all who like to come. 
The fires are all extinguished 
and lighted again by rubbing 
two pieces of wood tc^ether. 
Formerly no inquiry was made 
as to any murder or violence 
committed on this day, and old 
quarrels used regularly to be 
fought out upon it. 
Siku zoUf always. 



«IL 



SIT 



385 



SHihi hu', to Improve, to reform. 

SUihisha ku-, to make to improve, 
to reform. 

SHir^u Jcu-, to become a Moham- 
medan. 

Sinama hu-, to stand np, to come 
to a stand, to stop, to be erect, 
to stand in, to cost 

Simamia *t*-, to stand by, to 6ver- 
look workmen, to cost to. 

Simamisha ^u-, to make to stand. 

Simanga hu-^ to crow over, boast 
against. 

Simanzi, grief, heaviness. 

Simha, a lion, lions. 

Simha uranga, a well-known man- 
grove swamp at the mouth of 
the Lufiji. 

Simbati, a kind of wood brought 
from near Gape Delgado. 

SimCf a short straight sword used 
on the mainland. 

Simika hu; to be erect, to be set 
up, to stand (often used in an 
obscene sense). 

SimUcia kur, 

Kusimikia mlango, to set up and 
build in a door. 

Simikisha ku-, to set up. 

SimUlaj Simille, SimUeni, probably 
for Bismillah, the common cry 
in Zanzibar, meanmg, make 
way, out of the way. 
Simiila punda, make way for a 
donkey. 
. BimiUa ubau, make way for a 
plank. 

8imo, I am not in it, am not con- 
cerned, have nothing to do with 
it 

Sifno. 
Simo hii ti njemay this event is 
not good. 



Imeingia simo mpya, something 
new has turned up. 
8imu, the electric telegraph. 
SindanOf a needle (or Bhindano), 
Sindano, a kind of rice. 
Sindi, a long-tailed weaseL 
Sindikia ku-j to crush. 
Sindikiza kw, to accompany part of 

the way. 
Sindua ku-, to open, to set open. 
Singa, hair of an animal. 

Nyele za singa, straight hair, 
European hair. 
Singa ku-, to scent, to put scent. 
Singizia hi; to slander, to spread 

false reports about 
Sini, China. 
Sini^ no matter. 
Siniat plnr. masintat a circular tray 

used to carry and set out foo»l 

upon, generally of copper tinned. 
Sinikiza ku-, to press. 
Sinzia ku; to doze, to nod, to flicker. 
-OTJJO-, sign of the tense signifying 

the case of the thing mentioned 

not being. 
Sirif secrecy. 

Mamho ya iiri, secret affairs, 
secrets. 

Kioa siri, secretly. 
Sisiy we, us. Sometimes pronounced 
ttoiswi, 8ui8ui, or smoi, 

Sisi tote, all of us. 

Siti wote, both of us. 
Sisimia ku-, to sigh (?). 
Sinmizi, ants (?). 
Sisitiza ku- (M.), to charge strictly, 

to charge to keep secret 
Stta^ six. 

Yd 8ita, sixth. 
Sita ku; to halt, to go lame (A.), to 

hide. 
Sitdhaf the deck. 



386 



SIT 



STA 



Sitashara, sixteen. 
Sitavoi ku'f to flourish. 

Ngoma ipi imesitawi, which dance 
is going best ? 
Sitawisha hu-^ to make to flourish. 
Siti, whistle (of a steamer or 
Sittij my lady, lady. [engine). 

Sittinay our lady. Applied by the 
Arabs to St Biary. 
Sivimqja, different. 
Sivyo, it is iiot thus. See 8u, 
SiwOy an ivory horn only used on 

great occasions. 
Siwezif I am not well. See Weza ku-, 
Siyo^ that is not it, no. See Si-. 
Siyu or 8iu^ Siwi, the chief town 

of the district near Lamoo, the 

chief seat of old Swahili learning. 
^Sodoy lunacy. 
Sodo^ a woman's napkin. 
Sofe^ wool. 

Soge^ S()g% Sd, = Shogi. 
Sogea kU',to approach affectionately, 

to come near to. 
Sogeza ku-^ to lift to the lips and 

kiss, to bring near to. 
Sogezea ku-, to put ready for, to 

bring for use. 
Soko, plur. masoko, a market, a 
bazaar. 

Kwenda sokoni, to go marketing. 
Sokota ku-, to twist, to plait, to spin. 
Soma ku-y to read, to perform de- 
votions. 
Soma, plur. masoma, a kind of dance. 
Sombela ku-, to work oneself along 

on one's hands and seat without 

using the legs. 
Somesha ku-, to teach to read, to 

lead devotions. 
Somo, plur. masomo, something read, 

used as a title of friendship, a 

namesake. 



Sonda ku-j to suck out. 

Sondo, swelled (?) glands. 

Songa ku-, to strangle, to squeeze, 

to stir together. 
Songanatongana ku-, to press against 

one another like sheep in a flock. 
Songea ku-, to push through, to 

shoulder your way through a 
Sonjoa ku; to wring. [crowd. 

Sonya ku- = Kufyonya. 
SonuUi, trousers. 
Soaoneka ku-, to be hurt or ache, so 

as to writhe with pain. 
Sosonesha ku-^ to make to writhe 

with pajp. 
Sote, all ; agreeing with 8m, we or 
us. See -ote. 

Tu sote, we are together. 

Tufende sote, let us go together. 
Soza ku-, to beach a boat or yessel. 
Ssaji or Soft, pure, clean. 
Staajahu ku-, to ponder much, to be 

greatly astonished. 
Staamant ku-, to have oonfldence,. 

to rest trustfully. 
Stahdbu ku-j to be pleased, to prefer. 
StdhamiXi or Stahimili, patiently. 
Stahi ku-, to honour, to have respect 

for. 
Stahiba ku- (?), to prefer. See 

Stahabu* 
Stahiki ku-, to resemble, to be of 

one sort with. 
Stahili ku-, to deserve, to be woi^thy 
of, to be proper, to beri^ht and 
fitting. 

Astdhili, serves him right. 
StdhimUi ku-, to bear, to endure, 

tolerate. 
Stakdbathi, earnest, fastening penny. 
Stambuli, Constantinople. 
atarehe ku-, to sit still, to be at rest, 
to remain quiet. 



STB 



SUM 



387 



Stareke ! Don't disturb yourself I 
don't get up ! 

Sterehuha ku-, to give rest to, to 
refresh. Also Starehisha. 

Stirika ku-, to be covfered, to be con- 
cealed. 

Stuaha ku-, to startle, to sprain, to 
put out of joint 

Subana, small pieces of meat roasted 
on two parallel sticks. 

Subana, a thimble. 

Subiriy patience. 

Subiri, aloes. 

Subiri ku-y to wait. 

Siibu ku-, to cast in a mould. 

Sidm ku- or Stbu ku-, to happen to. 

Suhuif morning. 

SiibuVcheiri, good morning. 

Suhuri^ patience. 

Siibutu kvr = Thvbutu ku-. 

Suduku ku-j to ascertain, to know 
the truth. 

Suff, wool. 

Suffix a derotee, a hermit. 

Suffuf, a great variety or number. 

Svfi, woollen. 

Sufuriaj copper. 

Sufuria, plur. sufuria ot ma$ufuriay 
a metal pot 
Sufuria ya ehuma, an iron pot. 

Sugu, a mark, a callous place. Also, 
obstinate, insensate. 

Sugua ku'f to rub, to scrub, to 
brush, to scour. 

Svheli, south. 

Suiy an irrepressible, unconquer- 
able man. 

Sujudia ku; to prostrate oneself to, 
to adore. 

Sujudu ku-y to prostrate oneself, to 
bow down. 

8uka ku-y to plait, to clean. 

iS^tf^art, sugar. 



Sukari gurUy half -made sugar. 

Suliosuka ku, to shake, to agitate. 

Suke, plur. masuke (or tJiuke), an 
ear of corn, a head of mtama, &c. 

Bukua ku-y t<) slacken, to loose. 

Sukuma ku-y to push, to urge. 

Sukumiy a steersman, quarter- 
master. 

Sukumiza kut-y to put upon another 
person, to say it is his business, 
to throw off from oneself, to push 
away in anger, to throw (a thing) 
at a person who wants it Also, 
to avert (by sacrifice, &c.). 

Sukutua ku-y to rinse out the mouth, 
to wash one's mouth. 

Sulibi ku-y to crucify. 

SuUbisha ku-, to crucify. 

Stdihi ku-y to become, to be fitting 
for. 

Sutika ku-y to turn about, become 
giddy. 

Sulimu ku-y to salute. 

SuUaniy plur. mdsultani, a sultan, 
a chief man. SuUani at Zanzi- 
bar does not mean a king ; it is 
used of the head men of a vil- 
lage. 

SuUdn Bum, the Sultan of Turkey. 

Suluhika ku-, to be strong. 

Suluhu, strength, firmness. 

Svluhisha ku-, to bring to accord^ 
to make p^ce betweeiu. 

Suluhu, concord. 

Sulvlu, a curlew. 

Swnba knh, to sway away, to twist 
and turn oneself. 

Sumbua ku-, to worry, to annoy, to 
give trouble. 

Sumhuana ku-, to worry one an- 
other. 

Sumbuka ku-, to be put to trouble, 
to be harassed, to be annoyed. 



388 



6DM 



Sumbulia hu-, to speak sharply to. 
Sumbwha hu-, to • yex, harass, 

trouble, worry, annoy. 
8wnu, poison. 
Sumugh, gum-arabic 
Sungura, a rabbit (?), a hare (?). 
Sunnif advisable, recommended, a 

tradition, what is advisable or 

recommended, but not compul- 
Sunobari, deal wood. [sory. 

Sunza ku-f to search for anything 

with a lighted brand at night. 
Supaa ku-, to be very hard or dry. 
Supana = Supod, 
Swrckj a likeness, a resemblance, a 

chapter of the Koran. 
Buriay plur. mcuuriay a concubine, 

a female slave. 
Suriyama, born of a concubine. 
Sururu, an insect that lives in 

cocoa-nut trees. 
Surwdli, trousers. See Soruali, 
8u$f liquorice. 
SusOy a kind of hanging shelf, a 

hammock. 
Susupaa = Supaa, 
8uta ku-y to reproach, to charge a 

man with slander, to slander, to 

seek out a man and ask whether 

he has said such and such things. 
8u*udit or Suudi njevna, salvation, 

felicity. 
Suza kvrt to stir up. Also, to 

rinse. 
Suzia ku', to turn with (?). 
Swafi = 8afi. 
Swali, a question. 

T. 

T is pronoimced as in English. 
There are two t*B in Arabic, one 
much thicker than the English t. 



but only very careful speakers dis- 
tinguish them in Swahili. 

T at the beginning of a word has 
sometimes an explosive sound, as in 
fakOf dirt. It is probable that this 
represents a suppressed n. 

There is a slight difference in 
sound between the fa of tatu, three, 
and tano, five, the former being the 
smoother, but natives do not seem 
conscious of the difference. 

T in northern Swahili frequently 
becomes ch in the dialect of Zanzi- 
bar. 

KtUekcty to laugh (M.) kueheka 
(Zanz.)* But 2niteA;a, to plunder, 
or to draw water, does not 
change. 

Kittindoj to slaughter (M.) hu- 
chinja (Zanz.). 

There is no sound simileur to that 
of the English tk in the original 
language of Zanzibar. It occurs in 
some dialects of Swahili in place of 
V or z, Th^re are however in 
Arabic four Wa. 1. Thoy pro- 
nounced like the English th in 
tiling. 2. Thaly pronounced like 
the English th in this. 3 and 4. 
Thad and Tka* or DthaUy which 
are scarcely distinguished by the 
Arabs themselves, and have a veiy 
thick variety of the fhtd sound. 
Practically the two English Wa are 
quite sufficient, and the ear soon 
catches the right method of employ- 
ing them. 

The Indians and many Africans 
pronounce all these as «. Some 
Swahili conftise the various {h'% with 
«, and employ the ihai sound for 
words properly written with a «, as 
wUhiri for waxiri, a vizir.. 



-TA- 



TAG 



389 



•to-, the sign of the future tense. 
When the rel'atlye or the par- 
ticles denoting time and place 
are inserted in the future, the 
prefix regularly becomes 'tdka-. 
It is possible however to retain 
-ta- to express a more definite 
sense. 
Atdkttja, he will come. 
Atakayekuja, who will come. 
Atakapokujoy when he shall 

come. 
Atapokujaf when he oome, 
or, if he shall come. 
In the first person singular the 
ni-f which is the sign of the 
person, is often dropped. 
TaJcuja = Nitahija, I shall 
come. 
Ta- at the beginning of Arabic 
verbs is the mark of the fourth 
or fifth conjugations or derived 
forms. 
Taa^ a lamp, especiallj the small 
open earthen lamps made in Zaa- 
zibar. 
Taa, a large kind of fiat fish. 
Taa, beneath one's feet. 
TcuMea ku-, to be troubled. 
Taabuha hu-, to trouble, to annoy. 
TaabUf trouble. 

Taoidabu ku-^ to learn manners. 
Taajabislia kw, to make to wonder, 

to astonish. 
Taajdbu kU', to wonder, to be as- 
tonished. See StcMJdbu, 
Taajazi ku-y to tire. 
Ta'ali ku-y to study. 
TaandUy a centipede. 
TatUaa ku-y to throw oneself about. 
To&o^ lining.' 
TabdkelOj a snufi'-boz. 
Tabanja, a pistol (Ar.). 



Tahdssam ku-, to smile. 

Tahia, constitution, temper, temper- 
ament, climate. 

Tabtbia ku-, to doctor. 

Tabibuj a physician. • 

Tabiki ku-, to line, to close to or 
upon, to cling to as a fast friend. 

Tahikiza^ to make to cling. 

Tahiriku-f to foretell, to prophesy. 

Tahurudu ku-, to refresh. 

Tadariki ku-, to accept the respon- 
sibility of, to guarantee the result 
of: 

Tadi, violence, hurry. 
Kwenda kwa tadi, to rush, to go 
tumultuously. 

Tadi ku-, to fight with. 

Ta/ahari kit-, to consider, ponder, 
think. 

Tafdthal or Tafathali, please, I beg 
of you. 

Tafiti ku-y to seek out matters 
secretly, to be over-inquisitive. 

Tafsiri ku-, to explaia, to interpret 

Ta/Hri, interpretation. 

Taf stria ku-, to explain to, to inter- 
pret to. 

Tafu (M.) = Chafu, cheek. 

Tafuj gastrocnemic muscles. 
Tafu ya mhmo, the biceps muscle. 

Tajuna ku-, to chew, to nibble. 

Tafuta ku; to look for, seek, search 
for. 

Tafutatafuta k^, to search all 
about. 

Tafutia ku- or Taftia^ to seek out 
for some one, to look for. 

Tagaa X;u-, to straddle, to walk 
vrtth one's legs far apart. 

Tagej plur. matage, bow legs, crook- 
edness. 

Taghafali ku-, to be off one's guard, 
to forget to take notice. 



390 



TAG 



Taghaiari hi-, to be changed. 
Taghi ku-, to rebel. 
Tagua, branches, main branches. 
Tdhafi/u, gently, in good time, 
light, thin. 

Nguo tahcfifu^ thin calico. 
Tahamaka ha-^ to look up to see 

vhat is going on. 
Tah4xraki fcu-, to be tronbled, to 

be thrown into confusion. 
TdharaMsha Xct»-, to put into a state 

of anxiety, to excite, stimulate. 
TaharizL See Kaiizu, 
Taharuki ha-, to be troubled, to be 

anxious, to be thrown into con- 
fusion. Also', Taharaki, 
Tdhatta ku-y to go on board a ship 

with a Tiew to sailing. 
Tdhathari ku-^ to beware, to be on 

one's guard. 
TdhcUharisha ku-, to warn. 
Tahayari ku-j to become ashamed. 
TaJw^ruha ku-, to shame, to make 

ashamed. 
Tdhidi ku-, 

Kvjitahid% to exert oneself, to 
try hard. 
Tdhifi fcu-, to circumcise. 
TaksHai farewell, leavo-taking. 
Taiy a large bird of prey, a vulture, 
Taifckj plur. mataifoy a tribe, a 

nation. 
Tq/o, hire., 
Taja ku-^ to name. 
Tajiy a crown. 
Tajirif plur. matc^tW, a merchant, 

a rich man, a capitalist, a prin- 
'taJca-. See -to-. . [cipal. 

rofco, dirt 
Takatdkoy rubbish, sundries, small 

articles. 
Toka kU', to want, to wish for, to 
ask for. 



TAM 

Kutaka $hayHf to seek advioe. 
Takabali ku-y to accept ; used of 

God's hearing grayer. *" 
TcMbalhi ku-, to carry on frei^^ht. 
Takahathiaha ku-, to pay freight 

for. 
Takdddam ku-, to be in adyanoe of, 

to get before. 
Takalika ku-, to be very faint or 

tired. 
ToJlMiWmfi, gift, largess. 
Takasa ka-, to dean, to make clean 

and clear. 
TakaHka fcu-, to become cleansed. 
Takata kth, to become clean and 
clear. 

Uufingu umetahata, the sky is 
dear. 
'takatifuy holy, cleansed. 
Takhari ku-, to stay. 
Taki = Chioha. 
Takia, plur. fMftakia, a large 

cushion. 
TakOy plur. matakoj the buttocOb 
Takiiriy a crime. 
Takura ku-, to scratch, to dig with 

claws or fingers. 
Tcdakay divorce. 
Taldssim or TcUa^imu^ plur. mcOala- 

Hmu, a talisman, a charm, a 

figure divided into squares and 

marked with mag^c words and 

symbols. 
Tali ku- or Ta'o/t kur^ to study. 
Tcdik = TaHk, 
Taliza htt-, to smooth off, to smooth 

up, plaster, &c. 
TaxMLy out and out, final. 
Tama ku- (M.) = Soma Xm-, to re- 
move. 
Tamp, kury to sit, crouch (Yao«). 
Tama, 
Kushika tonio, to Itein the head 



TAM 



TAN 



391 



on the hand, reckoned unlucky 
in Zanzibar. 

TanutOj longing, avarice, greedi- 
ness. 
Kuk<Ua tamaa, to despair. 

Tamdlaki ku-^ to be master of. 
Kujitamdfaki mwenyewey to be 
one's own master. 

Tamani ku-s to long for, to lust 
after. 

TamanUca Jka-, to be liked, to be an 
object of liking. 

Tamha ku-, to swagger. 

Tanibaa ku-, to creep, to crawl. 

Tambi, vermicellL 

Tamho, a tall man. 

Tamboa^ testicles. 

Tamhua ku-, to recognize. 

Tambulia ku-, to understand. 

Tamhulikana iu-, to be recogniz- 
able. 

Tambulisha ku-, to make to recog- 
nize, to explain. 

Tambuu, betel leaf chewed with 
areca nut, lime and tobacco. 

Tambuza ku-, to put a new poiut or 
edge, to weld on fresh iron or 
steel. 

Tamisha ku- (M.) = MamUka ku-, 

Ta^nika ku-, to pronounce. 

Tamu, sweetness, flavour, taste. 

'tamu, sweet, pleasant. It makes 
tamu with nouns like nyumbcu 

Tamuka ku- = Ta'irika ku-. 

TamvxM, ends or comers of turban 
cloth, &c. 

Tana ku-, to divide, to slit, to.comb, 
to part. 

Tanatana ku-, to divide up into 
little bits. 

Tana, a bunchlet of bananas, &c. 
Bananas and plantains grow 
spirally in a large bunch« not con- 



tinuously, but in little groups: 

each group is a tona. 
Tanahahi ku-, to make up one's 

mind, to know what to do. 
Tanafusi ku-, to draw breath. 
Tanda ku-, to spread, to be spread 
out, to be overcast, to put ropes 
to a native bediatead. 

Kujitanda, to stretch oneself 
across. 
Tandama ku- (?), to surround. 
Tandawaa ku-, to recline, to loll at 

one's ease. 
Tandaza ku-, to make flat. 
Tandika ku-, to spread, to lay out, 

to saddle. 
Tandu, long slashes made on theii 

faces by Makuas and others. 
Tandua ku-, to unsaddle, to take off 

harness. 
Tanga, plur. matanga or majitanga, 
a sail. The sails of mitepe and 
madau are made of matting. 

Tanga mbili, the seasons of 
changeable winds. 

Matanga kati, wmd abeam. 

Kukaxi matanga, to sit at home 
in sign of mourning, to mourn. 
Tangaa ku-, to come to be known. 
Tartgamana ku-, to adjoin. 
Tangamuka ku-, to be cheerful. 
Tangamusha ku-, to cheer up. 
Tanganya, &c. (M.) = Changanya, 

&c., to mix, to shuffle cards. 
Tangaianga ku-, to go backwards 

and forwards, to wave. 
Tangawizi, ginger. 
Tangaza ku-, to spread news, to cir- 
culate intelligence. 
Tange, the trees and rubbish cleared 

off a new plantation. 
Tangisha ku-, to make evident. 
Tango, plur. matango, a sort of 



392 



TAN 



TAS 



goord eaten raw, resembling in 

taste a caoumber. 
Tangut since, from. 

Tangu linif Since when? How 
long ago ? 
Tangua ku-, to annul, to abolish, to 
separate, untwist, unplait, with- 
draw a promise, &o. 

KutangtM ndoa^ to annul a mar- 
riage, to divorce. 
Tanguka kth^ to be annulled. 
Tangukana ku-, ^io separate. 
Tangvlia ku-y to precede, to go be- 
fore, to go first. 

NimetangtUia kukuamhia, I told 
you beforehand. 
Tangtdifu, advanced. 
Tani, Othman. 
Tani, 

Kwa tani, backward, on his back. 
Tano or Tanu, five. 

Ya tano, fifth. 
'ianoy five. 
Tantanhelway a great bother, a 

worry. 
Tanua ku^ to expand, to spread out, 

to fend off a boat. 
Tanuka ku-^ to lie on one's back and 

spread oneself out, to sprawl. 
Tanuru or Tanuu, a clamp for bum- 

iog lime, an oven. 
Tanzif plur. matonzt, a noose. 
Tanziat news of a death. 
Too, plur. matao, an arch, an 

arched opening, a bay. 
Tapa ku; to shiver. 

Kujitapa, to magnify oneself, to 
make a great man of oi^eself. 
Tapatapa kuh, to jump about like a 

fish when taken out of the water, 

to shiver, to tremble. 
Tapanya Act*-, to scatter, to throw 

about. 



Tapanyatapanya ku-^ to dissipate, 

to waste. 
Tapika ku-y to vomit. 
TapUha kU', to make to vomit. 
Tapisho, plur. ihatapishoy an emetic. 
Tapoy plur. matapo, a detachment, 

9 division, a part of an army 

larger than kikazi. 
Tarahe, side piece of -a window, 

door of planks. 
Tara/u^ on the part of. 

Tarafu yake, on his pairt. 
Taraja ku^, to hope. 
Taraihia ku-, to persuade in a 

friendly way. 
Taratibuy carefully, gently, orderly. 
Taratibuy orderliness, an order or 

form. 
Tarazuy an edging, a narrow silken 

border usually woven on to tur- 
ban and loin.cloths in Zanzibar. 
Tarazakcy business on a small scale. 
Tarazaki kvry to trade in a small 

way. 
Tariky a date, year, &c., the clew- 
line or bunt-line of a dhow-sait 

Kiiabu cka tariky a chronicle. 
Tarivnho = Mtaimhoy an iron bar. 
Tarizi ku-, to weave on an edging. 
Tartibu = Taratibu. 
Tctsa, a brass basin. 
ToMy a game of touch." 
Tasa, a barren animal. 
Tasavjari ku^y to do with certainty, 

• to be fully able. 

Hatasawariy it is certain that he 
does not do it. 
Taibihiy Mohammedan beads. 
Tasfidcty good manners. 
TashwUhiy doubt 
TasikUiy quickness, quickly. 
Tadimuy ready cash. \ 

Taua = Tcaa. 



TAT 



TEK^ 



393 



Tata. SeeMataia, 

Kioenda tatatatat to toddle. 
Tataga ku-, to go above or over, to 

cross a stream on a tree. 
Tatana %«-, to be in a tangle, to be 

puzzled. 
Tatanwha ku-f to tangle, to puzzle. 
T(U(inya fttc-, to unravel, disen- 
tangle, solve a riddle. 
Tatazana hv^y to be tangled. 
ToiOibiriy a merchant. 
Taiia ku-j to wind, to tangle, to 

complicate. 
Tatiza kth, to wind. 
'taiu, three. 

Ya tatu, third. 
Tatua ku-y to tear. 
Tatuka ku-^ to be torn. 
Taumka ku- = Ta*mka ku-* 
Tauni, plague, cholera. 
Tauai^ peacock. 
Tavu (A.), the cheek. 
Tawa, plur. matawa, a frying-pan. 
Tawa, plur. tawa, a louse. 
Tatoa ku-f to live secluded (Tao.), to 

tie. 
Tawafa, a candle, candles. 
Tawakali A;n-, to trust in God and 

take courage. 
Tawdkdwakatha, many. 
Tawala ku-^ to govern, to rule. 
Ta'Aanya ku-j to scatter. 
Taioanyika ku-, to become scattered. 
Tawashi^ a eunuch. 
Tawassu/y temperance. 
Tawaza kip-y to make to rule. 
Tawaza kvry to wash the feet, to 

perform the ablutions. 
Tawiy plur. matawi^ a branch, a 

bough, a bunch, an ear of millet. 
Tayot jaw, jawbone. 
Taya ku-y to reproach:^ 
Tayariy ready. 



Tayi, obedient 

Tayo, plur. matayo, a reproach, re- 
viling. 
Tazama ku-, to look. 
Tazamia ku-, to look out for. 
Taztffi, forgery. 
Teende la mguuy Barbadoes leg, 

elephantiasis (?). 
Tefua ku-y to reason, to search, to 

throw about. 
Tega ku-y to set a trap or snare, to 

snare. See KitendawiLu 
Tegea ku-y to be lame. 
Tegemea ku-, to lean upon, to be 

propped up. 
Tegemeza ku-y to support. 
TegOy a virulent kind of syphilis 

supposed to be the effect of a 

charm. 
Teguy plur. mategUy a tape- worm. 
Tegtia ku-y to take a pot off the fire, 

to remove a spell. 
Teka ku- (M.) = Cheka ku-. 
Teka ku-y to plunder, to take as 
/spoil, to draw water. 

Kuteka *mjiy to plunder a town. 

Kuteka ng'onibey to carry off ^n ox 

Kuteka maji, to draw water from 
a well. 
Teke, plur. matek€y a kick. 

Kapiga tekcy to kick. 
Tekelea ku-y to prove true, to come to. 
Tekdeza ku-y to perform a promise, 

restore a pledge. 
Tekenya ku-y to tickle in the ribs. 
T^tea ku-t to be consumed, to be 

burnt away. 
Teketekcy the soft, something soft. 
Teketeza ku^y to consume, to cause 

to be burnt down. 
Tekewa ku-y to become bewildered. 
Tekeza ku-y to run ashore, to come 

to an end, to die. 



394 



TEK 



TBT 



Tekua ku'y to prize ap, to toss, to 

throw up out of a noie. 
Tele, plenty, abundantly, abundant. 
Tele, gold lace or braid. 
Telea ku-y to oome down, descend, 

land from. 
Teleka ku-, to pnt a pot on the fire. 
Tdemua /nt-, to pnll down, to cause 

to slip down. 
Telemuka ku- or Telemka ku-, to 

go down a steep place, to go 

quickly down in spite of one's 

self, to slither down. 
Telemuko, the bed of a river. 
TeUza ku-, to slip. 
Tema ku-, to slash fts with a sword. 
Tema ku; 

KfUema mate^ to spit. 
Tembe, a hen full grown but which 

has not yet laid. 
Tembea ku-y to walk about, to take 
a walk. 

Moyo icangu umetembeaf my 
thoughts are wandering. 
Tembetea ku-, to walk about. 
I Tembeza fcu-, to oflfer for sale by 

auction, to hawk about. 
Terofto, palm wine, wine. 
TVm&o, an elephant. 
Te'mka = Ta*mka. 
Temsi, filigree work. 
Tena, afterwards, again, further. 
Tenda ku-, to do, to apply oneself to, 
to act. 

Kutenda zema or vema, to behave 
well. 
Tenda kani, a pole across a dhow to 

fasten the sheet to. 
Tendawala, a kind of birdi 
Tende, a date, dates. 

Tenda hcdwa or haluat Arabs 
from the Persian . Gulf, who 
Bteal slaves by tempting them 



into their houses with dates 
and sweetstuflf. 
Tendea hu-, to do to, to behave to, 

to treat. 
TendegUf plur. matendegu, the legs 

of a bedstead. 
Tendeka ku-, to be done, to be 

doable. 
Tenga, a sun-fish. 
Tenga ku-, to separate, to remove. 

Kujitenga, to get out of the way. 
Tengea ku-, to be ready and in 
order. 

Duka limetengea, the shop is all 
ready and open. 
Tengeka ku-, to be put on one side. 
TengeUa and Tengeleza = Tengeneza 

and Tengenea. 
Tengenea ku-, to be comfortable, to 

be as it should be. 
Tengeneza ku-, to finish off, to pat 

to rights, to touch up. 
Tengezeka ku-, to be established, 

made right. 
Tengua ku-, to put aside. 
Teptikua ku-, to cut away young 

shoots. 
Tepukuzi, plur. Matepukuzi, shoots 

from the root of a tree. 
Terema ku-, to be at ease. 
Tesa ku-, to afflict. 

Kuteswa, to suffer, to be afflicted. 
Teso, plur. maieto, afflictions, adver- 
sities. 
Tela ku-y to oppose, to strive against, 

t« be adverse to, to go to law 

with, to mention disparagingly. 
Tetea ku-, to cackle like a hen. 
Tetea ku- (M.)^= Chedhea ku-, to 

walk lame. 
Tete ya kwanga, rnbeblal 
Tetema ku-, to trem'ble, to quiver. 
Tetemea = Cheeli&mea, ' 



TET 

Tetemeka Jcu-, to tremble, to «hake, 

to shivev, to quake (as the earth), 

to chatter (of the teeth). 
Teteri, a small kind of dove. 
Teteza ku-, to rattle. Also, to lead 

a sick person by the hand. 
Tetia hu', to choose, select, pick 

out = Chagua ku-, 
Teuka ku-^ to dislocate, to sprain. 
'teule, choice, chosen. 
Tezama and Tezamia = Toi^amaand 

Tazamia. 
Tezi, a fibrous tumour, goitre. 
J^dbihit, an offering, a sacrifice. 
Thabit, plur. mathajbitf firm, brave, 
ThahabUy gold. [steadfast. 

Thahiri, evident, plain. 
Thahiri ku-, to make plain, to 

express. 
Thaifu, weak, infirm, bad. 
ThalatTia, three. Also Thelatha, &o. 
Thalathatashara, thirteen. 
Thalaihini, thirty. 
Thcdimu, a fraudulent person, a 

swindler.,. 
Thalimu ku-, to wrong, to defraud. 
ThaXili, very low, very poor. 
Thamana (th in this), a surety. 
Thamani (th in thing), a price. 

Ta thamaniy of price, valuabl€f< 
Tharnbi, sin. 
Thdmin, surety. 
Thamini ku, to become sure^. 
Thamiri, conscience, thought. 
Thani ku-, to think, to suppose.' 
Thania ku-, to think of a person, to 

suppose him, to suspect. 
Tharau, scorn. 
Tharau ku-, to scorn. 
Thdruhct, .(Ar. a stroke), a storm, 
(in arithmetic) multiplication. 

Thdruba mqja, at one stroke,. 
BuddjBQly. I 



THU 395 

Thathu, a kind of jay brought down 

from Unyanyembe. 
Thawdbu, a reward; especially re- 
wards from God. 
Thelatha, &c. See Thalatha, &c. 
Thelimu ku-, to oppress. 
TheUh, a donkey's canter. 
Theluth, a third. 
Themanini, eighty. 
Themanini, a linen fabric. 
Themantashara, eighteen. - 
Themanya, eight. 
Themuni, an eighth. 
ThenasTiara^ twelve. 
Theneen, two. 

Thihaka, ridicule, derision. 
Thihaki ktt-, to ridicule, to make 

game of. 
ThihiriBha ku-, to make clear, to 

declare. 
Thii ku-, to be in distress. 
Thiiki ku-, to be put to straits. 
Thili ku-, to abase. 
Thiraa, a measure of about half a 
yard, from the point of the 
elbow to the tips of the fingers. 
Thiraa konde, from the point of 
the elbow to the knuckles of 
the clenched fist. 
7%oqfika ku-, to be made weak, to 

become weak. 
Thoofisha ku-, to weaken, to make 

weak. 
Thoumu, garlic. 

ThvbutUha ku; to give courage to, 
to make certain, to convince, to 
prove. 
Thiibutu ku-, to dare, to havd 
courage for, to be proved. 
itSiihuhutu, I dare not. 
Thuiku ku-, to taste. 
Thuhpru ku-, to invoke;. 
ThuUi, disteess, miseiy. 



THU 



TIT 



Thulumuy wrong. 

Thulumu ku-f to do wrong, to per- 
secute. 
Tkului-u, a kind of sandpiper. 
ThtUuth, a third. Also Thduth. 
Thumu ku-, to slander. 
Thurea^ a chandelier. 
Thuru ktt-y to harm. 

Haithuruj no harm, it does not 
matter. 
Tia ku-f to put, to put into. 

Kutia nanga, to anchor. 

Ktttia chuonij to put to school. 
Tiara, a boy's kite. 
Tiba, a term of endearment. 
Ttbika ku-, to be cured. 
Tibu ku-y to cure. 
Tibu, a kind of scent 
Tibita ku'j to stir up and knock 

about. 
Ti/ua ku-, to cause to rise like dust 

or a mist. 
Tifuka kur, to rise in a cloud. 
Tii ku-, to obey. 
Tiisha kU', to make to obey, to 

subdue. 
Tika ku-j or twika, to put a burden 

on a man's head for him. 
Qiki, just like, exactly as. 
Tikia ku-, to reply. See Bikia, 
Tikisa ku-, to shake. 
Tikiti, plur. maiikiti,a sort of water 

melon. 
Tikitika ku-, to be shaken. 
Tikitiki, utterly and entirely, to the 

last mite. Also, (M.) into little 

bits. 
Tikiza ku-, to have patience with. 
Tilia ku-, to put to, for, &c. 
Tilifika ku-, to waste, to grow less. 
Tilifisha ku-, to diminish, to make 

to dwindle away. 
TUifu ku-f to ruin, to waste» 



Tiiaia ku-, to dam. 

Timazi, a stone hung by a line,u8ed 

as a plummet by masons. 
Timbi, bracelets. 
Timbuza ku-, to begin to show itself, 

like the sun in rising. 
Timia ku-, to be complete. 
Timilia ku-, to become complete. 
-Hmilifu, complete, perfect 
Timiliza ku-, to make complete. 
Timiza ku-, to complete, to make 

perfect 
Time, a woman's name. 
Timvi, an ill-omened child. 
Tinda ku- (M.) = Chinja hu-, to 

cut, to cut the throat, to slaughter. 
Tindika ku- (A), to fall short 
Tindikia ku-, to cease to. 

Imenitindikia, I am out of it, I 
have no more. 
Titidikiana ku-, to be separated, to 

be severed, as friends or relations 

at a distance from one another. 
Tinge,& game consisting in imitating 

all the motions of a leader. 
Tini, a fig, figs. 
Tini (M.) = Chini, down. 
Tipitipi, a brown bird, a mocking 

bird. 
Tipua ku-, to scoop out, to dig out, 

to dip out. 
Tiririka ku-, to glide, to trickle. 
Ti9*a = Tissia, nine. 
Tisaini, ninety. 
Tisaiashara, nineteen. 
Tisha ku-, to frighten, alarm, make 

afraid. 
Ti$8ia, nine. 

Tita ku-, to tie up together. 
Tita, plur. maiita, a faggot, a bundle 

of firewood. 
Titi, the nipple. 
TUia ku-, to shake, to sink in. 



TIT 



T-OM 



^s^^Taa-^^ 



to become ccoi^te- 
,.^'to complete, to^j 

V, 2»«. to cease la 
^ afraid 



Also (?) of the sea, when deep, 
and TOUgh, to boil. 
Titika Jcu-, to carry a bundle of 

eticks, &c. 
Titima feu-, to loar and roil like 

thunder. 
Titiibangaf chicken-pox. See Kiti» 

wanga» 
Tiwo (?), paralysis, 
-to, a snAQx, denoting goodness or 
propriety, rarely used in Zan- 
zibar. 
Kuwekay to put ; 

KwubekatOy to put properly. 
Manuka, smells ; 
Manukato, scents. 
Toa ku; to put out, to take away, 
give, expel, to deliver, to except, 
to choose out. 
Kutoa meno, to grin, to show the 
teeth, to snarl. 
Toazi, plur. matoazi^ <^rmbals, 
Toba, repentance. 
Toboa kth, to break through, to 

break a hole in a wall. 
Tobwe, a simpleton, ignoramus. 
Tofaa, plur. matofaa, a fruit shaped 
like a codling with rosy-coloured 
streaks» :;= Tomondo* See MtO' 
mondo. 
Tofali, plur, matofali, a brick. 
TofatUi, difference, dispute. 
Nimeingia tofauti kwa kuwa wee 
' ume^iibia /etha yangu, 1 have 
a quarrel with you for stealing 
my money. 
Tofua kvr, to hurt or put out an 

eye. 
Tofuka hu'f to have an eye hurt or 

put out. 
Togahiir, to pierce the ears. 
Togtoa, unfermented beer. 
ToharOf circumcisioiu 



Tohara few-, to purify b] 

to perform the M( 

ablutions. 
Toi, a kind of wild goat 
Toja ku'y to slash, cut g 

means of bleeding, &c 

Tojo, a cut made for orni 

Toka or Tokea, from, sin 

Toka ku-, to go or come ' 

from, to be acquit 

free. 

Kutoka damn, to bleec 

Kutoka hart, to sweat. 
Tokana ku-, to go fort! 

another, to divorce, to 
Tokea^ from, since. See 
Tokea hapo, in old tim( 

time. 
Tokea ku-, to come out 1 

to appear. 
Tokeza ku-y to ooze out, 1 
Tokomea ku-, to get oi 
Tokoni, the pelvis. 
Tokono (A.X the hips. 
Tokora ku-, to pick one*s 
Tokosa Aitf-, to boil, t 

boiling. 
Tokoseka ku-, to be wel 

be done. 
Tokota ku'f to become b< 

cooked by boiling. 
Tolea ku-y to put out for, 

KtUoletoOy to have p 
one, or to be put 
dismissed. - 
Tomo, orchitis, hydroceh 
Tomasa ku-, to poke w i th 

to feel, used of exi 

living creature, as B 

inanimate objects. 
fomha ku; to have sexi 

tion with. , , 

Towto, a qijail. 



398- 



TOM 



Tomea leu- (M.) = C^omea h»-. 
Tamea *te-, to pmat by plastering 

over and putting small stones in 

to make the work firm. 
Tomesha fcu-, to set on (tt dog, &o.> 
Tomo, dross of iron, &o, 
T(mi$e = Tomo. 
TarrumdOf a hippopotamus. 
T(ymondo, plur. matomondo =» Tofaa* 
Twia kU'y to drop. 
Tona ku: 

Kutona hinaj to lay and bind on 
a plaster of henna until the 
part is dyed red. 

Kutana godoro, to sew through a 
mattress here and there to oon- 
fine the staffing. 
T&ndoo, a small brown nut con- 
taining (Ml. 
Tonesha kw, to strike against, to 

touch a sore place, to make a sore 

run. 
Tone, plur. matone, a drop. 
Toneza ku-, to cause to drop» 
Tonga hu' (M.) = Chonga kw, to 

cut. 
Tongea ku- = Chongea. 
Tongosirnba, a small bird black 

with white neck; it knakes a 

great noise in flying. 
Tongoza ku-, to seduce. 
Tope, mud, plur. mato'pey mucii mud. 
Topea ku-i to sink in mire, to be 

stogged. 
TopetoTpCj a custard apple. 
Topeza ku-, to be too heavy for on6. 
Topoa ku; to take out, to break a 

spell, to clear for cultivation. 
Torttt plur. matora, a small spear. 
Torati, the law of Moses, the Ppn- 

tftteuch. 
Toroka ku-, to run away from a 

master, from home, £c 



TUA 

forwha *»-, to abduc^ to induce \o 

run away. 
Tom ku-, to cause to sink, to drown 

Kutosa macho, to spoil the eyes. 
Tom, plur. mato^, fhiit jufit be- 

ginning to ripen, ^1 but ripa 
Tosha ku-j to suffice, to be enoQgh 

for, to cause to come out. - 
Toshea ku-, to be aetomahed, to be 

staggered. 
Toeheleza ku-^ to stifflce. 
Toshewa ku-, to be astonished. 
Tola ku-, to sink. 
Totea ku- (M.) = Choeh^ ku- 
Toteza Tnacho ku-^ to spoil the eye». 
Totoma ku-, to be losl, to wander, 
roforafet*-, to piol^ one's teeth- Also, 

Tokora, 
Tooya = Chonya. 
Towid hu-j to eat ai» a. nAiah or 

kitoweo. 
Toweka kw, to vanish. At Lomoo 

this word is used for to die, 
Tbwelea ku-, to eat by mouihfiils. 
Towesha 7cu-, to ruin, to put out of 

the way. 
TowBza ku-, to pour giavy, Ac, over 

the riee. 
Tozi, plur. mflitofj (Mr),' a taar. 
Trufu, trump (in cards). 
Tu, only, nothing but this, only 

just. The -u of tu is very sbott ; 

it always follows the wotd or 

phrase whitfh it qualifies. 
Tu, we are or were. 
Tu or Tw-, the sigfi of the fl^t 

person pfnral, iide. 
-tu- or 'tw-, the objective prefix de- 
noting the first pemm pluml, u$, 
Tua ku-, to put down, to put down 
loads, to rest, to halt j Uf encAmp, 
to set (of the 8uii> 

Jua likitua, fit lOtiset 



TUA 



tUM 



399 



Tua fcn^, to grind by pnshiTig a 

stone backwards and forwards. 
Tuaina hu-^ t6 settle, to clear itself. 
Tuana leu-, to settle. 
fahia Icu-t to repent of. 
Tabu ku-^ to repent. 
Tnfttnu, a storm, a tempest. 
Tufe, a ball. 
fuhwmu hu'j to accnse of, to lay to 

his charge, to suspect. 
Tut (M.) = Chuif a leopard. 
Tuij the oily juice squeezed out of 

the scraped cocoa-nut. 
Tuiliza ku-, to prolong. 
Tuja ku- (M.) ar Chuja hu-, to strain. 
Tvikd, posts of a verandah or long 

eaves. 
Tukana ku-, to use bad language 
"- to, to abuse, to address with in- 

sttlting or indecent expressions. 
Tukano, plur. matukano^ bad words, 

iiisulting or filthy language. 
rufeiafttt-,&c.(M.) = Ghukiaku-i&a, 
Tukia kw, to happen. 
Tukio, phst, tnatukio, a thing which 

happens, an accident. 
Tukiza ku-, to project. 
Tuktia ku-, Ac. (M.) = Chukua 
-tuhirfUj glorious, great, [ftt*-, &c. 
Tukuka ku-, to become exalted, to 

grow great. 
Tukiua ku-, to move, to shake. 
Tukuta ku-, to move about restlessly, 

id shake nervously. 
TdkuHza ku- (obscene). 
Tttkuza kw, to exalt, to make gi'eat. 
Tuliaku-, to become quiet, to settle 

down, t6 amend from a riotous 

slife. 
Ti^ia, don't make a noise. 
TuHa ku-, to grind with. See fua. 

Jiwe la kutulia, a stone to grind 
frith. 



Tulika kU', to be serene and tranquil. 
Tulilia kiir, to itettle down for or in 
regard to. 

Tamekutulilia f have you under- 
stood me ? 

Yamenitulilia, I hava 
Tuliliana ku-, to come to an agree- 
ment*. * ^ 
Tuliza ku-, to calm, to still. 
Tulizia ku-, to cahn for. 

Kutulizia roho, to calm, to console. 
Tutna ku-, to employ, to send about 

some business. 
Tuma ku- (M.) == Chuma ku-, to 
Tumaa kit-, to hope. [profit- 

Tumai ku- = Tumaa. 

Roho yatumai, I hope. 
Tumaini ku-, to be confident, to 

hope. 
Tumaimsha ku-, to make confident, 

to make to hope. 
Tumania ku-, to hope in, confide in. 
Tumba, a long rice-bag. 
Tumbako, tobacco. 

Kuvuta tumbako, to smoke. 

Tumbako ya kunuka or kunusa, 
Tumibasi, an abscess. [snuff. 

Tumbili, a small kind of light- 
coloured monkey. 
Tumbo, plur. maturribo, gut, belly, 
viscera, womb. 

Tumbo la kuenenda, diarrhoea. 

Tumbo la kuharadamu,dy8eniery. 
Tumhua ku-, to disembowel, cut 

open, pick a hole in, open (an 

abscess). 
Tunibuiza Jnt-, to soothe, to sing to, 

to sing by turns. 
Tumbuka ku-, to burs^, to be burst, 

Ac* See Tumbua* 
tufhhukia ku-, to fall into. 

Ametumbiikia, kinmani. He hM 
got into a dcrape. 

2 d2 



400 



TVU 



TUT 



Tumbtikiza Zfti-, to throw into, to 

oauBo to £eill into, to get a person 

into a scrape. 
Tunibulia kti-, 

Kutuinbulia nuuiho, to stare at. 
Tumibuu, a staple. 
Tunibuza hu-, to disembowel, to 

penetrate, to get through. 
Tumcy a messenger. 
Tumia Jcu-, to employ, to spend, to 

use. 
Tumika An«-, to be employed, to 

serve. 
Tumikia Zcu-, to be employed by, to 

serve, to obey. , 
Tumu, taste, tasting. 
TttfUtt, the month Bamathau. 
Tuna ku; &o. (M.) = Chunahu, &o. 
Tuna ku't to swell, to get cross. 
Tunda, plur. matuncUkf a fruit. 
Tundama ku; to gather, to settle at 

the bottom. 
Tundika ku-, to hang up, to be 

suspended. 
Tundu, plur. tundu or tnaiundu^ a 
hole, a cage, a nest. 

Tundu ya jjua, a nostril. 
Tunduaa ku-, to stand stockstill in 

wonder at, &o. 
Tun^a, a round open basket 
Tunga ku-, to suppurate. 
Tunga Jcu-y to put together in order, 

to string beads, to make verses. 
Tungama ku-, to clot, to congeal. 
Tungamana ku-, to be steady. 
Tungia ku-, to thread a needle. 
Tunguft ku-, to let down, to pull 

down, to hook down. 
Tunguka ku-, to be pulled or let 

down." 9 

Tungika ku-, tO depend upon, to 

han^ froni. 
Tungu (M.) = Chungu, ants. 



Tunguja, a common weed, a speoiei 
of solanum. 

Tungulia ku- (M.)- = Chungvlia Jbt% 
to peep. 

TuniAra ku- (M.), to lose the skin, to 
be flayed. 

Tunti, a rarity, a choice gift, a 
present. 

Tunuka ku-, to love excessively, to 
long for. 

Tunu^ia ku, to make a present to. 

Tunza, plur. matunza, care. 

Tunza ku-, to take care of, to look 
after, to make gifts to. 

Twpa, a file. 

Tupa, plur. matupa (M.), a bottle. 

Tupa ku-, to throw, to throw away. 
Kutupa nathari, or macho, to ce^ 

a glance, to cast the eyes. 
Kutupa mkono, to break off friend- 
ship. 

Tupia ku-, to throw at, to pelt with. 

Tupiza ku-, to pass its proper mea- 
sure or time. 

-tupu, bare, empty. It makes tupu 
with nouns like nyumba» See 
Utupu, 

Tupua ku-, to root out, to pull up. 

Turuhani, tare, allowance for pack- 
age, &c., in weighing. 

l!'uruina. See Maturuma. 

Turupuka ku-, to slip out of one'a 
^and. 

Tushiih, ascriptions of praise, a 
rosary, the beads used by Mo- 
hammedans in praying. See 
Tasbih, 

Tusha ku-, to lower, to make mean 
or low. 

Tushi, plur. matushi, abuse, bed 

. language. See Matus», - 

Xttstcira, a picture. 

Tuta, plur. matuta, a heapof i^artby 



TUT 



401 



a raised bed for planting sweet 

potatoes. 
Tutu! Leave it alone ! Don't touch! 

Used to little children. 
Tutvka ku-j or TtUu'mka or Tutu- 

ailca, to rise in little swellings, to 

come out in a rash.' 
Tutuma ku-t to make a noise of 

bubbling, to boil up. 
Tutumua ku-, 

Kujitutumuai to gather oneself 
up for an effort. 
Tuza ku-, or Tuuza ku-, to weep (of 
a wound). 

Kutnza damu (M.), to run down 
. with blood, to bleed exces- 
sively. ^ 
Tuza ku- = Tunza ku-. 
, Kujituza, to make oneself mean 

or low. 
Tuzanya ku-^ to come to an agree- 
ment (A.). 
•4w- = -tu-» 

Twa kuQU.) = Chwa ku-, 
Twaa ku-, to take. 

Kutwaa nyara, to take as spoil. 
Twalia ku-, to take from. 
TwcUiwa ku; to be deprived of, to 

have had taken from one. Used 

also in the sense of, to be taken. 
Twana kvr or Tuana ku-, to settle. 
Twana ku- = Twazana. 
Twanga ktt-, to clean com from the 

husk by pounding it in a wooden 

mortar. 
Twangia ku-, to clean com for, 

with, etc. 
Tujazana ku; to resemble in face, 

to be like. 
Tweka ku-, to hoist, to raise, to 

take up. 
Twesha ku-, to go by night to see 

any one*. 



Tweta ku-, to pai^t, to strive for 

breath. 
Tweza ku-, to despise, to hold in 

contempt. 
Twiga, a giraffe, a camelopard. 
Twika ku-, to put a load on a man's 

head. AleoTika, 

U. 

U is pronounced like oo in food. 

U before a vowel takes a conso- 
nantal sound, and may be written 
w. This change is not so marked 
before &u&8 before the other vowels. 
Sometimes both i*'s keep their vowel 
sound. XT before o is frequently 
dropped > 

Moyo = Muoyo, 

The syllable mu- is seldom so 
pronounced in Zanzibar; it becomes 
muj- or *m, or a simple w. 

L and u are sometimes appa- 
rently interchanged, as, 

Ufalme or Ufaume, a kingdom. 

Mlarigo or Mwango, a door. 

Nouns in tt- or to- generally lose 
their u- iu the plural, most of them 
substituting n- or ny- for it, but 
dissyllable nouns keep the u- and 
prefix ny; See N, 

The insertion of a -u- before the 
final -a of a verb reverses its mean- 
ing- 

Knfunga, to fasten. 

Kufungua, to unfasten. 

There is a suppressed I between 
4he u and the a (as always in 
Swahili between two consecutive 
vowels), which apt)ears in the ap- 
plied forms. 

KufunguUa, to unfasten for. 
- The passive of the applied formd 



403 



a 



UOH 



of verbs in -ua U'Visei also as the 
passive of the simple form. 

Kufunguliwa,io be unfastened, or 
to have unfastened for one. 

Kuua, to kill, is irregular, and 
makes its passive by adding -tra, 
huuawOf to be kille4* \ 

r7(Ar.),and. 

Uj thou art, it is, of nouns in u-, 
and of those which make their 
plural in mi-, 
U' or w-y the sign of the second 

person singular, 
U- or 10-, the personal prefix of the 
third person singular denoting a 
substantive iu u-, or one which 
makes its plural in mi-. , 
-tt-, or -tp-, the objective prefix de- 
noting a substantive in u-, of one 
that makes its plur^ in mi-. 
U- as a substantive prefix is used 
^ form abstract nouns, and also 
to form the mmes of countries, 
as, 
Unyilca, the Nyika country ; 
Ugaluj the Galla country ; 
Dzungu, the country of Eu- 
ropeans. 
Uoi TiU't to kill. 

Passive, Jiuuawa, to be killed, 
C7a, plur. maua, a flower, 
Ua, plur. nyuaj a yard, an enplosure, 
a fence. 
Ua wa mahtK^f an eucloaure fenced 

with mtama stalks. 
Ua wa mahutijSin enclosure fenced 
with plaited cocoa-nut Ipaires, 
Uanda^ a court, a yard. 
Uanda = Wanda, 
Uanja = Uanda, 
Uapo, plur. nyapo, an oath. 
Uawa fct*-, to be killed. 



UayOf plur. nyayq, the soIq ot tisTo 

foot, a footprint 
UbabwOf pap, a soft food for ^il- 
dren. 

Uha/u or Ubavut plur. ff^&ovu, a rib. 
Mlxi^vuni, in or at itp side» 

Uhaniy incense, galbanum. 

UhaiUi, nullity. 

Uhau, plur. mbau, a plank. 

Ubawa, plur, mhawa,& wiug feather. 

Uhazaxi, 
Kufanya ubazaxi, to make a bar- 
gaii». 

UhelekOf a cloth worn by women, a 
6ust(»aary present to the bride's 
mother ou the occasion of a 
wedding. 

Ubishi, a joke. 

Uhuyu, the inside of the calabash 
fruit 

Uchafu or Uehavu, fllthiness. 

Uchagaa = Ut<igaa. 

UchaXa, a raised stage to put oora 
&c. upon. 

Uchawif witchcraft, black magic. 
Kufanya ucham, to practise 
witchcraft. 

Uehij nakedness. 

Uchipuka^ plur. dhipuka^ a shoot, a 
blade of grass. 

UchochorOf a passage, opening be- 
tween, 

Uchovuy tediousnepa. 

Ucjiu, a longing. 

Uchukuti, the leaf stalk of the oocoa- 
nut leaf. 

Uchukuzij carriage, cost of carry- 
ing. 

Uchukwi, a kind of rice. 

Uchumi = JJ^u(.n4* 

Uchungu^ bitterness, pain, poison, 

UihungUj bitter. ' See -chungu. 
Dawa uchungu, bitter medicine. 



up A 

Udcika, babbling, telling secrets. 
Udevu, plur. n^^m^ one hair of the 

beard. 
TJdogOy smallness,' youth. 
Udongo, claj, a kind of earth used 

to i^lx with the lime and sand in 

making mortar. 
Ufa ku; to become cracked. 
U/a, plur. nyufaf a crack. 

Kutia Ufa, to crack. 
UfagiOf plur. fa^io, a brush, a bnxnn, 

a buBdle of the Imve» of a palm 

used to sweep with. 
Ufahamuy memory. 
Ufajiri = Alfajiri, 
Vfalmeoi ZT/awmc, kingdom, royalty. 
Ufiditoai a ransomu 
Ufisadi, vice. 
UfUki, vice, 
UJUo, plur. fUoy a thin stick, sticks 

such as those which are used as 

laths to tie the makuti thatch to. 
Ujizi, plur.^^t, the gums. 
Ufu, death, the state of being dead. 
Ufufulio or Ufufm, resurrection, 

revival. 
Ufukaraf destitution. 
Ufukwe, absolute destitution. 
Ufumhij valley, bottom. 
Ufunga, stone bench, = Kibaraza, 
Ufunguj relatives. 
ifftmguot plur. funguo, a key. 
UfuOy sandy beach. 
Ufutay semsem. 
UfuihuUt officiousness, 
Uga, an open space in a town where 

a house has been pulled down, or 

where a dance could be hetld. 
Ugali, porridge. 

UgangOj white magic, medicine. 
IJghaibu, the little packet of betel 

leaf, areca nut, lime, and tobacco 

made up for chewing. 



UKA 



403 



Uyo, enclosure, close. 

Ugomvif a quarrel, quarrelsomeness. 

UgonjioOf sickness; a sickness. 

Ugrcmi, a general collection of debts. 

Ugua hu-i to fall sick, to groaa. 

Ugumu, hardness, difficulty. 

Uguza hu-j to nurse, to take care of 

Ugioe, string. [a sick person. 

Uharabu, mischief. 

UharoiXL, warmth. 

UharibivUf destruction, destructive- 
ness. 

Uhtaji, want, thing wanting. 

Uhuru, freedom. 

UimhOf^hxr. nyirr^,^ song, a ballad. 

Uirari (in arithmetic), proportion, 
division of profits. See WorarL 

TJiziy theft, thieving. 

TJjahiliy boldness. 

Ujalifu, fulnesdi 

UJana, youth. 

Ujari, tiller-ropes, 

UJmzif building. 

Ujiy gruel. 

Ujima, help of neighbours, assist- 
ance in work. 

JJjinga^ rawness, dulness, ignorance. 

Vjio, coming. 

TJjira, hire, reward. 

UJumbe, chiefship, headsliip. 

Ujiivif knowingness, officiousness, 
pretended knowledge. 

UjiMi, defilement, whatever is re- 
moved by ablutions. 

Ukaango, plur. kaangoy an earthen 
pot for cooking with oil or fat 

TJkafu. 
Ukafu wa mqji, a bubble on 
water. 

Ukali, fierceness, sharpness. 
Kufanya ukali, to scold. 

Ukamhdaf plur. kambaa (M.), cord 
line. 



401 



tJKA 



UKU 



Ukamili/u, perfectness, perfc-ction. 

Ukanda, a strap. , 

Uh€u>j stay, stopping. 

Ukarimu, generosity, liberality. 

XTkaido^ delay. 

Ukaya, a long piece of blue calico, 
ofkeri ornamented with spangles, 
worn by slaves and poor women 
in Zanzibar over tbeir heads: 
it has two long ends, reaching 
nearly to the ground. 

Ukelele, plur. kelele, a cry, a noise. 
Akapigiwa ukelele, and a cry was 
made at him. 

Ukemi, a call (Mer.). 
Nipigie ukemiy give me a call. 

TJkengeU, a sort of knife made in 
Zanzibar. 

JJketo^ depth. 

Ukingo, the brink, a screen, an en- 
closure made with cloths. 

Ukiri, plur. Wrt, a strip of fine 
matting about an inch broad, out 
of which mikeka are made. 

UJciwa, desolation, solitude where 
people once were. 

Uko or Hukoj there. 

Ukoa, plur. k'oa, a plate of metal, 
one of the rings on the scabbard 
of a sword, &c. 

Ukoga, the tartar and dirt on the 

teeth. 
Ukohozif phthisic. 
Ukoka, grass cut for fodder. 
Ukoko, the rice on the top of the 
pot, which is often dry and 
scorched through the custom of 
pouring away the water when the 
rice is done and heaping live 
embers on the lid of the pot. 
Ukoko (A.), a cough. 
UkologefUf decay. 
JJkomOy leprosy. 



Ukornbaj a scraper, a curved knife 
for hollowing out mortars, &c. 

Vkombolewa, a ransom. 

TTkombozi pr Ukomboo, a ransom. 

Ukonde (wa tende), a (date) stone. 

Ukongwe, oldness, extreme old age. 

TTkonyezOy plur. konyezo, a sign made 
by lifting the eyebrow. 

Ukoo, nastiness, unoleanness (?>. 

Ukoo, ancestry, pedigree, family 
origin and connections. 

Ukopcy plur. to)pe, a hair fjiom the 
eyelash. 

TJkoBi^ the nape of the neck. 

Ukvbali, acceptance. 

Ukuhwat greatness, bigness. 

Ukticha, plur. kucha, a nail, a claw, 
a hoof. 

Ukufi, plur. kufif a handful, what 
will lie upon the hand. ^ 

Ukumhi, an apartment at the en- 
trance, a hall, a porch. The 
ukumhi is within a stone house 
and outside a mud house. 

Ukunibuka, recpllection. 

Ukumbusho, memorial, a reminder. 

VkumhuUf plur. kumbuu, a girdle 
made of a narrow cloth, a turban 
cloth twisted tightly into a sort 
of rope such as the turbans of 
the Hindis are made of. 

Ukundufu, pleasingness, oommo* 
diousness, liberality. 

Ukungu, mould, mouldiness. 
Kufanya ukungUj to get mouldy. 

UkungUf the first light of dawn. 

Ukuniy plur. kuntf a piece of firfe. 
wood. 

Ukurasaj plur. kurctsa, a leaf of a 
book, a sheet of paper. * 

tTkuta, plur. kuta, a stone wall. 

Ukutiy plur. kuti, a leaflet of the 
cocoa-nut tree. - ' 



UKtf 



tJMK 



405 



ITkuUf greatDess, size. ' 
Ukwajut a tamarind. 
Ukwasefu, nece8sity,havingDothing. 
Ukuoasty irealth, riches. 
UTewato, plur. hwatOy a hoof. 
JJlalo, a tvee or trees cut down so 

as to fall across a rivei; and make 

a bridge over it 
ZUajiy gluttony. 

Ulambiyavnhi, a very young dafu, 
UlaniH, a foul-mouthed person. 
JJlaya or WilaycLy home; applied 

especially to the home of Euro- 
peans, Europe. 
Ulayiti, European, inferior calico. 

Kamha ulayiti, hempen rope. 
TJlcy that, yonder. 
TJlediy a dhow boy, a cabin boy. 
Ulegevu, relaxation, the state of 

being slack. 
ZJlia ku-,, to kill for, with, &c. 

Tumulie mhalit let us kill him 
out of the way. ^ 

Ulilif a couch or bedstead (^Eianz- 

want)* 
Ulimbo, birdlime, gum, resin, 
Ulimbwendey dandyism. 
Ulimiy plur. ndimiy the tongue, a 

tenon, the heel of a mast. 
mimwenguj the world, the universf , 
a man's own world or circle of 
duties and pleasures. 

Kuwdko tUimwengunij to be alive. 
TJlingo, a raised, pkttform to scare 
TJlio, which is. [birds from. 

Ulitimaf the last three cards of the 

pack. 
Uliza ku; to ask, to inquire of a 
person. 

Kumuliza halt, to ask how he 
does. 

Siioezi kuuUzwa utocngoyl oannot 
tell a lie^ 



Ulizia ku'y to make inquiries on 

behalf of. 
Ulongo, falsehood. See Utoongo. 
Uma, plur. nyumaf a spit, a large 
fork, an awl. 

XJmawa kuokeanyama, a gridiron. 
Uma kth, to bite, to sting, to hurt, 

to give pain to, to ache. 
TJmaheli, ingenuity. 
TTmalidadiy dandyism. 
Umandey dew, morning air, mist, 

the west wind. 
Umasikini, poverty. 
TJmati, a multitude, peopla 
TJmati Im^ Christiana 
Umati Mtua, Jews. 
TJmati Muhammad, Mohammedans. 
TTmha ku-, to create, to shape. 
TJmba ku-, to bale out a boat. For 

Kumiba, 
JJmhaurnba ku-, to sway about like 

a drunken man. 
Umbo, plur. maumhoy form, outward 
likeness^ appearance, character, 
species. 

Najiona umbo la kuwa ktziwty I 
feel getting deafl 
Umhu, plur. maumhUy a sister. 
TTmbua ku-, to allege a defect, to 

depreciate. 
Umbwa, or better Mbicay a dog. 
-ume (or -lume); male, strong. It 
makes ndume with nouns like 
nyumha» 

Mkono wa kuume, the right hand. 
Umemey lightning. 
Umia ku'y to give pain to. 
Umika ku; to oup. 
UmiOy the oesophagus. 
UmitOy heaviness, feeling heavy. 
TTmiza ku-, to hurt. 
Umka ku-y to swell, to rise when 

leavened. 



40« 



UMK 



UPA 



Umhu (?) fet*-, to call. 
Umo or Humoy there inside. 
Umoja, oneoeM. 
ITmri, age, 

I7mn t^aZse apatqjef How old 
is be? 
t/mt^ i(ctf-, to take honey from the 

hive. 
Unoy yon have, thou hast, v 

Una nini f What is the mattejr 
with you ? 
UnazozitaJcaf which you aie asking 

for. 
Unda kn;io build ships or boat«. 
Undu, the comb of a cook. 
Unene, stoutness, thickness. 
Unenyeheot hunuUty, abasement, 

reverence. 
Unga, flour, powder. 

Unga wa ndere, a magic p(nson. 
Unga ku-t to unite, to splice, to join. 
Ungama, a place neajr Melinda, 

swallowed up by the sea. 
Ungama ku-, to acknowledge, to 

confess of one's own accord. 
Ungamana ku^t to bring together, 

connect 
Ungamo, a yellow dye used for 

dyeing mi^tting. 
{/n^na^tt-, to unite, to join together. 
Unge', the sign of the second person 
sing, ooitditional. 

Ungedwmu, you would eontinue. 

Ungekuioa, you would be. 
Ungi, much, plenty. 
Ungo, the hymen (?)» 

Kuvunja ungo, to be deflowered, 
to begtn to menstruate. 
Ungo, plur. maungo, a round flat 

basket used in sifting. 
Ungua ftu-, to be scorched or scalded. 
Ungiija, Zanzibar. 
Ungtilia ku-, to scorch oi; scald. 



Uhguza ku-^ to scorch or scald, to 

bum. 
Ungwana, the state of being a freo 

and civilized man, civilization. 
'ungwana^ civilized, as opposed to 
'thenzif firee, as opposed to 
-4urmpa, 

Kiungwana^ of a civilized kind. 
Unuele, or Unwele, or Unyd^ plur. 

nyeUt a hair. 
Unyago, See Kinyago, 

Kuehezea myago, to teach wo- 
manhood. 
Unyasi, reed, grass. 
Unyayo, plur. nyayo, the sqIq oi tlia 

foot, a footprint 
Unyele, See Unu^ 
Unyende, 

Kupiga unyende^ to ory with a 
feeble thin voice. 
Unyika, the Nyika country. 
Unyoa, plur. nyoa^ a feather. 
Unyo/u, straightaess, uprightness. 
Unyogovu, idleness. 
Unyonge, vileness, meanness. 
Unyungu. 

Kufiga unyungUf to strut about, 
to show oneself off. 
Unyushi, plur. nyushi, a hair from 

the eyebrow. 
Uo, plur. mauOt a' sheath. 
Uoga or Woga, fear, 
Uovu, rottenness, badness, corrup- 
tion, malice, evil. ^ 
Uozif marriage. 
Upaa, baldness. 

Upaa wa kiiwa^ crown of the 
head, baldness. 
Upaja^ plur. jjo/a, tlie thigh. 
Upajit liberality. 
Upamha, plur. paniba, a bill, a small 

hatchet. 
Upana, width, breadth. 



VPA 



UBA 



407 



Upande, plcpr. pande^ a side, p^rt. 
Upande lofi Mvita^ near or abo?it 

Momba(9. 
Upande wa chiniy the under side, 

the lee side. 
Upande wa juu, the upper side, 

the weather side. 
Upande wa go$hinif the side where 
the tack of the sail is fastened, 
the weather side. 
Upanga, a cook's comb. 
Upangat plur. panga, a sw^rd. 
Upanga wa/elegi,A long straight 
two-edged sword canried by the 
Arabs. 
Upanga wa imani, a short sword 

with a kind of cross hilt. 
Kuweka upanga, to set up a 
sword on its edge. 
Upao, plor. paoy one of the small 
sticks used a# laths to tie the 
thatch to. 
Upapi, the puter beading of a 4oor 

frame. 
Upataji, value. 

Upato,^9k round plate qf copper 
beaten QkS a musical instrument. 
Upawa, ^lur,pawa, a flat ladle made 
out of a cocoa-nut shell, used 
for serving out curry, gravy, &o. 
An iipatoa differs from a Icaia in 
being yeij much flatter and 
shallower: more than two- 
thirds of the shell are cut away 
to make an vpawa ; scarcely a 
quarter \a cat off in making a 
Icaia. 
Upekecho, the piece of wood used 

to make fire by rubbiug. 
Upeketevu, destmction, harm, quar- 
relling. 
Upeie, plur. pde, a large pimple^ 
FeU, the itch. 



UpemhOt curved end, hook, a stick 

to hook down fhiit with. 
Upetide^i, the habit of liking^ 
Upendavyoy as you please. 
Upenddeo, favour, 
Upenzi, ^ove, affection, liking. 
Upeo, plur. peo (M.), a sweeping 

brush. 
Upeoy the extremest point visible, 

the extreme limit, something 

which cannot be surpassed* 
Upepeo, plur. pepeo, a fan. 
Upepo, plur. pepo, a wind, orfd. 

See Pepo, The plural ijs used to 

denote much wind. 
Upesi, quickly, lightly. 
Upia = Upya^ newness. 
Upindij plur. pindi, a bow. 

Upindi wamvua, the rainbow. 
Upindo, a fold, a hem. 
Upo, a water-dipper for a boat or 

dhow. 
Upofu, blindness, 
Upogo, a squint. 
UpogoupogOf zigzag. 
Upolcy gentleness, meekness. 
Upondo, plur. p<mdOj a pole used to 

propel canoes and small vesselij. 
Upongoey plur. pongoe, the leaf stem 

of a palm tree. 
Upooza, paralysis. 
Upote, string, bowstring. 
Upotevu, waste, destruciiveness, 

wastefulness. 
Upuniba/u, folly. 
Upunga, plur. punga, a flower or 

embryo nut of the cocoa-nut tree. 
Upungu/Uj defect, defectiveness. 
Upupu, cow-itch. 

Upuzi, nonsense, chatter, silly talk. 
Upwehe, singleness, independence. 
Upya, newness. 
Urathi, contentment. 



408 



UEB. 



I7re/u, length. 

UrembOf ornament, applied espe- 
cially to the black lines painted 
on their faces by the women of 
Zanzibar by way of ornament. 

Uriihi, inheritance. 

Urango = Uwongo» 

Urothoy invoice. 

Urti^ diamdnds (in cards). 

Usafi^ shavings and chips* 

Usaha^ matter, pus. 

Usemi, talk, conversation. 

Ushadif plur. nyushadi, verses. 

Ushahidi, or Ushuhuda, testimony. 

UsharnbUio, haste, suddenly. 

Ushangd, plur. shanga, a bead. 

Ushariha^ partnership, sharing. 

Ushcmfu^ deceit. 

Usherati, dissipation. Also Asherati. 

Ushiy a string-course. 

Ushnjaa, heroism, great courage. 

Ushuhura, thanks. 

TJshungu^ a vegetable poison, used 
to poison arrows. 

Ushupafuy perversity, crookedness. 

Uehuru, tax, duty, customs. 

Usia ku-f to leave directions or 
orders, by will, &c. See Fcwia. 

Usikizif hearing, attention, under- 
standing. 

UdkUy night. The-plur. siku is used 
to denote. days of 24 hours. Four 
whole nights must be , rendered 
siku nne usiku kucha» Four days 
and nights, siku nne mchana na 
usiku. 

Unmanga^ mockery. 

Ueimeme, firmness. 

Ueingoh plur. singa, a (straight, not 
woolly) hair. See Singa, 

Usingizi, plur. singizi, sleep. See 
Zingizi. 

Usirii delay. 



UTE 

Udwa, on the high fiead. 

UsOf plur. nyuso, face^.countpnan<5e. 

Ussubuif for Assvhui, in the morning, 

the morning. 
Usubif a sandfly, a midge. 
Utufit silk cotton fi-om the mstifi 

tree. 
Usukanty plur. rnktmi, a rudder. 
Usultani, snltauship. ' 
UsumhOf see Makumhi. 
UtOy plur. nywta or maia, a bow, 
Uta. [bow and arrows. 

Mafuta ya uta^ semsem oil. 
rJtoa, a raised stage to put com, 

&c. on. 
Utabibuy medical science, being a 

doctor. 
Utagaa, a branch of a tree. 
Utajif a veil. 
Utajirij wealth. 
Utakacho, what you wish. 
Utakatifuy holiness, purity. 
Utaka (Mer.), keel of a dhow. 
Utambaai plur. tarnbcM, a bandage, 

a rag. 
Utambi, plur. tambi, a lamp- wick, a 

piece of stuff for a turban. 
Utambo {tea sufuria, &c.), a swing- 
ing handle like that of a pail. 
Utamvtutf end or corner of a turban, 

of a cloth, &c. 
Utandu (A.) = Ukoko. 
Utandul hymen. 
Utani, a kindred race, the belonging 

to a kindred tribe, familiarity. 
UtanzUy plur. ta^zu, a branch. 
Utashi, desire. 
Utoii, tonguetiedness. 
Utaioi. 

Kupiga tUawi, to drink grog to- 
gether. 

Ute wa yayi, the white of an egg.: 



UTB 



UWA 



409 



UteUziy' Blip^TineaB* 

Uternbe, the chewed refuse of betel 
leaf, &c. 

Utenzi, a poem, especially a reli- 
gious poem. 

Uteo^ plur. teQ (M,), a siftiug bas- 
ket. 

tJtepe, plur. tepe, a tapei a baud, a 
fillet;, a stripe. 

Utepetefu, l&nguor. 

UteH, strife. 

UihaMlif bravery, firmness. 

UthaifUf -weakness, infirmity. 

Uthanif weight. 

tfthi ku', to harass, trouble. 

Uthia, bothjBr, noise, uproar. 

Uthia hth, to harass. 

Uihibajit cheat, deceit, stratagem. 

Uthiica ku-y to be harassed. 

UtMli/u, calamity, great trouble. 

Uthuru kU', to excuse, . 

tJii wa maungOf the backbone. 
UHko, the roof-ridge of a thatched 

house. 
Utiriri, a provoking trick. 
UtofUf dull, without amusement, 
Uto/iit thinnes;8, weakness. . 
UtokOf mucus from th^ vagina. 
Jfto. 

Uto wa rpyama, fat cpoked^ out of 
3caeat,'drip]ping. 
Utonwa, thick white sap. . 
Utondwit Ismail -dhows <tr44ii^g about 

Zanzibar, coasters. * , : 

JJtosif tJiie top of the head. 
tliptOf childhood, 
UtufUr fatigue. 
ptfLhufu^ greatness, exaltation, 

glory^ 
VivXe, wretchedness, weakness, iin- 

fitne8s«> 
UtulivUf qiuetness, patience. 



Utumhwimf thickness, swelling, 

rising. 
UtumbuizOf a soothing thing, verses 

sung during a dance. 
Utume, sending people about, 
Utumi, use, usage. 
Utumo, business, place of business. 
Utumwa, slavery, employment,: en- 
gagement. 

Kutia utumwani, to enslave. 
Utungu (M.) = Uchungu, 

UtitngUi is used inthe dialect of 
Zanzibar only for the pains of 
childbirth, Utungu wa uzazi. 
Utupa, a species of euphorbia used 

as a fish poison. 
UtupUf naked (vulgar). 

Mtu tftupUf a naked man. .» 

Mtu mtupUf a ;nere maa. 
Uuaji, murderousness. 
Uudi, aloes \^ood. 
Uuza ku. See Uza kitr, 
Uvi, a door-[Tumbatu], 
UvivUi -idleness, sloth. 
UvuguvugUf lukewarmness. 

Mijji yana uvuguvugu^ the water 
is lukewarm. 
Uvuliy shade. 

Uvumba, incense, galbanum. 
Uvundo, a smell of corruption. 
Uvurujika, tendency to ciumble, a 

being spoilt and decayed. 
Uvurungu, hoUowness. 

Jtwe la uvurUngu, a hollow stone. 
Uvyazif birth. 
Uwartda, a plain. 
Uvoanga^ , arrowroot. 
TJvoanga^ a sweet dish made of 

wheat, flour, sugar^ And ghee. : 
TJwanja, a courtyard, an«6nclo8uxe. 
Uvjashiy masonry. 
Ptocrft, a-7esicular.eruptipa on tho 

skin. .' T 



410 



UWA 



TAL 



Uwas^rit the Tisii^bip. 
Utoelit sickness, disease. 

Uwdi wa vtungoj rheumatism. 
TTuoezo, power, ability. 
Uwinda, 
Kwpiga uwinda^ to pass the ends 
of the loin-cloth between tl^e 
legs and tnek them in, as is 
done loosely by the Banyans, 
and tightly by men at work. 
Uwingu, plur. mbingu^ heaven, sky. 
The pltfral is the form more com- 
monly need. 
Uujivu, jealousy. 
UtoongOf falsehood. 
Manenoye yamekuijod uwongo, he 
has become a teller of lied. 
UyqjiMpOy if yon know them. 
Uyoga, a mushroom* 
Uyuzi, ingenuity. 
Uyuzi hu', to ascertain. 
Uza hu-^ to ask, to ask questions. 
Uza ku- or Za ku-, to sell. 
The u in kuuza, or rather ^m, 
to sell, is very short and insig- 
nifieant : it is possibly only a 
partial retention of the ku-, 
which bears the accent and is 
retained entire in the usual 
tenses. The u* m kwiza^ to 
ask^ is mueh more important, 
as is shDwn dearly in the ap- 
plied forms. 
KwdiM», to ask of a person ; 

pres. perf. am«uUgcu 
KuUza, to sell to a peracm ; 
pres. pe^f. amlUa» 
Pzanya ku*t to be ordinarily mAd,^ 

to be for sale. 
Umtii birth. 
Uaee^ old age. 
Ui&aat6, indilferenee, apathy, slow- 



Uzif plur. nyutif thredd, fitfing, a 

strips. 
Uzikif poverty. 
Uzimdf health, heattiness, ($omptete- 

ness, life. 
Uzingizi. S^ Zingizi lind tltiiigizi, 
Uzinguo, disenchantment, as from 

the power of the evil eyei. 
Uzini or Uzinzi, adultery, fornica- 
tion. 
Uzio, plur. nyuziOf a hedge made in 

the sea to catch fish. 
JJzulid ku-f to depose. 
Uzulu ku-, to depose, to remove from 
an dfflce. 

KujiuzulUy to resigU, to give up a 
place or office, to abdicate. 
TJzuriy beauty, fineness, ornament. 

Kufanya uzuri, to adbrn oneself. 
Uztuihi, raising fik)m the t)6ttom, aa 

in fishing for peartd. 
Uzuzu, rawness, greenness (pf a 

simpleton). ' 



Fis pronounce as iu Engli^. 

F,/, and 5, are gbihetitfie^ k little 
difficult to distinguish accurately ift 
the dialect' of Zeiti^hsti. fhia is 
probably owing ^ to the Waut of a v 
in Arabic 

F apd ffy change iu some dialects 
into Z-, in others into th-. 

Mwivi, a thief, becomes «Itel^ at 
Lamoo, and Wixdthi at t*a€ta. 
Vaa kth, to put on, to dfe^ id. 

llie paiit teuflied ftfe^usedf iu th^ 
sense of, to wear. 

Awevaa, h^Weksrft 

AlivaOf he wore. 
Valia kU'. 



VAO 



TIT 



411 



MsMpi Vfa huvaUa nguoy a girdle 
to gird up one's clothes with. 

VaOf pkur. «mhnio, dtess. 

Varangoy interruptliig and bother- 
ing talk. 

Va»i, plur. mavaeif a dress, a gar^ 
ment. 

Vema^ well, Tory welL 

Vema or Vyenui, good. See -emA. 

Vi' or Vy*r the plnral prefix of sub- 
stantives (and of adjectives and 
pronouns agreeing with them) 
which maJce their singular in ^*- 
or cfe-. • 

F^ or Fy-, sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs governed 
bj nouns in vi- on vy^, 

Vi- or Fy- prefixed to adjectives 
often gives them oa adverbial 
sense. 

-vH the objective prefix represent* 
ing nouns in vi- or vy** 

Via hu; to stop short of perfection, 
to be stunted in its growth, to 
remain only half cooked for want 
of fire, &e,, &c. 

Viaa hu- = Vyaa h»-. 

Viatu (plural of Ki4Uu)y shoes, san- 
dals. 
'^Viatu vym KizungUf European 
shoes. 
Viatu vya ngosi, leather sandals. 
Viatu v^ya mti, wooden clogs. 

Vicui (plur. of Kiazi), sweet pota- 
toes. 
Viaei vy/i Kizunguy potatoesi» 
Viazi vikuUf yams. 

Ftbert^i (plur. of £i&en*a'),match&, 
lucifers. 

Vidani, collars of gold^ &ei 

Viem^ or Fyembe, arrows» 

VifaOi necesnties, «iefol thingft 

yigw$i.\ttMt reitts. 



ViJinenOf little words, prattle. 
Vika hu-j to clothe, to dress. 
Vtle, those yonder. 
VUevilej just those things, like 

things, in like manner. 
Vilia hu'9 to stc^ and stagnate, as 

the blood does in a bruise. 
VUio, a stagnation, a stoppage. 

MaviUo ya damu^ bruises, effusion 
of blood. 
Vivniba ku% to swell, to thatch. 
Vimbitiha ibii-, to overfeed a person. 
Vimbiuja Im-, fo be overstuffed, to 

overeat oneself. 
VimOf all of one size. 
Viru/a vya moto^ firebrands, sing. 

Kinga cha moto. 
Vingif many. See '■ingi. 
VvngiMy others. See -ngine. 
Vinjari ku-, to cruise about, to go 

looking out for something, to 

watch. 
Vinyavinya hu-, to press and crush 

food lor children and siok people. 
Vinyi. See Mwenyi, 
Vinyu = Mvinyo, 
Vioga hw (M.), to tread. 
Vumibo = Vycmbo, 
Viote or VyoU, all. See -oie, 
Vipande vya kuptmioy nautical in- 
struments, sextants, Ao. 
Vipele (plur. of Kipele% small 
pimples, a rash. 

VipeU vya harara, prickly heat. 
Viringa ku*, to become round. 

Imeviringih it is round. 
Viringana Xm-, to become spherical. 
Visha ku-f io give clothes to. 
Ftto, war. 

ViUmga vya mkaniy soales, scale- 
• pans. 

ViUndi vya ikaba^ brass wive. 
VUvm vitwoy topsy-tuivy. 



412 



VI V 



VUN 



Vivia hu-, to smoulder. 

Vivi hivit common, just .there, just 

BO, anyhow. 
''Vivui idle, duU, slow. 

Kisu ni kivivu, the knife is blunt 

(A.). 
Vivyo, thus, in the way mentioned. 
Vivyohivyo, in like manner. 
Viwimbi (plur. of Kiwinibi), wave- 
lets, a ripple. 
Viza feu-, to stunt, to prevent its 

attaining perfection, to interrupt, 

to stop or hinder in work. 
Vizia hu-, to watch, tp spoil one's 

work for one, to hinder one from 

working. 
Vizuri, fine, finely. See -zuri, 
Vua ku'f to take off clothes. 
Vua hu*, to save, to deliver, to take 

across. 
Vua ku'f to fish, to catch fish. 
Vuata hu' or Vwata &u-, to press with 

the teeth, to hold in the mouth. 
Vuaza hu-f to wound by striking or 

running into unawares, to cut. 
Vugfiza httr^ to put to (a door). 
Fttgo, a horn played upon by beat- 
Vv^a ku-, to leak, to let water, [ing. 
Vujia if*-, to ooze out 
Vuka kurj to cross, to go over, to 

pass<|t river, to be saved. 
Vtikey steam, vapour, ^weat. 
Vukiska ku-, to take across, to ferry 

over. ' 
Vukiza kit', to cause to fume, to 

give off vapour. 
Vukuta ku-, to blow bellows, 
Vukuto, sweat. 
Vule. 

Dudu vuU, an insect living iti 
wood, a carpenter bee (?). 
Vuli, shade. 

Mkono wa kumdiy the right hand. 



Vulia ku-, to eatch' fish for, or 

with. 
Vuma ku-, to blow as the wind, to 

buzz like a bee. 
Vuma ku-, to lose (in card-playing). 
Vumhiy plur. mawmbi, dust, flue, 

muddiness in water. 
Vumbika fcu-, to puMn under some- 

ihing, to stick into the embers^ to 

cover with a heap of leaves, &c. 
Vurnbikia ku-, to put seeds or plants 

in the ground before rain, to get 

them into the ground. 
Vumbilia ku-, 

Kuvumhilia vUa^ to get into a 
quarrel. 
Vumbu, plur. mavumbu, dumps in 

flour, &c 
Vumhua ku-, to find after a search, 

to discover. 
Vumi, a noise as of blowing or 

bellowing, often made with a 

drum. 
Vumilia ku-, to endure, to tolerate, 

to bear. 
Vumiiha ku-, to win (in card-play- 
ing). ^ 
Fttnafctt-, to reap. 
Vuna ku-, ^ 
' Kujivuna, to swell up, to be 

puffed up. 
Vunda, &c. = Vunja, &o^ 
Vunda ku-, to rot. 
^-vungu, hollow. 

Vunja ku-, to break, to ruin, to 
spoil, to change a piece of 
.^noney. 

kuvunja jungo, U) h&7e a final 
feast, as before Bamathan. 
Vunja jungo or chungu, a mantis 

(Mantis religiosa), so called fh>m 

tl|e 'superstition that a person 

touching it will break ih^ Oj^ 



Vuir' 



-WA- 



413 



piece of crockery or glass he 

handles. 
Vunj(a 1cu-j to break for, with, Sco, 
Vunjika &u-, to become broken. 
Vuruga ku-j to stir.^- 
Vurujika Aim-; to break up into frag- 
ments, crumble. 
Vurumisha ku-y to throw a stone, &c. 
VtuJia ku-, to put across, to ferry 

over, to put into the right way. 
Vuta ku', to draw, to pulL 

Ku\juta maji, to bale out water. 

Kuvuta mdkasia, to row. 

Kuvuta tumhako, to smoke to- 
bacco. 
Vuvia ku-f to blow. 
Vuvumka ku-, to grow up quickly. 
Vtiziy plur. mavuzi, a hair of the 

pubes. Also, (A.) hair in gene- 
ral. 
Vy- = Ft-. 
Vya, of. 
Vyaa fcu-, to bear children, or fruit. 

Pass, vyawa or vyaliwa. 
Vyake or Vyakwe, his, her, its. 
VyakOy thy. 
Vyaktila (plur. of Chakula), things 

to eat, victuals, meals, provisions. 
Vyaliwa ku-, to be bom. 
VyangUy my, of me. See -angu, 
Vyao, their, of them. See -ao. 
VyetUy our, of us. See ^etu. 
VyenUy your, of you. See -enu, 
"vyoox -vyo-y as. 

UpendavyOy as you please. 

Unipendavyo, as you love me, for 
my sake. 

AUvyoagiza, as he directed. See 
ginsi, 
VyOy^yOy 'Vyo-y which. See -o. 
• Vyo vyotCf whatsoever. 
Vyombo (plur. of Chombo), vessels, 

household utensils, baggage. 



W. 

W is pronounced as in English. 

TTis commonly in Swahili a con- 
sonantal tt, and in many words w 
or u may be written indifferently. 
There are other cases, as in the 
passive termination -iro, where the 
sound can only be expressed by an 
English w, 

W' — JJ-y which see. 
W'y the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by substan- 
tives either singular or plural 
which denote animate beings. 
Way of. See -a. 
Wa nini, why. 

Eamisi wa Taniy Tani's Hamisi, 
i.e. Hamisi, the sou of Tani. 
Wa Qi Uy the Arabic and. 
Wa I an Arabic exclamation. 
Fix-, the plural prefix of substan- 
tives in m-y *m-, or mvo- which 
denote animate beings. 
Wa-y the plural prefix of adjectives 
and pronouns agreeing with sub- 
stantives which denote animate 
beings, 
Wa-y the prefix marking the third 
person plural of verbs governed 
by nouns denoting animate be- 
ings. 
"Where the tense prefix begins 
with an -a- that of the personal 
prefix coalesces with it, so that 
there is no difference between 
the second person singular and 
the third plural. 
-wa- the objective plural prefix 
referring to substantives which 
denote animate beings. 
2 E 



414 



WA 



Wa Jcii-f to be, to become (?) : the 
ku- bears the accent and is re- 
taine(Lln the usual cases. 
The present tense of the substan- 
tive verb is generally repre- 
sented by ntor by the personal 
prefix standing alone. 
The present tense with the rela- 
tive is represented by the syl- 
lable 4i', AliyBf he who is. 
The present perfect amekuwa, &o. 
has the sense of, to have be- 
come. Was IB represented by 
the past perfect tense alikuioa, 
&c. 
Kmjoa na, to have. 
Simekuwa mwongo ? should I 
not be a liar ? 
Waa Tcu't to shine much, like the 

sun or the moon. 
Watty plur. mavjaOf a spot, a blotch, 

a stain. 
Wahba, cholera, 

Waboondei, the people living in the 
low country between the sea and 
the Shambala mountains. 
Wadit son of. 
Wadi Mohammedf Mohammed's 
son. 
Wadi feu-, to complete a term. 
Watu wa " London " wamewadi, 
the (H.M.S.) '* London's " com- 
mission has expired. 
Wadia leu-, to be fully come, to be 

quite time for anything. 
Wadinasi for Walad enncls, bom 
of people, that is, of decent 
family. 
Wadui, enmity, hostility. 
Wafihana ku-, to conspire together. 
Wafiki ku-, to suit, to be suitable 

to. 
Waga kw (Mer.), to kill. 



WAIi ♦ 

Wagunya, the Swahili living aorflx 

of Siwi. 
Wahadi, plur. nydhadi (?), for 

Ahadiy a promise. 
Wdhidy one. 
Wat ku-, to be in time. 
WainiM, verily. 
Wdjib, rightueas, it ought. 
Wajihi ku-f to visit, to see face to 

face. 
Wajihiana ku-, to meet face to face, 

to see one another. 
Wdka ku'f to blaze, to bum up, to 

bum. 
Wakati, time, season. 

Wakati huu, now. 
Wake or Wakioe, his, her, or its. 
Wakf, [See -cuke. 

Kufanya wok/, to dedicate, to set 
apart for holy uses. 
Waliia, the weight of a silver dollar^ 

about an ounce. 
Wakifu ku-, to cost. _ 

Wakifia ku-, to cost to. 
Wakilit an agent, a representative, 
Wako, thy. 
WakU = Wakati, 

Wakti gani nije f at what time 
am I to come ? 
Wala, nor, and not. 

Wala — toala — , neither — nor — ^. 
Where or would be used in 

English after a negative wala is 

used in Swahili. 
Walai or Wallaye, the most eom- 

mon Swahili oath. 
Walakini, but, and however. 
Waku), not even. 
Wale, those yonder. 
Wali, cooked grain, especially rice. 

Wali wa mwikuu, what is left 
from some meal overnight to be 
eaten in the morning. 



WAI*. 



WAT 



415 



Wdli, a governor. 

Ltwali for Al Waii, the gOTemor, 
18 more commonlj used in Zan- 
zibar. 
Widio, See Nyalio. 
Wcilio, they who are. 
Walimtoenguy the people oP iina 

world. 
Wallt, a saint 

Wama hu-, to lie on the &oe. 
Wamha ku-, to lace in the ropes 

upon the frame of a kitandaf to 

fill up. 
Wambiso, attachment. 
WanOt they have. 

Satoanat they have not. 
Wanda hu-, to get very fat and 

strong. 
Wanda^ plur. nyanda, a finger, a 

finger's-breadth. 
Wanga ku- (Mer.), to count, to 

reckon. ^ 

Wangaf one who uses witchcraft 

against another. 
Wanga, arrowroot. Also Uanga, 
Wanga or Wangtoa, a cliflF. 
Wangine, others, other people. 

Wangine — wangine — , some — 
others — . 
WangUf my. See -angu. 
Wangua ku-, to scoop up. 
Wangtoa, a desert, a bare waste 

plaee. 
Wangwana or Waungtoana, gentry, 

free and civilized men. 
Wanja. 

Wanja wa mangat antimony. 
TTano, plur. mawano, the shaft of 

an arrow or harpoon. 
TTao, they. 
Wa^, their. See -ao, 
Wapi i which people ? 
Wapi f or apt ? where ? 



Commonly joined with the per- 
sonal sign of the noun. 

Th loapi or Yiiko wapi i where is 
[he]? 

Zi wapi or Ziho wapi ? where are 
[they]? 
Wapilia ku-, to be laden with scent, 

highly perfumed. 
Wapo, a gift. 
Waradi, or Waredi, or Waridi, a 

rose. 
Waraka, plur. nyardka, a letter. 
Waria, a clever dhow-builder, a 

clever man at any business, 
Warr, a yard (measure). 
WcMa, plur. nyasa, small sticks to 

fill up between larger ones in a 

wall or roof. 
Wasa ku', to contradict. 
Washa kw, to light, to set fire to. 

Euvjasha moto, to light up a fire. 
Washaratiy great dissipation, licen- 
tiousness. 
Washenzij wild people, uncivilized 

men. 
TToOT, rebellion. Also Uati, 
Wasia, sentence, will, declared 

opinion. Also Wosia, 
Wasia hih, to bequeath, to make a 

will. 
Wasili ku-, to arrive, to come close 

to, to reach. 
Wasili, receipt, credit side of ac- 
count, i.e. the left-band column. 
WoMlia ku-, to reach a person, es;- 

pecially of letters. 
Wasilisha ku^, to cause to reach. * 
Wasio, who are not. 
Wasio = Wasia and Wosia, 
W€utani, middling, in the middle^ 
WoMoas, doubt 
Wathahisha ku-, to solve. 
Wathikif narrow. 

2 e2 



116 



WAT 



•WIL 



Watia hu-, to sit upon eggs. 

Watu, fenugreek. 

Watu (plur. of Mtu\ people. 

-a tDcUtiy other people's. 
Wavuy plur. nyavu^ a net to catch 

gazelles, &o. 
ITaiwZt, two, two persons. 

Wote vxtwHi, both. 
WaycLy an, earthen dish to bake 

cakes on. 
Wayatoaya ku-t to sway like a bongh 

loaded with fruit, to swagger, to 

be bent down and burdened. 
Wayo, plur. nyayo, sole of the foot, 

footprint Also Uayo. 

Waza hu-, to think, consider, reflect. 

WazaOf progeny, o£Espring, posterity. 

'^wazi, open, clear, manifest. It 

makes wazi with nouns like 

nyumha, 

Kitwa hiwazi\ bareheaded. 

Panalia wazi, it sounds hollow. 

Waziwazif manifest. 
Wazimu. 

Ana wazimu, he is ma4. 
Waziri, plur. mawaziri, a vizier, a 

secretary of state, a chief officer. 
Wazo, plur. matoazOf thoughts. 
'■we, hia, hers, its, for wake, 
'toe, thee, for weioe, 
Wea hu; to become the property of. 
Weka ku; to place, to lay, to put 
away, to keep, to delay. 

Nyumha hainiweki, I have no rest 
in the house, I cannot remain 
in the house. 
Wtkea ku', to put away for. 

Kuwekea amana, to entrust to. 

Kutcekea wakf, to dedicate. 
Weko, 

Kutia iceho, to weld. 
Wekua ku-, to break up, to remove. 
Weleko, a cloth worn by women. 



Wdi, sickness. 

Weli %oa macho, ophthalmia. 
WeUi, saintly, a saint 
TFetno, goodness. 
WembCf plur. nyenibe (?), a razor. 
Wenga kit-, to cause to break out 

into sores. 
Wengi, many. See -ingu 
WengOj the spleen. 
Wenuy your. See -enu, 
Wenzangu, my companions = Wa- 

enzi wangu. 
Werevu, cunning, shrewdness. 
Weu, a place cleared for planting. 
Weupe, whiteness, clearness, light 
Weupe, white. See -cwpc. 
Wevi or Wezi, thieves. See MvoivL 
Wewe, thou, thee. 
Weioeseka ku^, to talk and murmur 

in one's sleep. Also Weweteka. 
Weye, you I it is you. 
Weza ku-f to be able, to be a match 
for, to have power over, to be 
equal to. 

Siwezi, I cannot, or, I am sick. 

NaXikuwa siwezi, I was ilL 

Sikuweza, I was not able. 

Amehawezi, he has fallen sick. 
"Weza, See mweza. 
Wezekana ktt-, to be possible. 
Wezesha ku-, to enable, 
-m, bad (old Swahili and Nyam- 
Wia ku', to be to. [wezi). 

Niwie rathi, don't be offended 
with me. 

2. to have in one's debt. 
KumuHi, to be indebted. 
Wiboy Ibo. 

Wifl, husband's sister. 
Wika ku-, to crow like a cock. 
Wilaya = TJlaya, home, Europe 
-wili, two. It makes mhili with 

nouns like nyumba. 



WIM 



YAK 



417 



Wimbi, plur. mawimhi, a wave. 

Mawimbi, siu^. 
Winibi, a very small kind of grain. 
Winda hu- or. Wii^ga ku-, to chase, 

to hunt. 
Wingi = Ungif plenty, a great 

quantity, much. 
Wingu, plur. mamngu, a cloud. 
TFtno, iuk. 
WishwOy chaff, the husks of rice, the 

flour sifted off along with the 

husks. 
Witiruj odd, not even. 
Witioa (= Kwitfjoaf)^ the being 

called. 
Wiva ku- = Iva kt^* 
'Wivu, jealous. 
-wivu = -hivUf ripe. 
Witoa ku-y to owe, to be indebted 

to. 
Wiza, 

Mayayi mawiza^ eggs with 
chickens formed in them, hard 
set. 
Wo, -MJO, -vjo-y which, who, whom. 

Wo wote, whatsoever, whosoever. 
-«X), thy, = Wdko, 
Wogofya, plur. nyogofya, a threat. 
Wokovu, delirerance, salvation. 
Wongo, falsehood. Also Uioongo, 
WonyeshOf showing, display. 
TTorori, rateable division, sharing. 

Ar. Wora, to cast pebbles. 
Wosia, injuuQtion, sentence, charge, 

wise saying. Also Waaia, 
Wotey all, both. 

Ttoende wote, let us both go. 

Wote waioUif both. 
Wovisi, cool. 
Woweka ku-, to soak» 



Y. 

T is pronounced as in English. 

F is in Swahili a consonantal /, 
and it is often indifferent whether it 
be written ♦ or y. The use of y 
is however important to distinguish 
such words as kimia^ a cast-net, 
and kimya, silence. ^ 

The insertion of a y sound before 
the final -a of a verb has in many 
cases the effect of giving it a causa- 
tive meaning. See P. 

Eupona, to get well. 
Kuponya, to cure. 

Kuogopa, to fear. 
Kuogofya, to frighten 

r = i. 

F-, the prefix proper to possessive 
pronouns governed by singular 
substantives of the class whicii 
does not ciiange to form the 
plural, by plural substantives in 
nU', or by plural substantives in 

Ta, of. See -a, [ma-. 

Ya kitovu, in the naveL 
Ya kioamba, that. 
Yaninii Why? 

Ya-, sign of the third person plural 
prefixed to verbs governed by a 
plural substantive in ma-, 

-ychf objective prefix denoting 
plural nouns in ma-. 

Yaa ku-, to sow seeds. 

YdbiSy or Yabisi, dry, solid. 

Yai =5 Yayi, 

Yaikaku-, to melt. 

Yake or YaJcwe, his, hers, its. See 

Ydkini, certainly, certainty, it is 

certain. 
Yakinia kvr, to determine, te set 
one's mind upon. 



418 



YAK 



Z^ 



YakinUlia hu-^ to make certain. 
Ydko, thy, your. See -ako, 
fakowapit where are they ? 
Yahutij emerald (?). 
Yah, those yonder. 
Yaliomo, which are within. 
Yamho = Jambo, 
Yatniniy an oath. 
Yamkini, possibly, possibility. 

Kwa yamkinif possibly. 
Yanikini ku" (?), to be possible. 

Saiyamkinif it is not possible. 
Yamur, deer. 
Yange, See -ng^^ 

Yangedumu, they would remain. 
Yangu, my, of me. See -angu. 
Yani = Ya nini9 for what? why? 
Yao, their, of them. See -^lo, 
YoM, a yellow powder brought from 

India, and used as a cosmetic. 
Yatima, an orphan. 
Yamyavu, lights, lungs. 
Yaya, a nurse, an ayah. 
Yayh plur. mayayi, an eg:g. 

Yayi ya pumhUf testicles. 
re/ = /efHuUoI WeUI What 

npw? 
T«, -ye, or -y«-, sign of the relative, 
referring to animate beings, 
who, which, whom. 

Ye yote, whosoever. 

Yeekwayett common-place people. 
-ye, his, hers, -or its, =£ Yake, 
Yee or Yeye, he or she, him or her. 
Yet, a child's good-bye, ** ta-ta." 
Yemkini = Yamkini, ^ 

Yenu, your, of you. See -«nt». 
Yenyi, having. See -enyi^ 
Yetu, our, of us. See -etu. 
Yeyvika hu',io melt, to deliquesce. 
Yeyusha ku-, to cause to melt, to 

melt 
Yinyi = Yenyu 



•yo, thy, = Ydko. 
Yo, -yo, -yo-, sign oi the relative, 
which. 
Yo yoU, whatsoever. 
Yoe = Yowe, 
Yonga ku-, to sway, 
Yote, all. See -ote, 

Kioa yate, altogether, wholly. 
Yotoe, a cry for help. 

Kupiga yotoej to cry for help. 
Yut he or she is. 

Yu', sign of the third persoa sin- 
gular, referring to an animate 
being. It is used chiefly b^oie 
monosyllabic verbs and in the 
^Mombas dialect. 
Yuaja, he comes. 
Yttko, yumo, &e., he is there, 
within, &0, 
Yule, yonder person, that person. 
Yuma ku; to sway in the wind. 
Yuna, he has. 

Yungiyungi, the blue water-lily. 
Yuza ku-f to declare, to^make dear. 



2 is pronounced as in zany, the 
German 8, Z in some dialects takes 
the place of v or vy in that of Zan- 
zibar. 

Z is used by people who eannot 
pronounce th, for the Arabic iSsal, 
thod, toad dtha, SeeT. 

Z- or zi; the sign of the third person 
plural prefixed to verbs which 
are governed by plural substan- 
tives of the class which does not 
change to form the pluraly or of 
that which makes its singular 
iu tt-. 

Z-f the prefix proper to pronouns 



ZA 



ZID 



419 



governed by plural nouns of the 
class which does not change to 
form the plural, or of that which 
makes its singular in u, 

Za, of. See -a. 

Za hu; See Uza hu-, to selL . 

Zaa Jew, to bear, to breed, to beget, 
to bear fruii 

Zahadif civei 

ZaMbu, plur. mazahibu (?), grapes, 
raisins. 

Zabidi hu-, to take civet from the 
ngawa* 

Zabuni htt-, to buy. 

Zaburi, the psalter, a psalm. 

Zafarani or Zafrani, saffron, a wo- 
man's name. 

Zagaa kih, to shine, to glisten. 

Zaidi or Zayidi, more. 

Zaka, tithes. 

Zdke or 2a^toe, his, hers, its. See 

Zxfco, thy, your. See 'ciko, 

Zahula (A.) = Vyakutoy victuals. 

Zetfia kn-, to bear to. 

Zcduiha kth, to beget, cause to bear. 

Zcditoa ku-, to be bom. 

Zama ku-, to sink, to dive. 

Zamani, times, long ago. 
Zctmani za kale, old times, long 

ago, anciently. 
Zamani za Shanga, when Shanga 

flourished. 
Zamani hizi, nowadays. 
. Zamani zetu, our times. 

Zambarau, a klvd of fruit, in ap- 
pearance not unlike a large dam- 
son. 

Zamisha kth, to make to sinkr 

Zamu, a turn, turns* 
Kwa zamu, by turns. 

Zangefurif cinnabar. 

Zangu, my, of me< See -onpif. 



Zani, adultery. 

ZaOf plur. maza^, fruit, produce. 

Zoo, their. See -ao, 

Zaramho, a spirit distilled from palm 

wine, 
Zariy a precious kind of stuff, gold 

thread, gold brocade. 
Zaiiti ku-, to set in order, arrange, 

prepare for. 
Zatoa ktt', to be bom, 
Zawadi, a present, a keepsake, a 

rarity. 
Zawaridi, a Java sparrow, 
Zayidi, mcnre. 
Zazi (?), afterbirth. 
-26, his, her, or its, = Zake. 
-zee, old, aged. 
Zehakh, mercury. 
Zege, a dome. 

Zelabia, a kind of sweetmeat con- 
taining syrap. 
Zengea ku-, to seek for. 
Zenu, your. See -ent*. 
Zenyi. See -enyi, 
Zetu, our, of us. See -etn, 
Zeze, a sort of lute with three 

strings. 
Zi' = Z', 
'Zi; the objective prefix denoting a 

plural substantive either of that 

class which does not change to 

form the plural or of that which 

makes its singular in u-. 
Ztba ku; to fin up a hole in a wall, 

&C., to plug up, to stop. 
Zibana ku-, to be stopped up, to stop 

Itself up. 
Zibo, plur. 7na2t&o,aplugya stopper. 
Zibua ku; to unstop, to bore 

through. 
Zidi ku-, to increase, to do more 
than before. 

Kuzidi kujua, to know more* 



42d 



ZlD 



ZUA. 



Zidulia hu-, to make greatei', to 

add to. 
^ifuHt a cipher, a figme of nought 
Zika fctt-, to bury, to inter. 
ZikerezwazOy turnery, turned goods. 

See Kereza, 
Ziki, 

Kanzu ya ziki, worked "^th 
white cotton round the neck 
instead of silk. See Kanzu. 
Zihika %u-, to be impoverished. 
Zikwi, plur. t7i&M7t(N.)» » thousand. 
ZiUy those yonder. 
'zima^ sound, whole, healthy, com- 
plete. 
ZivML ku-, to extinguish, to put out. 

Kuzima roho, to faint. 
Zimia ku-, to put out. 
Zimika ku-, to go out, to be extln- 

g^hed. 
Zimiliza ku-, to rub out. 
Zimu, See Wazimu^ *Mzimti, Kip- 

zimUf Zimwi* 
Zimua ku-, to cool hot water by 

adding cold to it. 
Zimwif plur. mazimwi^ an ogre, 
a ghoul, an evil being which 
devours men, &c. 

Nazi ina zirmoif i.e. the cocoa-nut 
has grown without anything 
inside the shelL 
Zina ku-y to commit adultery. See 

Zini. 
Zindika ku-,, to hold an opening 

ceremony in, to open for use. 
Zindiko, an opening ceremony. 
Zindvka ku-, to wake up suddenly 

from a doze with a nod and a 

start. 
Zindukana ku-, to wake up sud- 
denly. 
Zinga ku-, to commit adultery (?). 
Zinga ku-, to roll up. 



Zingizi, sleep, great sleep. Also 
Usingizi, 

Zingizi la ku*mkomesha mzazi, a 
sleep which is supposed to put 
an end to all further child- 
luring. 
ZinguLia ku-, to relieve from the 

evil eye. 
Zini ku', to commit adultery or for- 
nication. 
Zira ku', to hate (M.). 
Zinki (M.) = RiziU. 
'zitoy heavy, difficult, severe, sad, 
clumsy, thick. 

Asali nzita, thick syrup. 
Zituo. 

Sana zituo, he never rests. 
Ziwa, plur. mazivoa, a lake, a pond^ 

the breasts. 
Zizi, plur. mazizi, a cow-yard, a 

cattle-fold, a stable, palisading. 
Zizi hizi, just these, common. 
Zizima ku-, to become very calm», 

very still, or very cold. 
Zizimia kU', to sink to the bottom. 
Zoy 'zo; ^zo-y sign of the relative, 
which. 

Zo co^,. whatsoever» 
'ZO, thy, = Zako» 
Zoa ku-, to gather into little heaps, 

to sweep together. 
Zoea ku-, to become aocustomed,;to 

become used to. 
Zoeza ku'y to aceustom to, to mske 
used to. 

Kvjizoeza, io practise4 
Zomari, a kind of clarionet, a pipe. 
Zomea ku-f to groan at 
Zongazonga ku^, to wind« 
Zote, all. See -ote, 
Zua kU', to pierce, to bore through, 
to innovate, to invent. 

Nimemzua, I have sucked him 



ZUI 



2UZ 



421 



dry, I have got all the informa- 
tion I can from him. 
Zuia hu't to hold in, to restrain, to 
hinder. 

Kuzuia pumzi, to stifle. 
Zuilia hvr, to hold for, to keep off, 

to hold in its place. 
Zuka ku-f to emerge, to rise. 
Zvlif perjury. 
Zvlia, a carpet. 
ZtUia hu'f to invent to, to make a 

false excuse to, to say falsely that 

one has such and such a message. 
Zulisha ku-t to make crazy, to 

flurry. 
Zulu ^, to be crazy. 
Zumaridf an ^nerald. 
ZumbUi, consolation. 
ZumhtM ku-t to find. 

Kuzurnhtta paa (A.), to take off 
thatch. 
Zumibukana ^, to be to be found. 



Zumgu'mza ku-f to amuse, converse 
with. 

Kujizumgu^mza, to converse, to 
amuse oneself. 
Zunguka kth, to go round, to sur. 

round, to wind round, to revolve, 

to wander. 
Zungukazunguka ku-, to stroll about. 
Zungusha ku-^ to make to go round, 

to turn. 
Zuri ku; to lie, to swear falsely. 
'zuri, fine, beautiful, handsome. 
Zuru kii', to visit. 

Kwenda kuzurUf to go to visit. 

Kuzuru kdburi, to visit a grave. 
Zurungi = JSvAhurungi, the brown 

material of which kanzus are 

made. 
Zuzua ku-f to puzzle a stranger, or 

a greenhorn. 
Zuzuka ku-f to be puzzled or be- 
wildered, not to know what to do. 



I • 



APPENDICES. 



( 425 ) 



Appendix I. 



Specimen of Kinyume, as written out by Johari, a native of the 
Bv^ahili coast a little south of Zanzibar. The Swahili is in the Merima 
dialect 

SWAHILL 

Jibuti 

Pu^, 

Ngamfya 

Nyutnha 

Jdk^p, 

Jdldfigo 

Mij^o 

Udongo 

Ngdki 

Darqfa 

Mwanamufce 

Uzingii 

Samghi 

Kwd% 

NcLziina 

Ntaktipa . 

Ntdhunyima 

Ma/chp 

Mguju 

Jttffigu, 

Naktiomba 



KiMTUMB. 


English. 


Mbeng'o 


An ox. 


Zimbu 


A goat. 


Ndapu 


A donkey. 


Tangami 


A camel. 


Mhanyu 


A house. 


Kamke 


A sleeping mat. 


Kdakita 


A bedstead. 


Ngomla 


A door. 


Ngomije 


Buildings (?). 


Ngoudo 


Red earth. 


Zinga 


A ladder. 


Jadara 


A staircase. 


Nomane 


Words. 


Siba 


That will do. 


Kemwanamu 


A woman. 


Ziuzingi 


Sleep. 


Kisama 


Fish. 


Likwe 


Truth. 


Manazi 


I lend. 


PUiku 


I will not give you. 


Paniaku 


I will give you. 


MarUakunyi 


I shall withhold from yon. 


Chama 


Eyes. 


Bumgu 


A leg. 


Nguru 


A club. 


Mbanahuo 


I pray you. 



r^t) 


AFPENDIX, I. 


SWAHILI. 

Njc^a inaniuma 
dfgo 


KiNYUMB. 


• 

Bl^OLlSH. 


Banja mainaniu 


I ache with hunger. 


Levido 


Fingers. 


NgosM 


The neck. 


Si hwhi 

Fifdi 

s4yo 


Lisikwe 


It is not true. 


Ndifu 


A master workman. 


Vyoii 


Not thus. 


Karatcdi 
Kalam 


Sikarata 


Paper. 


Mukala 


A pen. 


Wino 


Norn 


Ink. 


Pakifra 


Rapaku 


Dish up. 


Twende zetu 


Tuhoendeze 


Let us be off. 


Smendi 


Ndisene 


I am not going. 


Chaktia^ 


Lachaku 


Food. 


Utakwenda 


Ndautakwe 


You will go. 


Mchanga 


Ngamcha 


Hand. 


Samawati (At.) 


Timmawa 


Heaven. 


Aruthi (Ar.) 


Thiaru 


Earth. 


Mutu 


Tumu 


Man. 


Mungwana 




A free man. 


Mtumwa 
■ Sitaki 


Mwcmtu 


A slave. 


Kiiita 


I dislike it. 


Meza 


Zame 


A table. 


Btoeta 


Tahjoe 


Abox. 


Sanduku 


Kwandu 


A chest 


Kitahu 


Bukita 


A book. 


Msahafu 


FwBeaaha 


A Eorao. 



( 427 ) 



Appendix II. 



Specimens of Swahili correspondence in prose and rerse, containing: 
— 1. Two Swahili letters, the one on giving, the other on receiving a 
small present. The forms of address, &c., are those used in all letters, 
whatever their snbject may bo. 2. Two specimens of verses sent as 
letters, the first to excuse breaking an appointment, the second sent 
from Pemba by a Mombas man to his friends at home, who upbraided 
him for not returning. This form of writing is a very favourite one. 



Ilia jenib U moh^ rafiki yangu, bwana wangu, bwana mkubwo, 
p. S., salamu sana, ama baada ya salamu, nalikuwa siwezi siku 
nyingi, lakini sasa sijambo kidogo, ama baadahu, nim^ulete& kitoweo 
kidogo tafdthali upokee, nao k'uku saba'a, wa salamu, wa katabahu 
rafiki yako H. bin A^ 

To the honourable the beloved, my friend, my master, the great sir, 
D. 8., many compliments, but after compliments, I was unwell for many 
days, but now I am a little recovered, and after this, I have sent you a 
little hitaweo [i.e, something to be eaten with the rice or grain, which 
forms the bulk of all meals], and I beg your acceptance, they are seven 
fowls and compliments, and he who wrote this is H. son cf A^ 



nia jenib, il moh^, il akram, in nasih, D. S., il Mwingrezi, insha* 
Allah salaam aleik wa r^hmet Allah wa barakdtahu; wa baada, 
nakuarifu hali zangu njema wa thamek nawe kath&lik ya afia, wa 
zayidi amana yako ulioniletea imefika kwangu, ahsanta, Mwenyiezi 
Muungu atakujazi kheiri ukae ukitukumbuka, nasi nyoyo zetu zinaku- 



428 AF FEND IX 11. 

kmnbnka sana, tanapenda nje 'nti ya Unguja, wewe na bibi, naye aje 
tumwangalie, naye^aje atazame 'nti ya Unguja, nasi kolla siku tukilala 
tukia'mka tnnakaombea Mnnnga nje 'nti ya Unguja, taonane kwa 
afia na nguyn, nasi twapenda macho yetu yakuone wewe assnbni na 
jioni, na nsipokoja wewe, usitusahan kwa nyaraka allah allah. 
Nisalimie bibi mke wako salamn sana. Nasi tnnakntamani, kama 
tungalikuwa ndego tungaliruka tnkija tukaonane nawe mara moja 
tukiisba tukarudi. Nynmbani kwangu mke wangu salamn sana. M. 
bin A. aknaalimn sana, wa katabahu M. wadi S. 26 mwezi wa mfnngno 
kenda« 

To the hononrable, the beloved, the noble, the sinoeie D. 8., the 
Englishman, please God, peace be with yon and the mercy of God and 
His blessing ; and afterwards, I inform yon that my health is good, and 
may you be the same as to health, and further, your pledge which you 
sent me haa reached me, I thank you. Almighty God will satisfy yon 
with good that you may continue to remember us, and as for us, our 
hearts think much of you ; we wish you to come to the land of Zanzibar» 
you and the mistress, and let her come that we may behold her, and 
let her come that she may look upon the land of Zanzibar ; and we 
every day when we sleep and when we Vake pray for you to God that 
you come to the land of Zanzibar, that we may meet in health and 
strength, and we, we wish that our eyes should see you morning and 
evening, and if you come not yourself, forget us not by letters, we 
adjure you. Salute for me the mistress your Wife with many compli- 
ments. And we are longing for you, and if we had been birds we 
would have come flying to see you once and then return. At home my 
wife sends many compliments. M. son of A. salutes you much, and 
lie who wrote this is M. the son of S. 26 of the month Jemad al 
akhr. 



II. 

Eala es sha'irL The Verse says. 

Eisala enda kwa hima Go, message, quickly 

Kwa Edward Istira To Edward Steere, 

Umpe yangu salama Give him health, 

Pamwe na kumkhubira. Together with telling him, 

Siwezi yangu jisima I am ill in my body, 

Ningekwenda'tesira I would have gono readily 

Kumtazama padira To see the Padre, v 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 



APPENDIX II. 429 

Pamwe na Edward Stira. Together with Edward Steere. 

Ilimu ya Injili The doctrine of the Gospel— 

Yuaijua habara He knows how its news 

Pia yote kufasiU. To explain,— all of it 

Ni muhebbi akliyara He is a choice fdend, 

Kwetu sisi afthalL Especially in onr house; 

Edi ni mtu wa kwoli. He is a man of truth. 

Babbi, nipe tesira. O Lord, give me prosperity. 



Hatukiati kisiwa kwa uvambume na upembe 

Tukaifuasa hawa kulewalewa na ombe 
Ni mpunga na maziwa na kulla siku ni ngombe 

Twalalia kwa jivumbe, lipangine kwa ribani. 

We shall not leave the island for tale-bearing and plotting, 
And follow the fancy to be tossed on the sea. 

Here are rice, and milk, and every day an ox ; 

We sleep among perfumes, and strings of sweet basil. 



Swahili letters are always written with a string of Arabic compli- 
ments at the beginning, and Arabic words are fireely introduced 
throughout. In letter- writing kuarifu is used for to tn/onw, and 
kuuxmlia (not kufikia) for to reachj as in the phrase your letter has 
reached me — waraka wako vmeniwasilia, Swahili verses are written in 
au obsolete dialect full of Arabic words and foreign words generally, 
called Kingozi. It has not yet been studied by any European. Among 
its more remarkable peculiarities is the use of a present perfect made 
by a change in the termination of the Verb, similar to those in use in 
the Yao and in other languages of the Interior. Thus a poet may 
write mbwene for nimeona, and nikomile for nimekoma. Some speci- 
mens of this dialect will bo found in the poetry at the end of the 
** Swahili Tales.*' 



2 F 



; ( 431 ) 



Appendix III. 



Part of a Swahili tale with the prefixes marked and explained. It 
is printed first as in the main it would be written by a native ; next 
the compound forms are marked by hyphens and explained ; and last 
comes an English translation. 

Yule kijana akafuta upanga wake, akanena, mimi nitaingia humo I. 

The tale, of which this is a part, is called the HadiiM ya Waridt, II. 
na Ureda, na Jindi, na Sinebar, The portion of it here printed begins 
with a verb in the ka tense, because it is carrying on a narration 
al/eady commenced. The first words of the story aie—Aliondokea mtu 
tajiri. After this first verb in the li tense the rest are formed with kcu, 
unless they are constructed with a relative or particle of time or place, 
which cannot be joined with ka but only with li, 

YuLe^ that; demonstrative (p. 115) referring to a singular sub- 
stantive of the first class, kijana being regarded as the name of a 
person. Ki-jana, a young man or woman, here a man. A-ka-futa^ 
and he drew ; a-, sign of third person sing., appropriate to a noun 
of the first class or to any word denoting a living being; -ka-^ 
sign of the narrative past tense; -/uto, draw. TJ-panga^ a sword; 
ft sing, substantive of the sixth class. W-ake, his; possessive 
pronoun, third person sing.; w-, prefix proper to a pronoun agree- 
ing with a sing, substantive of the sixth class. A-ka-nena, and 
he said ; a- and -ka-, as before ; "nenat speak or say out Mimif L Ni- 
ia-ingia, I will go in ; ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense ; Hngia, go into, enter. Humo, in here ; a demonstrative 



The youth drew his sword, and said, *' I will go into this pit, whether III. 

2 F 2 



432 APPENDIX JIL 

I. dhimoni, nikafe ao nikapone. Akaingia, akamwona mtoto amefangwa, 
naye mwanammne. Akamwambia, nifungue nikupe khabari ya 
homo shimonL Akamfuugua, akaona vlchwa vingi vya watu. Aka- 



II. proper to the -n« case, when it denotes being, &c., within. Shimo-ni^ 
into the pit; «Atmo-, a singular noun of the fifth class; -m, sign of 
the locative case. Ni-Tta-fe^ and let me die ; m-, sign of first person 
sing. ; 'ha- and (p. 141) ; -/e, subjunctive form of /a, die. Ao, or. Ni' 
ka-pone^ and let me live ; ni- and -/co-, as before ; -pone, subjunctive 
form of pona, be saved. A^ka-dngia, and he went in; third sing., 
narrative past of ingia, go in. A'ka-muH)naf and saw him ; a-ka-t and 
he did ; -mto-, objective prefix proper to a substantive of the first class 
(mtoto) ; -ona, see. M-totOy child ; sing, substantive of the first class. 
A-me^fungtoa, bound ; a-, sign of third person sing., governed by a 
substantive of the first class (mtoto) ; -me-, sign of the present perfect, 
which is here used, as a sort of past participle : 'fwngwa^ passive of 
fungoy bind. Norye^ and he (p. 103). MuMma-m-^me^ a male ; «itr-, 
sing, prefix of a noun of the first class ; m- (for mu-)^ prefix agreeing 
with a substantive of the first class ; -ume, male ; the whole word, 
mioanamume, is used for a man, or any human being of the. male sex. 
A'kcMnw-ambia, and he said to him ; a-ka-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-muj-y subjective prefix denoting a person (kijana) ; -ambia, say to. At- 
fungue^ unbind me ; ni-, objective prefix, first person ; -fungue, impera- 
tive sing, of fungua, unbind. I^'i-ku-pe, that I may give you ; nt-, 
subjective prefix first person ; -fcu-, objective prefix, second person ; -pe, 
subjunctive of pa^ give to. Khahari, news ; sing, substantive of tijQ 
third class. F-a, of; ^-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of 
the third class (khabari). Humo, herein; a demonstrative agreeing 
with the -ni case when denoting toithin, 8himo-ni, in the pit ; -m, sign 
of the locative case. A-ka-m-fungtmf and he loosed him ; a-, ka-, third 
sing, narrative past ; -m-, objective prefix referring to a substantive of 
the first class (mtoto) ; -fungua^ unbind. A-ka-ona, and he saw, third 
sing., narrative past Vi-chioaf heads or skulls ; vi-, sign of a plural 
substantive of the fourth class ; vichwa is in more elegant Swahili vitwa. 
V'ingi, many; v- or vi-, adjectival plural prefix, marking agreement 
with a plural substantive of the fourth class (vichwa) ; -ingi or -ngi^ 
many« Vy-a^ of; vy-, marking the agreement with a plural noun of 



III. I die or live.*' And he went in and saw a boy, and he was bound. And 
[the boy] said, ** Unbind me, that I may tell you about what there is in 
this pit." And he unbound him, and saw many human skulls. And he 



APPENDIX IIL 4C3 

mwuliza, baWri gani hii? Akamwambia, mna nyoka humo, kazi I. 
yake kula watu, na mimi angalinila, lakini amenifanya mtoto wake, 
miaka mingi nimetoka kwetu. Akamwuliza, sasa yuko wapi nyoka? 



the fourth class (vichwa). Wa-tUy people ; too-» plural prefix first class. II- 
A-ha-mw-uliza, and he asked hun; a-, A»-, third sing, narrative past ; 
-mw-, objective prefix referring to a person (mtoto) ; -ulizaj ask or ask 
of. Habari or kkahariy news, sing, substantive third class. Oani^ 
what sort? jEKt, this; demonstrative denoting w sing, substantive of 
the third class (hahart). A-ha-mw-amhia, and he said to him; this 
word .is of constant occurrence, it means that one person told or said to 
another ; there is no mark of sex or means of distinguishing which 
person of several mentioned before was the speaker, these points must 
be gathered from the context. M-na, there is inside ; m-na is part of 
the verb kuwa na^ to be with or to have, used as it often is to denote 
mere being (p. 153) ; it answers to the English there is; there may be 
represented by liu-ypa-^ or m- ; the last is used where the place suggested 
is within something, it refers here to shimoni, in the pit. Ny-oka, a 
snake, a sing, substantive in the form of the third class, denoting an 
animate being. Humo, there within, referring to ehimoni, Kazi, work 
or employment, sing, substantive, third class. Y-ake, his ; y-, prefix 
agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third class ; -ake, possessive 
« pronoun, third person sing. Ku-la^ to eat ; ku-t sign of the infinitive ; 
-to, eat. Wa4uy people; voa-, plural prefix first class. Na, and. 
Mim% I or me. A-ngali-ni-la, he would have eaten me ; a-, third sing., 
agreeing with the name of an animal {nyoka) ; -hgali-, sign of the 
past conditional tense; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the first 
person ; -la, eat ; the tense prefix -ngali- cannot bear any accent, the 
word is therefore pronounced dngalinila, Lakini, but. A-me-ni-fanya, 
he has made me r a-, referring to nyoka ; -me-, sign of present perfect ; 
fit-, objective prefix, first person; -fanya, make. M-toto, child; m-, 
sing, prefix, first class. W-ake, his; to-, prefix agreeing with sing, 
substantive of the first class (mtoto). Mi-aka, years ; plural substan- 
tive of the second class (sing, mwaka) ; mi-, plural prefix. M-ingi, 
many ; «i- or mi-, prefix, denoting agreement with a plural substantive 
of the second class (miaka), Ni-me-toka^ I have left ; ni-y first person 
subjective; -?»«-, present perfect; -toko, go out of. Kvo-etu, home; 



asked, " What is this ? " And he said, " There is a snake in it, that eats III. 
men, and would have eaten me, but that it took me for its own son. It 
is many years since Heft home." And he asked, *' Where is the snake 



434 APPENDIX UL 

I, Akamwambia, twende, nikakaonye mahala amelala. Akamwainbia, 
twende. Walipofika, yule kijana akamkata kichwa kimoja, akatoacha 
pili, akamkata, hatta vikatimu saba. Wakanidi, wakaenda zao. 



IT. ^ ) prefix agreeing with a labstantive (perhaps nyumba) in the case 
in -ni ; -etu (ova), A-ka-mio-uUza, and he asked him ; a-,, third sing. 
(kijana); "ha-, narrative past; -mto-, third sing, objective (m/oto); 
-uUzat ask. 8a»a, now. Tu-ko, he is; yu-, sign of third person 
sing., referring to a substantive of the second class (nyoka); ^ko, 
denoting existence in space (p. 154). TTopi, where ? Ny-oka, snake ; 
sing, substantive. A-ka-mw-ambiay and he said to him. {See dbeve.) 
Tw-end€t let us go; tto-y sign of the first person plural; -ende^ 
subjunctive of enda^ go. Ni-ka-ku-onye, and let me show you ; nt-, 
sign of first person sing. ; -ka-, and (p. 211); -^u-, objective second 
person sing. ; -onye, subjunctive of onya, show. Mahala^ the place, 
the place where. A-me'lala, he is asleep; a-, third sing, animate 
(nycica) ; -ma-, present perfect ; •Zato, lie down to sleep, to go to sleep. 
A-ka-mw-ambia. (See above.) Tto-ende, let us go ; tw-^ first person 
plur.; 'ende^ subjunctive of encUiy go. Wa-li-po-fikoj when they 
arrived; tea-, sign of third person plural agreeing with substantives 
denoting persons (kijana and mtoto) ; -It- or -ali-y sign of the past 
perfect, or of past time generally when joined with a particle of 
relation ; -po-t sign of time when ; -fikaf arrive. YuUt that ; demon- 
strative denoting a person (kijana), Ki-jana, youth ; sing, substantive 
fourth class, but denoting a person, and therefore joined as here 
with pronouns and verbs in forms proper to the first class. A-ka^ 
m-kata, he cut him ; a-, third sing, of a person (kijana) ; -ka-, narra- 
tive past ; -«»-, objective prefix, referring to the name of an animal 
(nyoica) (see p. 112); -katOt cut or cut off. Ki-ehway head, sing, sub- 
stantive fourth class. Ki-rnqja, one ; /ci-, prefix denoting agreement 
with a sing, substantive of the fourth class (kichwa or kitioa) ; -moja, 
one. A'katoa, and he put forth ; a-, third sing., referring to] a sub- 
stantive denoting an animal (nyoka) ; -ka-, narrative past ; -toa, put 
forth. Cha pili, a second (p. 92) ; cA-, referring to a sing, substantive 
of the fourth class (kichtoa), A-ka-m-kata, and he cut him. (See above.^ 
Hatta, untiL Vi-katimu, they were complete ; vi-, third plural refer> 



I II. now ? " He said, ** Let us go and let me show you where it is sleeping." 
He said, " Let us go.*' When they got there the youth cut off one of its 
heads ; it put forth a second, and he cut it off, until he had cut ofiT 
seven. And they returned, and went on their way. 



APPENDIX III. 435 

Akamwftxnbia sasa twende zetu k^etu, lakini tuki^ka kwetu I. 
wenende wewe kwanza kwa baba yangu, ukamwambie kana mtotp 
wako nikikuletea utanipa ninl? Akikwambia, nitakupa mali yangu 



ring to nouns of the fourth class, here to vichvxiy heads, plural ofkichwa ; II. 
•ka-j narrative past ; -timu, be conlplete. Saha^ seven. Wa-ka-rudi^ 
and they returned ; loa-, third plural referring io persons (kijana 
and mtoto) ; -ka-f narrative past ; -fudiy return. Warka-enda z-ao^ and 
they went away ; tea-, third plural (kijana an^ mtoto) ; -ka-, narrative 
past ; -enda, go ; z-a^y their (ways) ; «-, a prefix denoting agreement 
with a plural noun of the third or sixth, or in the dialect of Lamoo 
of the fourth class ; -ao, their. Possibly zao agrees with njia, ways. 
(5etfp. 112.) 

A-ka-mw-amhia^ and he said to him. Sasa, now. Tw-ende z-etti, 
let us go away ; tw-y sign of first person plural ; -ende, subjunctive of 
enda, go ; z-, sign of agreement with a plural noun of the third or the 
sixth class ; -etu, our. {See above,) Kw-etu, home ; kw-y sign of agree- 
ment with the case in -ni- ,* -etu, our. Lakini, but. Tu-ki-fikay when 
we arrive ; <m-, sign of the first person plural ; -ki-, sign of the partici- 
pial tense (p. 136) ; -^A:a, arrive. Kw-etu, l^ome, W-enende, go ; w-, 
sign of the second person singular ; -enende, subjunctive of enenda, go, 
or go on. Wewe, thou. Kwanza, first ; originally the infinitive of the 
verb anza, begin; kwanza, to begin, beginniDg, and therefore first 
Kwa, to a person, or to his house. Baba, father. Y-angu, my ; y-^ 
sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the third class, used here 
colloquially with one denoting a person (habd) ; -angii, my (p. 109). 17- 
ka-mw-amhie, and say to him ; u-, sign of the second person singular ; 
-ka-, and ; -nno-, objective sign referring to a noim denoting a person 
(baba) ; -ambie, subjunctive of ambia, tell. Kana, if. M-toto, child. 
W-aJco, thy ; w-, sign of agreement with a singular substantive of the 
first class (mtoto). Ni-ki-ku-letea, if I bring to you; ni-, sign of the 
first person singular ; -ki-, sign of the participial tense (p. 136) ; 
'ku-, objective prefix referring to the second person singular; -letea, 
bring to. U'ta-ni-pa, you will give me ; «-, sign of second person sing. ; 
-to-, sign of the future tense ; -ni-, objective prefix referring to the 
first person singular; -pa, give to. Nini, what? A-ki-kw-ambia, ii 
he tells you; a-, sign of the third person singular referring to a 



And [the boy] said, " Now let us go to my home ; but when we are HI. 
getting near to it do you go first to my father and say to him, * If I bring 
your son to you, what will you give me ? ' If he says to you, * I will give 



436 APPENDIX III. 

I. nuBBu kwa nusfu, usikubali, mwambie nataka kofia yako uliyo nkivaa 
Qjanani mwako. Atakupa kofia ya thahabu, nsikobali, ela akupe 



II. peraon (hahd) ; -W-, sign of the participial tense ; -Zrtr-, objective prefix 
referring to the aecoud person singular ; -amhia, say to. Ni-ta-ku-pOf 
I will give you j ni-, sign of the first person sing. ; -to-, sign of the 
future tense; -kw, objective prefix referring to the second person 
singular ; -27a, give to. Mali, possessions ; treated sometimes as a noun 
of the third class, sometimes as a plural noun of the fifth elass. 
T-angu, my ; |-, sign of an agreement with a singular noun of the 
third or with a plural noun of the fifth class. Nussu, half. Ktoa, 
by. Nutsuy half. U-si-kiibaU, do not accept ; «-, sign of second person 
singular; -w-, sign of negative subjunctive (p. 147); -kubalt, sub- 
junctive of kuhali, accept. Mw-ambie, tell him; m^/^•, objective 
prefix referring to a person (})aha)\ -am&te, imperative of ambiay 
tell ; mw' is known to be the objective third person,^ and not the 
subjective second plural, by the form of the word amhia ; being an 
applied form it must have the object expressed. N-a-taka, I want ; n-, 
sign of the first person singular ; -a-, sign of the present tense ; -toAra, 
want. Kofltty cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. Y-ako, thy ; 
y-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. 
U-li-yOt which you, or which you are, or were ; «-, sign of the second 
person sing. : -M-, used for the substantive verb ; -yo, relative sign 
referring to a singular substantive of the third class {kofia). U-ki- 
vaoy putting on ; 11-, sign of the second person singular ; -ki-, sign of 
the participial tense ; -vaay put on. U-jand-ni, in youth ; «-, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -ni-, sign of the locative case. 
Mw'dkOj thy; mw-f sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning of in, A-ta-ku-pat he will give you ; 
a-, sign of third person sing, of a person ; -to-, sign of the future ; -ku-j 
objective prefix referring to the second person sing.; -pa» give to. 
Kofia, cap ; sing, substantive of the third class. T-a, of; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. ThaliabUf 
gold ; substantive of the third class. U-si-kubaliy do not accept ; u-, 
sign of the second person sing. ; -«»-, sign of the negative subjunctive; 
" 'kuhali, subjunctive of k^ali, accept. Ela, except. A-ku-pe, let him 
give you; o-, sign of the third person sing., referring tp a person; 



III. you half of all I have,' do not accept that, but say, * I want the cap which 
you used to wear in your youth.' He will give you a cap of gold ; do 
not accept it, unless he give you a cap quite worn out, take that. Ahd 



APPENDIX in. 437 

kofia mboyxi kabisa, hiyo pokea. Na mama' yangn mwambie nataka L 
taa uliyo ukiwasba ujanani mwako. Atakupa taa nyingi za thahabu, 
usikubali, ela akupe taa mbovnmbovu ya chuma, hiyo pokea. 



'hu', objective prefix, referring to the second person sing. ; -pe, sub- 11. 
junctive of pa, give to. KoflOt sing, substantive third class. M-hovu, 
rotten ; m-, being n- converted into m- by standing before -6 (p. 85), 
sign of an agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (kofla), 
Kabisa, utterly. Hiyo, this one; demonstrative denoting a thing 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (kofia). PoTceay receive : imperative sing, of pokea, receive. 
Na, and. Manm, mother : sing, substantive in the form of the third 
class denoting a person. Y-angu, my ; y-, sign of an agreement with 
a sing. substMitive of the third class, here used colloquially. Mw-ambie, 
tell her ; mto-, objective prefix referring to a person ; -ambie, imperative 
sing, of ambia, tell. Na-taka, I want ; n-, sign of first person sing. ; 
-a-, sign of present tense ; -taka, want Taa, sing, substantive third 
class. U-li-yo, which you, which you were or are ; -«, sign of the 
second person sing. : -li-, used for the substantive verb (p. 151); -yo, 
relative particle referring to a sing, substantive of the third class 
(tao). TJ-ki-wdsha, lighting; ti-, sign of second person sing.; -ki-, 
sign of the participial tense ; -washa, light. U-jand-ni, in youth ; «-, 
sign of a sing, substantive of the sixth class ; -»t, sign of the locative 
case. Mw-ako, thy ; mw-, sign of agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case with the meaning in. A-ta- kii-pa, she will give you ; 
Or, sign of third person sing., referring to a person ; -ta-, sign of the 
« future tense ; -feu-, objective prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
'pa, give to. Ta£L, lamps ; plural substantive of the third class (shown 
to be plural by the context). Ny-ingi, many ; ny-, sign of agreement 
with a plural substantive of the third class (ta^). Z-a, of; z-, sign of 
agreement with a plural noun of the third class. Thahahu, gold. 
U-si-kuhali, do not accept ; second person sing, negative subjunctive of 
kubali. Ma, except. A-ku-pe, let her give you; a-, sign of third 
person sing., referring to mama; -kur, objective prefix referring to 
second person sing. ; -pe, subjunctive of pa, give to. Taa, sing, 
substantive third class. M-hovu-m-bovu, all spoilt; m- (for'n- before 
-&), sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (taa) ; 



Bay to my mothet, *'I want the lamp you used to bum in yoxu* youth.' m. 
8he will give you many lamps of gold ; do not accept them, unless she 
give you an old worn iron lamp, take that." 



438 APPENDIX IIL 

Iw Wakaenda £ao hatta walipofika karibu ya mji, ytile kijana aka- 
mwambia, mimi 'takaa hapa, na wewe enende mjini kweta, nkafanye 
Bhurati na baba yangu kamma hiyo niUokwambia. Akaenenda. 
Alipofika akaooa mjini watu hawaneni, wana msiba rnkuu, akauliza» 



IL the adjective is doubled to show thoroughnesB. F-o, of; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class. Ch-uma, iron ; 
a sing, substantive of the fourth class ; it is used in the singular of iron 
as a metal, and in both sing, and plur. with the meaning of a piece or 
pieces of iron. Hiyo^ this one ; demonstrative referring to something 
mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, substantive of the third 
class (toa). Pokeoy receive ; imperative sing, of pokea. 

Wa-kaenda z-oo, and they went their way. (See above), SaitOy until. 
WcL-li-po-fihay when they arrived. {See above), Karilm yo, near to* 
2l-jiy town ; m-, sign of a sing, substantive of the second class. Tttle, 
that {See above), Ki-jana, youth. {See above), A-ka-mw-ambiaf said to 
him. {Ske above). Mimi, I. *Ta'haa, will stay ; to-, sign of the future, 
th^ prefix of the first person sing, being elided before it ; the sign of no 
other person can be so elided. Hapa, here. Na, and. ITetoe, thou. 
Enende, imperative sing, of enenda, go, go on. M-Ji'nf, to the town ; 
m-f sign of a sing, substantive second class ; -ni, sign of the locative 
case. Kw-etUf our ; hyj-^ sign of an agreement with a substantive in the 
locative case. V-ka-fanye, and make ; u-, sign of second person sing. ; 
"ka-t and ; -fanye, subjunctive of fanya, make. Shuruti, a covenant ; 
sing, substantive third class. JVo, with. Babay fSather. T-^tngu^ 
my. {See above, and p. 112). Kamma, as. Hiyo^ that ; demonstrative 
referring to something mentioned before, and agreeing with a sing, 
substantive of the third class {shuruti), NuU-o-kuMtmbia, which I 
told you ; nt-, sign of the first person sing. ; -It-, sign of the past tense 
which must be used with i^ relative; -o- (for yo), relative particle 
referring to $huruU (p. 117); -kw-, objective prefix referring to the 
second person sing. A-ka-enenda, and he went on. A-li-pa-fika, when 
he arrived. A-ka-owi, be saw. M-ji-ni, in the town ; mr, sign of a 
sing, substantive of the second class ; -ni, sign of the locative «ase. 
Wa-tu, people ; vja-, sign of a plural noun of the first class. Hatca- 
ueni, they speak not ; hatBO-, sign of the third person plural negative 



III, And they went on till they arrived near the town, when the boy said, 
^ I will stay here, and you go on into the town, to our house, and make 
the agreement with my father as I told you." And he went on and 
arrived in the city, where he saw the people not talking [but] in great 



'APPENDIX III. , 439 

msiba linu wa nini? Wakamwambia, mtoto wa Sultani amepote siku I. 
nyingi. Akauliza, nynmba ya Sultani ni ipi, nipelekenL Wakampe- 
leka watu. Alipofika akamwuliza baba yake, ima nini ? Akamwa- 
mbia, mtoto wangu amepotea. Akamwambia, oikikuletea utanipa 



agreeing with a plural noun of the first class (watu) ; -neniy negative II. 
present form of nena^ speak. Wa-na, they have ; third person plur. 
present of kuwa na, to ,have, governed by loatu. M-siba, grief; m-, 
sign of a sing, noun of the second class. M-kuUt great; m-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the second class (msibd). 
A'ka-idizay and he asked. M-^iba, grief. Huu, this ; demonstrative 
agreeing with a sing, substaiitive of the second class (msihd). TT-a, 
of; K7-, sign of agremeent with a sing, substantive of the second class 
(msibd), Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw-amhiaf and they said to him. 
M-ioto, the child. TT-a, of; w-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the first class (mtoto). Sultaniy tbe sultan ; a sing, sub- 
stantive of the fifth class, but when viewed as denoting a person 
constructed with adjectives and pronouns as of the first, A-me-potea, 
is lost ; third sing, present perfect of kupotea, to become lost ; he has 
become lost, i.e., he is lost. SikUf days; plural substantive of the 
third class. Ny-ingi, many; ny-, sign of agreement with a plural 
substantive of the third class (siku). A-ka-ulizay and he asked. 
Ny-umbay house; ny-, sign of substantive of the third class. Y-a^ of; 
^-, sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class 
(nyumha). Sultani^ sultan. Ni, is (p. 152). Lpi, which? t-, sign 
of reference to a sing, substantive of tbe third class (nyumha). Ni- 
pelekeni, take me; ni-, objective prefix referring to the first person 
sing. ; pelekeni, plural imperative of peleka, take. Wa-ka-m-peleka, 
and they took him. Watu, people. A-li-po-fika, when he arrived. 
A-ka-mw-uliza, he asked him ; observe here and elsewhere the use of 
the ka tense to carry on the narration, even where there would be no 
connective employed in English. Baba, father. Y-ak^, his. (See 
above). U-na nini, what is the matter with you ? u-na, second person 
sing, of the present tense of kil-wa na, to have; nini'i what? A-lia- 
mw-ambia, and he said to him. M-toto, child. W-angu, my. A-me- 



mourning, and he asked, " What is this mourning for ? " They told him. III. 
" The Sultan's son has been a long time lost." He asked, ** Which is the 
Sultan's house? Take me there." And the people took him there. When 
he reached it be asked the boy's father, ** What troubles you ? " He said, 
** My son is lost." And he oaid to him, "If I bring him to you what will 



440 APPENDIX in. 

. nini ? Akamwambia, nitakupa mall yangn nassu kwa nnssii. Aka- 
mwambla, marahaba. Akaenda akamtwaa, akaj.a naye. Allpomwona 
babaye na maxnaye, ikawa furaha kubwa mjiiil. Wakapenda aana 
yule kijana kama mtoto wao. 

Hatta alipotaka kwenda zake, yule kijana akarawambla, eneude 
kamwage baba na mama, mwamble akupe kofia na mama akupe taa. 



ir. potea^ is lost. {^See p. 132.) A-ha-mvo-ambia^ and he said to him. Ni-hi- 
ktirletea, if I bring to you. (/Sec above), U-tc^ni-pa, you will give me. 
(^See above), Nini\ what ? A-ka-mW'amhia, and he said to him. ^t- 
ta-hupat I will give you. Malit goodsf {See above). Y-angu, my. (See 
above.) Nussu, half. Kuja, by. Nussu, half. A-Jea-mw-ambia^ and he 
said to him. Marahaba, very good. A-ka-enda, and he went. A-ket- 
m-4waay and took him. A-ka-ja, and came. Naye, with him. A-li" 
po-mvHmaj when he saw him. Baba-ye, his father ; -ye, enclitic form 
of the possessive pronoun proper to the third person; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class, used here with 
one denoting a person (p. 111). Na, and. Mama-ye, his mother ; -ye, 
(See above), I-ka-wa, it was ; t-, sign of agreement with a sing, sub- 
stantive of the third class (furaha), Furaha, joy ; sing, substantive 
third class. Kubwa, great ; agreeing with furaha ; as n-, which would 
be the regular sign of agreement with a sing, substantive of the third 
class, cannot stand before k, it is omitted altogether (p. 85). 3f<;;t- 
ni, in the town ; m-, sign of sing, substantive second class ; -nt, sign 
of the locative ewe. Wa-ka-penda, and they (the father and motlier) 
loved. Sana, much. Yule, that Ki-jana, youth. Kama^ like. 
Mtoto, child. W-ao, their. 

HaUa, at last. A-li-po-taka, when he wanted. Kw-enda z-ake, to go 
away. (See above and p. 112). Yule, that. Ki-jana, youth. A-ka-mw- 
ambia, he said to him. Enende, go ; sing, imperative of en&nda, go. 
Ka-mw-age, and take leave of him ; kor, and ; -muh, objective prefix 
referring to a person ; if mw had been the subjective sec(md plur. the 
ka would have followed it ; m-ka-age = and do ye take leave ; -age, 



III. yo^ 8^^® ™® ^ ** ^® ^*^^» ** ^ ^*^^ S^^® y°^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ have." He said, 
*' I am content." And he went and took the boy and brought him. 
When his father and mother saw him, there was great joy throughout 
the town. And they loved that youth as though he had been their 
own son. 

Wheti at last he wished to go away, the boy said to him, *^ Gk> and 
take leave of my father and mother; tell him. tc give you the cap and 



APPENDIX IIL 441 

Akaenda, akawaambia, wakampa kofia nyingi^ akakataa akamwambia, ■ 
nataka biyo mbovu, wakampa, na mamaye akampa taa. Akawauliza, 
kofia bii maana yake nini ? WakamWambia, mtu aklvaa, haonekani 
na mtu. Akavaa asionekane akafurabi sana. Akauliza, taa bii 
maana yake nini? Wakamwambia, ukiwasba batta bapa watatoka 



imperative sing, of aga^ take leave of. Baha^ fatber. Na, and. II. 
jfamo, mother. MuHimbie, tell him ; mw-, objective prefix referring 
to a person ; -aTnbie, imperative sing, of am&io, tell. A-ku'pey that he 
may give you. Kofia, cap. No, and. Mama, mother. A'kurpe, that 
she may give yon. , Taa, lamp. A'ka-enda, and be went A-ha'-vjo^ 
ambia, and be told them (the ffttber and mother). Wa-ka-m-pa, and 
they gave him. Kofia, caps. Ny-ingi, many. A-ka-kataa, and he 
refused. A-ka-muHiwhia, and he said to him. N-a-taka, I want 
Hiyo, this one, {8ee above.) M-bovu, rotten. (See above). Wa-ka-m-pa, 
and they gave him. Na, and. Mama-yg, bis mother. (See above, 
under hahaye). A-ka-m-pa, she gave him. Taa, lamp. A-ka-wa-uliza, 
and he asked them. Kofia, cap. Eu, this ; demonstrative referring 
to a sing, substantive of the third class (kofia). Maana, meaning, 
purpose; sing, substantive third class. Y-ake, its; y-, sign of 
agreement with a sing, substantive of the third class (maana), Nini, 
what ? Wa-ka-mw-ambia, and they said to him. M-tu, person, any 
one (p. 16) ; m-, sign of sing, substantive of first class. A-ki-vaa, if 
he puts on. Sa-onekani, be is not to be seen ; ha-, negative prefix of 
the third person slog, referring to a person ; onekani, negative present 
form of onekana. Na, by. M-tu, any one (p. 16). A-ka-vaa, and he 
put on. A-si'Onekane, that he might not be seen : a-, prefix of third 
person sing, referring to a person (kyana); -8t-, sign of negative 
subjunctive ; -onekane, subjunctive form of onekana. A-ka-furahi, and 
he rejoiced. Sana, much. A-ka-uUza^ and he asked. Ta^ lamp. 
Mil, this. Maana, purpose. Y-ake, its. Nini, what? Wa-ka-mw- 
ambia, and they told him. U-ki-toasha, if you light Satta, as far as. 
Hapa, here. Wa-ta-toka, they will come out; wa-, sign of third person 



my mother to give you the lamp." He went and told them, and they III. 
gave him many caps, but he refused and said, " I want that wom-out 
one ; " and they gave it to him, and the boy's mother gave him the 
lamp. Then he asked, ** What is the object of this cap ? " And they told 
1dm, '* When a man puts it on, no one can see him." He put it on so as 
to become invisible, and was very glad. " And he asked, What is the 
object of this lamp ? *' And they told him, " If you light it as fiir as this, 



442 APPENDIX IIL 

I. wain wawili wakntUie thaliabn nyambani mwako maka kndia, na 
ukiwasha hatta hi^ watatoka wata wawili waknpige kwa vigo- 
Dgo Qfllka kncha. Akanena, marahalML Akaforahi saDa, akaenda 
sake. 

II. plnr. refemng to a plural Bubstantive of the first claes (watu). Wa'fuj 
people. Wa-toUi, two ; wa-, sign of agreement with a plor. Bubetantiye 
of the first class (watu). Wa-hu-tilie, that they may put for you ; wa-^ 
sign of third person plur. referring to a plnr. substantive of the first 
class (wcUu) ; -hu-j objectiye prefix referring to the second person sing. ; 
-ftZte, subjunctive form of fo7*o, put for. Thdhahu^ gold. Ny-tmbd-ni, 
in house ; ny-, sign of substantive of the third dass ; -ni, sign of 
locative case. Mw-dkOj thy ; mw-^ sign of agreement with a noun in 
the locative case denoting toithin, Unku, night. Ku-chay dawning or 
sun-rising ; used after usikuy it means all night until the morning 
comes. Nay and. U'hi-washa, if you light Hatia, as far as. Hapa, 
here. Wa'ta-toka, they will come out. Wa-iu, people. Worvnli, two. 
Wa-ku-pige, that they may beat you ; -pige, subjunctive form of piga. 
KtJoa^ witii. Vi-gongOf cudgels: ri-, sign of a plural substantive of 
the fourth class ; ki-gongo is a diminutive (p. 19) of gongoy a stafil 
Usikti, night. Ku-cha, till morning. A'kcHntna^ and he said. 
Marahaba, thank you. A-ka-furdhi^ and he rejoiced. /Sana, much. 
A'ha-enda z-ake, and he went away. 



III. two men will come out and bring you gold into your bouse aH night 
long; but if you light it as far as this, two men will come out and beat 
you with cudgels all night long." And he thanked them, and rejoiced 
very much, and went his way. 



( 443 ) 



Al^E^DlX IV« 



USEFUL AND IDIOMATIC PHBASES. 

The first fifty-four were collected towards a book of conversations, 
which was begun with tbe help of our lamented friend, Mrs. G. E. 
Drayton; the rest, which are arranged in alphabetical order, were 
noted from time to time, either as likely to be useful in conversation, 
or as illustrating some special rule or i/iiom. 

1. How many fowls have you there ? 

Unao h*uku ngapi ? 

2. What do you want for them? 

Kian gani unakuza (At how much do you sell) ? 

3. Have you any eggs? 

Unayo mayayi f 

4. I will not give more than a pice apiece for the eggs. 

NUahupa pesa moja tu kununua yayi, sitatoa zayidi (I will 
give you one pice only to buy an egg^ I will not give more). 

5. I don't understand you, say it again. 

Sema mara ya pili, stkusikia. 

6. Let me hear it ag^in. 

8ema mara ya pUi^ nipate Icusikia (Say it a second time, 
that I may get to understand). 

7. Fetch me a basih for the eggs. 

Letee hakuli nitie mayayi. 

8. Bring the basin with the eggs in it. 

Letee hakuli lenyi mayayi, 

9. I don't want any to-day, come to-morrow* 

Leo Htaikif njoo kesho, 
10. Are lemons cheap now ? 

Mdlimao rahigi tata f 



444 APPENDIX jr. 

11. I won't buy tbem, tliey are too dear. * ^ 

Sitaki kununua, ni ghalu 
1% What do you want? t 

Wataka nini f 
ik I don't know what you want 

Sijui uUtdkalo. 

14. Where do you come from ? 

Watoka wapi ? 

15. Don't wait ; I will send an answer immediately. 

Enenda zako, usingojet majibu yaiakuja tasa liivi (Gro your 
way ; do not wait for an answer, it will come immediately). 

16. Is your master at home ? 

Bwana yupo f 

17. Master is not at home ; he is gone out. 

Bwana hako (or hayuko) nyumhani ; ametoka. 

18. Where are you going ? 

Unakwenda vjapi f 

19. I have lost my way. 

Nimepotea, njia sijui (I am lost; the way I don't know> 

20. Will you guide me to the English mission ? 

Ncfiaka unionyeshe mosketini Ingreza f 

21. Can you understand English ? 

Wewe utwjua mantno ya Kiingreza f 

22. I cannot speak Swahili [of Zanzibar], 

Sijui kusema Kiunguja. 

23. Did the water boil ? 

Maji yameche^mka f 

24. Does the water boil ? 

Maji yanache^mka f 

25. These plates are not clean. 

Sahani hizi zina taka* 

26. Wipe them carefully. 

Futa vema kwa kiiambaa. 

27. Sweep this room well. 

Fagia vema katika ehumha htkL 

28. Dust the furniture. 

Pangusa vurribi katika vyombo, 

29. You have cracked that cop. 

Umekitia ufa kikon^ kite. 

30. Throw it away. 

Katupa. 

31. Fetch me the vinegar, the pepper, and the salt. 

Niletee siki, na pilipili, na chumvL 



APPENDIX IV. 445 

S2. Don't make so much noise. 
Usifanje uthia, 

33. Put a fresh wick in my lamp. 

Tia katika taa yangu ulamhi. 

34. Fold up the table-cloth smoothly. 

Kunja vema kitamhaa cha meza, uiikivunje (Fold well the 
cloth of the table ; spoil it not). 

35. When you have swept the room put on clean clothes. 

Kamma umekwuha hufagia, vaa ngtto tafi, 
^ 36. Take this to Miss T. 

Chukua, updeke kwa bibi T. 

37. You have put all these books upside down ; turn them. 

Umepindua vyuo hivi vyote, uviweke upande mgine. 

38. Leave that alone ! 

Acha f 

39. Come here, I want to speak to you. 

Njoo hapa, *nna maneno nitakioamhia (JL have words I will 
say to you). 

40. Get ready to go for a walk. 

Fanya tayari upate hwenda kutemhecu 

41. Are you ready? 

Umekuwa tayari f 

42. Which way shall you like to go ? 

Njia gani utakao kupita f 

43. How far is it to your shamba ? 

Kadri gani nibdli ya sltamha lako haUa kufika (How much 
faxness of your shamba till getting there) ? 

44. Not very far ; perhaps an hour's walk. 

Si mhali sana, lahuda ikipata saa mqja, 

45. Shall you walk, or ride your donkey, or sail ? 

Utakwenda kwa miguUf ao utapanda punda, ao utakwenda 
kwa mashna ? 

46. We will go round the town and home by the bridge. 

Tutazunguka katika vnjiy halafu turudie darajani (Then let 
us return by the bridge). 

47. Bring me some hot water after breakfast. 

NUetee maji ya moto, nikOsha kula, 

48. Half a bucket full. 

N%m ya ndoo, 

49. Turn the mattress over every morning. 

Geuza killa tiku godoro^ ehinijuu. 

50. Turn it top to bottom. 

Upande huu uioeke upande wa pili. 

20 



446 APPENDIX IV. 

51. I am very glad to see yon. 

Vmependa moyo wangu hukutazama, 

52. What ship is that? f 

Marikebu gam Mi f 

53. Has she cast anchor yet ? 

Imetia nanga f 

54. Ko, she will come nearer the shore. 

BadOf inakuja karibu ya pwanX. 

55. A good man does not desert his firiends when they fall into 

difficulties. 
Mtu mwema hawaachi rafiki zdke toakipcUika na thidda. 

56. Are you idle ? 

AH mvivu ? 

57. At what time shall I come ? 

Wakti gani nije ; 

58. Did he stay long ? 

Alikaa sana 1 

59. No, he went away directly. 

JS4a, alikwenda zdke mara. 

60. Does he drink wine ? 

Hunywa divai f 

61. He does not. 

Hanyvji. 

62. Does this boat leak ? 

Mashua Mi yavuja f 

63. Do not draw water from the well, the owner forbids it' 

Usiteke maji kinmaniy mtoenyewe agombeza. 

64. Don't jerk this rope ; if you do it will break. 

Kamha Mi usiikutue^ tikikuttut itakatika, 

65. Eat as much as you like. 

Kula kadri utakavyo. 

66. Find me a large hen. 

Kanitaftia koo la k^uku. 
(>7. Follow this road. 

Fuaia [or andaTrui] njia Mi, 

68. I want you to follow me. 

Nataka uni/iuUe [or uniandame], 

69. Give it only to me and not to them. 

Nipe mimi tu^ usiioape toale. 

70. Go and see if the people have collected. 

Kaangalia watu fjoamekutana, 
7L Go and stop that talking. 

Enenda kakomesha maneno haya. 



APPENDIX IV. 447 

72. Stop this outcry. 

Mdkeide haya ydkome (Let these cries cease). 

73. Go away, whoever you are. 

Enda zako, hadri utdkaokuwa, 

74. Guard yourself, I am going to hit you. 

Kinga, tahupiga. 

75. Has he a large box ? 

Ana kasha ? 

76. He has. 

Analo hasha. 

77. Have you a pipe at home t 

Kiko kwako kiko ? 

78. He built a bridge across the river. 

Alijenga honth katikati ya mto. 

79. He built a mosque by the river, and endowed it with a shamba 

near ours. 
Alijenga moskiti ng^arnbo, akawekea wakf shamba karihu 
shamba Utu. 

80. He described Mombas as It was in early times, as it is now, and 

as it will be a hundred years hence. 
Aliandika Mvita ilivyokuwa kwanza, ilivyo sasa, na itaka* 
vyokuwa kwa miaka mia, 

81. He does not believe me though I saw it. 

Hanisadiki ningawa nimeiona, 

82. He had the toothache. ^ 

Alikuwa na jino likimwuma. 

83. He has been abroad many years. 

Alikuwa safarini miaka mingi, 

84. He has presence of mind. 

Moyo wake uwapo. 

85. His mind is absent. Hapo ati. 

86. He is a troublesome fellow to deal with. 

Ana taabu kuingiana naye, 

87. He is absorbed in his own thoughts ; even if you speak to him he 

takes no notice. 
Tu katikafikara zakwe; ujaponena naye hawepo, 

88. He is here. 

Yupo hapa, 

89. He is not here. 

Hapo hapck 

90. He is yonder. 

Yuko kule, 

2o2 



448 APPENDIX IV. 

91. He is not there. 

Hdko hvXe, 

92. He is not yet dressed. 

Bajavaa, , 

93. He left us about ten days ago. 

Alitwacha kadri ya (or kama) siku humi. 

94. He ought to be beaten. 

Aihtaji kupigwa, 

95. He pretends to be satisfied, but do not trust him. 

Ajifanya kutca rathi, usimvjamini, 

96. He rose up from his chair. 

Aliondolta kitini kwake, 

97. He runs as fast as he can. 

Anakwenda mhio kama awezavyo, 

98. He says he will walk on the water ! 

Ati atakwenda mtoni kvsa miguu ! 

99. He that hateth suretyship is sure. 

Mtu asiyekuhali kuthamini ni katika amani. 

100. He that is not against us is with us. 

Mtu asiyekuwajuu yetUy hassi yeepamoja nasi. 

101. He that is not with us is against us. 

Adyekuroa pamoja ruui^ hassi huyu juu yetu. 

102. He tried to make himself agreeable, and he succeeded. 

Alijipendekeza ndipo akapendeza, 

103. He was changed from a man into a horse. 

Altbadiliwa mtu kuioafrasi. 

104. He was more energetic than his father. 

Huyu alikuwaakiweza zayidi ya haha yaJie. 

105. His non-appearance is unaccountable. 

Kutowekana kwake haitamhulikanu 

106. His self-conceit is no good to him. 

Majivuno yalce hayamfai neno. 

107. How are your household (i.e. your wife, daughters, &c.) ? 

U hali gani nyumbani kwako, y 

108. How far is it across the island ? 

Kupataje mhali wake hapa hatta pwani ya pili f 

109. A fast walker would take from sunrise to the middle ot the afternoon. 

Akiondoka mtu assuhui hatta alaairi^ alio hodari kwendii^ 
kujika. 

110. How long has he been Ml ? 

Tangu lini hawezi f 

111. How long ago was his illness^ 

Tangu lini alikuwa hUwezif 



APPENDIX IV. 449 

112. How pleasant I 

Imependeza* 

113. How glad you must have been to hear that you were to go home. 

Furaha ipi mwaliposihia mwende zenu hi^nu, 

114. I am amusing myself with a book. 

Najizumgumza na chuo. 

115. I am here. Nipo Tuipa, 

116. I am never without pimples. 

Vipele havinitoka hdbua. 

117. I am sleepy. 

Ninao usingizi. 

118. i cannot hold in this horse. • 

Siuuezi kuzuiafrasi Jiuyu, 

119. I cannot see so far as you can. 

Sioni nibali, kama waortavyo^weioe, 

120. I don't like his way of tying it. 

Sipendi ginsi afungavyo, 

121. I don't see what you show me. 

Sioni ulionyalo. 

122. I don't see it, though he does. 

Slioni angawa aona. 

123. Take care, though you don't see it. 

Kaangalia, ujapo hukioni. 

124. I feel myself at home. 

Hujiona niko kwetu, . ^ 

125. Make yourself at home. 

Usifanye hayoj hapa kama kvoalio (Feel no modesty, hero is 
like your home). 

126. I gave him good advice, though he would not take it. 

Nimemwonya itlakini hakiumyeka. 

127. I had almost left off expecting you. 

Nalikaribia kukata tamcLa ya kukuona. 

128. I had lost my way, andJcame out close to your shamba. 

Nalipotea njia nikatokea shamhani kwako. 

129. I have asked him again and again, but he will not tell me. 

Nimemwuliza mara kwa mara lakini hctnambii, 

130. I have gained a hundred dollars. 

Nalipata fayida reals mia, 

131. 1 have made you my mark, if you step over it, look out (a common 

defiance). 
Nimekupigia mfuo wangu kiuka toangalie, 

132. I know where he is. 

Namjua niahali alipo. 



450 APPENDIX IV. 

133. I pray God not to visit it upon me. 

Naomba Mwenyiezi Muungu CLnnipatUize» 

134. I saw the flash of the gun, but did not hear the report 

Ntmeona mtoanga, lakini Hhusihia mzinga hulia, 

135. 1 shall go by sea as far as I can. 

Nitakwenda kwa hcifuiriy hatta italmponifikithcL 

136. I shall go for a walk to stretch my legs. 

Kitdkwenda tenibea kukunjua migutL 

137. I thought myself a king. 

Nalikuwa nihiioaza nimekutoa SvXtani. 

138. I will shut the door that he may not go out 

Nitafanga ndango aeipate kupiicL 
130. If he strikes you, hit him again. 

Akikupiga, navje mpiga tena. 
140. If you had been here he would not have been beaten. ' 

Kama ungalikuwapo hapa, hangalipigwa. 
1J:1. It c]ei)ends upon his coming. 

Kuna atakapokvja, 

142. It is bad weather. 

Kumekaa vibaya. 

Bakicendeki, 

Haiokeki. 

143. It is being hawked about by a salesman. 

Kinatemheztoa kwa dalali. 

144. It is not there, though you say it is. 

Hakipo, ungawa wasema kipo. 

145. It is time for us to go. 

Imekuwa wakati wa eui ktoenda zetu. 

146. It is quite time for us to go. 

Imeioadia wakati toetu wa kwenda zeiu, 

147. It was a secret, but it oozed out. 

Yalikuwa liahari ya siri, ikatokeza» 

148. Let him go. 

Mwacheni enende. 

149. Moslems are forbidden wine. 

Waslimu wameepwihwa divai. 

150. Much self-exaltation ruins a man's position in the world. 

Majivuno yakiwa mengt ya^mvunjia mtu cheo. 

151. Nothing I do pleases him. 

Killa nafanyalo halimpendezi (everything which^ I do 
pleases him not). 

152. Whatever I do he finds fault with me. 

KiUa nafanyalo hunitia kliatiyani. 



AFFE'NDIX IV. 451 

153. Put the water on the fire. 

Kateleka maji, 

154. Sit down. 

Kaa kitaho. 

155. Don't get up. 

Starehe. 

156. The baobabs are now coming into leaf. 

8iku hizi mtbuyu inachanua majanu 

157. The fields are flourishing. 

Koonde imeUtawu 

158. The music is first-rate. 

^ Ngoma inafana, 

159. The news has spread. 

Khabari zimeenea. 

160. Spread the news. 

Zieneza khciSdri. 

161. The people who went to Bardera are come back. 

Watu toalioktoenda Baradera, wamekuja zao. 

162. The room wants darkening. 

Chumha chataka kutivoa giza. 

163. The top of this mountain is inaccessible. 

Juu ya rnUma huu haupandiki. 

164. They [the trees] are almost all dead. 

Kama kwamba Uiokufa yoie, 

165. They are badly stowed. 

Mapakizo yao mdbaya, 

166. They cut the boat adrift. 

Wakakata kamba ya mashua ikachuktdiwa na maji. 

167. They like giving and receiving presents. 

Hupendelea kupana vUu. 

168. They shut themselves up in the fort 

Wakajizuia gerezani. 

169. They told me what he had done. 

Walinamibia alivyofciiya. 

170. They were fighting, and I passed by and separated them. 

WalikutDa wakipigana>, hapita mimi nikatoaamua^ 

171. This chest mustbe taken care of. 

Kasha hili la kutunzioa, 

172. This has been worn. 

Nguo hit imevaliwa, 

173. This tree is not so tall as that. 

Mti huu si mrefu kama ule. 



452 APPENDIX IV. 

171. "Upon your oath ! 
Utaapa ! 

175. Wash me these clotl^es. 

Nioshee nguo hizi. 

176. The clothes have been washed. 

Nguo zimeosheka. 

177. I have washed myself. ' 

Nimenavjika. 

178. Wash me I Noshel 

179. We attacked them and they fell into confusion. 

' Twaliwashambulia, wakafazaika. 

180. We like his company. 

Kikao choke chema (his sitting is good). * 

181. What do you earn by the month ? 

Upataje killa mwezi ? 

182. What is become of him ? 

Amekuwaje f 

183. What is this news about Ali ? 

Hohari gani tuzisikiazo za Ati I , 

184. What are you talking about ? 

Maneno gani mnenayo I 
Muktatha gani f 
Mnenani f 

185. What will you ferry me over for ? ' 

JJtanivusha kwa kiasi gani ? 

186. When I have seen Mohammed^ I will give you an aikswer. 

Ifikiisha mwona Mohamadiy nitakupa Jaioabu, 

187. Where is the knife I saw you with yesterday ? 

Kiko wapi kitu nalichokuona nachojana f 
188 Where is the pain 1 

Mahali gani panapoUma f 

189. Where is your pain ? 

Wauma wapi t 

190. Who is in there? 

Mna nani f 

191. Tfou cannot teach him anyhow. 

Kadri u^mfunzavyo hajui. 

192. We do not know whether he wilt not learn, or whether he cannot. 

Eatujui ya kwamba hataki kujifunza ao hana akili za 
kujifunza. 

193. You have made this thread too tight. 

Uzi huu umeutia kossi mno. 



APPENDIX IK 45 J 

194. You ought to love him very much. 

Wastahili kumpeiida sana. 

195. Kuamba na kusengenya. To talk of a pei'sou beliimi his back, and 

secretly to make contemptuous signs about him when 
^ present. This phrase is often used as a test of a stranger's 

knowledge of Swahili ; what it describes is counted as a 
special sin. 

196. To ask a man his name. 

Oh ! Rafiki yangu namhie jina laho (Oh ! my friend, tell 
me your name). Wajuaf hwana wee, tumeonana mimi 
nawe, jina lako nimelisahaUf tafdthal namhie jina lako 
(You know, sir, you and I have met [before], but I have 
forgotten your name, please to tell me your name). 

When you have heard it, say — Inshallahy sitalisahau iena 
(Please God, I shall not forget it again). - 

197. A polite question and answer at leave-taking. ' 

Unayo haja Una ? (Have you any further desire ?) 
Eaja yangu ya kuitthi wewe sana nafuraha (My desire is 
that you may live long and happily). 



456 APPENDIX^ r. 

On the mainland, dollars and pice are taken freely on the coast and 
main lines of traffic, and rupees are met with ; but elsewhere, silver 
dollars only, and such objects of barter as calico, brass- wire, beads, &c. 

2. Meiuuret of Length, 

There is no exact standard or relationship of mea8un>8 of length. 
Those in common use are merely taken from parts of the hiunan body, 
viz.: — 

Wanda, plur. nyanday a finger's breadth. 

Shtbiriy a span, the distance between the tips of the outstietohed 

thumb and little finger. ' . 

M&ritay a slightly shorter span, from the tip of the thumb to that 

of the fore-finger. 
Thiraa or Mkono, a cubit, the distance from the finger-tips to the 
elbow joint. Of this again, there are two varieties : — 
Thiraa hamili, or full cubit, as just described, and — , 
Thiraa hcmdey or fist cubit, from the elbow-joint to tho 
knuckles. 
TTon, or yard, is one half of the— 

Pima^ a man's height, or the distance' he can stretch with his 
arms, a fathom. A doti is a measure of similar length. 
The uayoy or length of the foot, Arab J&hatua^ is also used occa- 
sionally, and the English foot, futi^ regularly by Indian carpenters and 
iu other trades. Approximately, the relations of these measures may 
be tabulated thus : — 

1 wanda = 1 inch. 

8 or 10 nyanda =*1 shibiri hamUi = 1 quarter-yard. 

2 shibiri = 1 thiraa or mkono = 1 cubit or half-yard. 
2 thiraa = 1 wari = 1 yard 

/2 wari = 1 pima i = 1 fathom. 

Distance is loosely estimated by the average length of an hour's walk- 
ing. Punga, which lies almost exactly halfway across the island of 
Zanzibar, at a distance of perhaps twelve miles, is described as a walk 
of four hours, 9aa *nne ; and Kokotoni, at the north end of the island, 
distant perhaps twenty miles from Zanzibar, as a walk of at least 
six hours, 9aa sita. On the mainland, a day's march is a common but 
vague measure of perhaps twenty miles. 

3. Measures of Weight 

For gold, silver, silk, scent, and other costly, articles, the unit la the 
vjdkiaf or weight of an Austrian silver dollar, almost exactly an ounce. 
For the names of fractional parts of any imit, see '* Handbook," pc 93 ; 



APPENDIX r. 457 

but the weight of a pice is often used as a convenient though inexact 
measure of small quantities. 

For heavy articles, the usual unit is a rdtel, or ratili^ equal to 16 
toakia, and corresponding to one pound. 
16 wakia = 1 rdtel. 
3 rdtel = J^mani. 
6 rdtel = 1 pishi. 

6 pishi = 1 frasila, about 35 lbs. avoirdupois. 
10 frasila = 1 mzo. 
Hence, 64 frasila or 6| mizo may be regarded as = 1 ton. 

4. Measures of Capacity, 

No fixed liquid measure is used by the poorer classes. Shopkeepers 
sell their oil, treacle, &c., by tin-ladlefuls (Jtikombe\ or by the bottle 
(c&tt/Mi), or by the tin, t.e. the tins in which American oil is imported 
to Zanzibar (tandki, iini, also debs). 

Corn (nafaka) or dry measure is, of course, of great importance in a 
country where grain is the staple of food and chief article of coujmerce. 

The smallest unit is the — 

- Kibabay a measure of perhaps a pint. 

Kihaba cha tele, if the measure is heaped up — the usual pro- 
ceeding. 
Kibala cha mfutOt if cut off flat. 
2 tibaha (vya tele) = 1 kisaga. 
2 visaga = 1 pishi, about half a gallon. 

The pishi connects the measures of capacity and weight, and for 
some of the common dry commodities, such as chiroko and kundi, the 
pishi may be regarded as equivalent either in capacity to 4 vibaha, or 
in weight to 6 rattli. 

Grain is sold wholesale by the kanda^ or sack of grass-matting, or (if 
from India) by the gunia, a wide sack. The gunia often weighs about 
168 lbs. The kanda varies, both with the kind of grain and the place 
from which it is imported. For instance, while at Kwale, Mgao, and 
Mvita, towns on the Swahili coast, the kanda of rice at times contains 
10, 11, or 12 pishif and the kanda of Indian com 10 pishi, at Pangani, 
Tanga, and Mtang'ata the kanda of rice will contain 15, 16, or 17 
pishi, and the kanda of Indian corn 13 or 13J pishi. 

Various other terms are in use for different commodities, e.g. pol(« 
are sold by the korja, or score ; stone for building by the boma, a heap 
which may weigh 4 cwt. to 5 cwt. ; lime by the tanuu (clamp) or kikapo ; 
calico by the jura, 35 yards ; and various other things by the " mzigo ** 
ox load. 



458 



APPENDIX r. 



5. Points of the Compass. 



North 
N. by E. 
N.N.E. 
N.E. by N. 
N.E. 

N.E. by E. 
E.N.E. 
E. by N. 
East 
E. by S. 
E.S.K 
S.E. by E. 
S.E. 

S.E. by S. 
B.S.E. 
S.byK 
South 
S. by W. 
S.S.W. * 
S.W. by S. 
S.W. 

S.W. by W. 
W.S.W. 
W. by S. 
West 
W. by N. 
W.N.W. 
N.W.byW. 
N.W. 

N.W. by N. 
N.N.W. 
N. by W. 



Jaa. 

Faragadi MatlaL 
Nash MatlaL 
Kagr Matlai 
Luagr Matlai 
Dayabn Matlai. 
Semak MatlaL 
Seria MatlaL 
MatlaL 
SoBa MatlaL 
Tiri Matlai. 
Lakadiri Matlai. 
Lakarabn Matlai. 
Hamareni Matlai. 
Seheli Matlai. 
Sonoobari MatlaL 
Kutubu. 

Sonoobari MagaribL 
Seheli MagaribL 
Hamareni MagaribL 
Lakarabu MagaribL 
Lakadiri MagaribL 
Tiri MagaribL 
Sosa MagaribL 
MagaribL 
Seria MagaribL 
Semak MagaribL 
Dayabu MagaribL 
Luagr MagaribL 
Nagr MagaribL 
Nash Magarit)L 
Faragadi MagaribL 



LOlTDOSr : PRIKTED BT WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, UMimw 
STAXrOSD 8TBSST AXD CHAItDrO CBOBS^. 



AfltCAST tl » h 

A handbook of the SwahOi 
Ti 



AXNM977 




3 2044 043 411 867 



This book is not to be 
taken from the Library 




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